Difference between pages "Category:Forensics File Formats" and "Second Look"

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Many computer forensic programs, especially the all-in-one suites, use their own file formats to store information.  
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{{Infobox_Software |
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  name = Second Look |
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  maintainer = [[Raytheon Pikewerks Corporation]] |
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  os = {{Linux}} |
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  genre = {{Memory analysis}} |
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  license = commercial |
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  website = [http://secondlookforensics.com/ secondlookforensics.com/] |
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}}
  
==Independent File Formats==
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[[File:second_look_logo.png]]
These file formats were developed independently of any specific forensics package.
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=== [[AFF]]===
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Full details of the format and a working implementation can be downloaded from http://www.afflib.org/
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=== [[AFF4]]===
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The Incident Response edition of '''Second Look®: Linux Memory Forensics''' is designed for use by investigators who need quick, easy, and effective Linux memory acquisition and analysis capabilities.
AFF4 is a complete redesign of the AFF format. AFF4 is geared towards very large corpuses of images. It features a choice of binary container formats such as Zip, Zip64 and simple directories. Storage can be done using regular HTTP, as well as imaging directly to a central HTTP server using webdav. The format includes support for maps - which are zero copy transformations of data - for example, instead of storing a whole new copy of a carved file we just store a map of the blocks allocated to this file. This makes it trivial to chop up an image in many different ways with no storage overheads (for example chop up a memory image into the different process address spaces, extract TCP streams from a PCAP file with no copying overheads or extract all files from a filesystem with no copying). AFF4 also supports cryptography and image signing. AFF4 support fuse to present the images transparently to clients.
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Second Look® is a product of [[Raytheon Pikewerks Corporation]].
  
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== Memory Acquisition ==
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Second Look® preserves the volatile system state, capturing evidence and information that does not exist on disk and may otherwise be lost as an investigation proceeds.  A command-line script allows for acquisition of memory from running systems without introducing any additional software.  A memory access driver is provided for use on systems without a native interface to physical memory.
  
=== [[gfzip]] (generic forensic zip) file format===
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== Memory Analysis ==
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Second Look® interprets live system memory or captured memory images, detecting and reverse engineering malware, including stealthy kernel rootkits and backdoors.  A kernel integrity verification approach is utilized to compare the Linux kernel in memory with a reference kernel.  Pikewerks provides thousands of reference kernels derived from original distribution kernel packages, and a script for creating reference kernels for other systems, such as those running custom kernels.
  
Gfzip aims to provide an open file format for 'forensic complete' 'compressed' and 'signed' disk image data files.
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Second Look® also applies an integrity verification approach for the analysis of each process in memory. This enables it to detect unauthorized applications as well as stealthy user-level malware.
Uncompressed disk images can be used the same way [[dd]] images are, as gfzip uses a data first footer last design.
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Gfzip uses multi level [[SHA256]] digest based integrity guards instead of [[SHA1]] or the deprecated [[MD5]] algoritm.
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User supplied meta data is embedded in a meta data section within the file.  
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A very important feature that gfzip focuses on extensively is the use of signed data and meta data sections using x509 certificates.
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==Program-Specific File Formats==
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== Supported Systems ==
These file formats were developed for use with a specific forensics program. Sometimes they can be used with other programs whose authors have specifically reverse-engineered the software. Other times they cannot.
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Second Look® is regularly updated to support analysis of the latest kernels and the most commonly used Linux distributions.  The following are its capabilities as of April 2012:
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* Supported target kernels: 2.6.x, 3.x up to 3.2
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* Supported target architectures: x86 32- and 64-bit
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* Supported target distributions: Debian 4-6, RHEL/CentOS 4-6, Ubuntu 4.10-12.04, and more!
  
===[[Encase image file format]]===
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== External Links ==
Perhaps the de facto standard for forensic analyses in law
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* [http://secondlookforensics.com Second Look®]
enforcement, Guidance Software's [[EnCase]] Forensic uses
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a closed format for images. This format is heavily based on ASR Data's
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Expert Witness Compression Format.  EnCase's Evidence File
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(.E01) format contains a physical bitstream
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of an acquired disk, prefixed with a "Case Info" header,
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interlaced with CRCs for every block of 64 sectors (32 KB), and
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followed by a footer containing an [[MD5]] hash for the entire
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bitstream.  Contained in the header are the date and time of
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acquisition, an examiner's name, notes on the acquisition, and an
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optional password; the header concludes with its own CRC.
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Not only is the format is compressible, it is also searchable.
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Compression is block-based, and jump tables and "file pointers" are maintained in the format's header or
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between blocks "to enhance speed".  Disk images
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can be split into multiple segment files (e.g., for archival to CD or
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DVD).
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Up to version 5 of [[EnCase]] the segment files could be no larger than 2 GB. This restriction has been removed using a work around the 31-bit offset values in version 6 of EnCase.
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The format restricts the type and quantity of metadata that can be associated with an image. Extended EWF (EWF-X) defined by the libewf project provides a work around for this restriction specifying a new header and (digest) hash section using XML string to store the metadata. These EWF-X E01 files are compatible with EnCase and allow to store more metadata.
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Though some have reverse-engineered the format for compatibility's sake, Guidances extensions to the format remains closed.
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===[[ILook Investigator]]'s IDIF, IRBF, and IEIF Formats===
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ILook Investigator v8 and its disk-imaging
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counterpart, [[IXimager]], offer three proprietary, authenticated image
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formats: compressed (IDIF), non-compressed (IRBF), and encrypted
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(IEIF). Although few technical details are disclosed publicly,
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IXimager's online documentation provides some
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insights: IDIF "includes protective mechanisms to detect changes
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from the source image entity to the output form" and supports
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"logging of user actions within the confines of that event;"  IRBF
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is similar to IDIF except that disk images are left uncompressed;
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IEIF, meanwhile, encrypts said images.
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For compatibility with ILook Investigator v7 and other forensic
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tools, IXimager allows for the transformation of each of these
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formats into raw format.
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===[[ProDiscover]] Family's [[ProDiscover image file format]]===
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Used by [[Technology Pathways]] [[ProDiscover]] Family of security tools, the ProDiscover Image File format consists of five parts: a 16-byte Image File Header, which includes a signature and version number for an
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image; a 681-byte Image Data Header, which contains user-provided
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metadata about the image; Image Data, which comprises a single block
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of uncompressed data or an array of blocks of compressed data; an
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Array of Compressed Blocks sizes (if the Image Data is, in fact,
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compressed); and I/O Log Errors describing any problems during the
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image's acquisition.
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Though fairly well documented, the format is not extensible.
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=== [[PyFlag]]'s [[sgzip]] Format===
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Supported by [[PyFlag]], a "Forensic and Log Analysis GUI" begun as a project in the Australian Department of Defence, sgzip is a seekable variant of the gzip format.  By compressing blocks (of 32KB, by default) individually, sgzip allows disk images to be searched for keywords without being fully decompressed.  The format does not associate metadata with images. In addition to its own sgzip format, PyFlag can also read and write the Expert Witness Compression Format and AFF.
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=== [[Rapid Action Imaging Device]] (RAID)'s Format===
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Though relatively little technical detail is publicly available, DIBS USA's Rapid Action Imaging Device (RAID) offers "built in [sic] integrity checking" and is to be designed to create an identical copy in raw format of one disk on another.  The copy can then "be inserted into a forensic workstation".
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=== [[Safeback]]'s Format===
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SafeBack, a DOS-based utility designed to create exact copies of entire disks or partitions, offers a "self-authenticating" format for images, whereby [[SHA256]] hashes are stored along with data to ensure the latter's integrity.  Although few technical details are disclosed publicly, SafeBack's authors claim that the software "safeguards the internally stored SHA256 values".
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=== [[SDi32]]'s Format===
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Imaging software designed to be used with write-blocking hardware, Vogon International's SDi32 is capable of making identical copies of disks to tape, disk, or file, with optional CRC32 and [[MD5]] fingerprints.  The copies are stored in raw format.
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=== [[SMART]]'s Formats===
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[[SMART]], a software utility for Linux designed by the
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original authors of Expert Witness (now sold under the name of
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EnCase), can store disk images as pure bitstreams
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(compressed or uncompressed) and also in ASR Data's [[Expert Witness]]
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Compression Format.  Images stored in the latter format
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can be stored as a single file or in multiple segment files, each of
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which consist of a standard 13-byte header followed by a series of
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sections, each of type "header", "volume", "table", "next",
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or "done". Each section includes its type string, a 64-bit offset
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to the next section, its 64-bit size, padding, and a CRC, in
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addition to actual data or comments, if applicable. Although the
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format's "header" section supports free-form notes, an image can
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have only one such section (in its first segment file only).
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===Programs with no specific file format===
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Several programs can read multiple file formats, but do not have their own proprietary formats.
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Revision as of 05:52, 27 July 2012

Second Look
Maintainer: Raytheon Pikewerks Corporation
OS: Linux
Genre: Memory Analysis
License: commercial
Website: secondlookforensics.com/
Second look logo.png

The Incident Response edition of Second Look®: Linux Memory Forensics is designed for use by investigators who need quick, easy, and effective Linux memory acquisition and analysis capabilities. Second Look® is a product of Raytheon Pikewerks Corporation.

Memory Acquisition

Second Look® preserves the volatile system state, capturing evidence and information that does not exist on disk and may otherwise be lost as an investigation proceeds. A command-line script allows for acquisition of memory from running systems without introducing any additional software. A memory access driver is provided for use on systems without a native interface to physical memory.

Memory Analysis

Second Look® interprets live system memory or captured memory images, detecting and reverse engineering malware, including stealthy kernel rootkits and backdoors. A kernel integrity verification approach is utilized to compare the Linux kernel in memory with a reference kernel. Pikewerks provides thousands of reference kernels derived from original distribution kernel packages, and a script for creating reference kernels for other systems, such as those running custom kernels.

Second Look® also applies an integrity verification approach for the analysis of each process in memory. This enables it to detect unauthorized applications as well as stealthy user-level malware.

Supported Systems

Second Look® is regularly updated to support analysis of the latest kernels and the most commonly used Linux distributions. The following are its capabilities as of April 2012:

  • Supported target kernels: 2.6.x, 3.x up to 3.2
  • Supported target architectures: x86 32- and 64-bit
  • Supported target distributions: Debian 4-6, RHEL/CentOS 4-6, Ubuntu 4.10-12.04, and more!

External Links

Pages in category "Forensics File Formats"

The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total.