Difference between revisions of "AFF"

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The '''Advanced Forensics Format''' ('''AFF''') is an extensible open format for the storage of [[disk image]]s and related forensic [[metadata]]. It was developed by [[Simson Garfinkel]] and [[Basis Technology]].
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The '''Advanced Forensics Format''' ('''AFF''') is an extensible open format for the storage of [[disk image]]s and related forensic [[metadata]]. It was originally developed by [[Simson Garfinkel]] and [[Basis Technology]]. The last version of AFF is implemented in the [[AFFLIBv3]] library, which can be found on [https://github.com/simsong/AFFLIBv3 github].  [[AFF4]] builds upon many of the concepts developed in AFF.  AFF4 was developed by [[Michael Cohen]], Simson Garfinkel and Bradley Schatz. That version can be downloaded from [https://code.google.com/p/aff4/ Google Code].
  
Both [[Sleuthkit]] 2.04 and [[Autopsy]] 2.07 support the aff image format.
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[[Sleuthkit]], [[Autopsy]] , [[OSFMount]], [[Xmount]], [[FTK Imager]] and [[FTK]] support the AFFv3 image format.
  
=AFF Background=
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==AFF Background==
Until recently, if a digital investigator wished to use multiple tools to hasten the time-intensive labor of analyzing data from a PC hard drive, the raw format – an exact byte-for-byte copy of data – was the only format available. But being uncompressed, raw data is unwieldy and also unable to store critical metadata about the data’s source.
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AFF was created to be an open and extensible file format to store disk images and associated metadata. The goal was to create a disk imaging format that would not lock users into a proprietary format that may limit how he or she may analyze it. An open standard enables investigators to quickly and efficiently use their preferred tools to solve crimes, gather intelligence, and resolve security incidents. The format was implemented in AFFLIB which was distributed with an open source license.
  
Use of proprietary file formats means converting from one format to another to use multiple tools. Converting between formats risks data corruption if the formats are not well understood. Metadata may be lost if all formats do not support the same forms of metadata.
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After AFFLIB was published, [[Joachim Metz]] published [[libewf]], an open source implementation of the EnCase Expert Witness format. Later, Guidance Software modified its format to allow single disk volumes larger than 4GiB. Together these two changes significantly decreased the need for AFF and AFFLIB.
  
AFF is an open and extensible file format to store disk images and associated metadata. Using AFF, the user is not locked into a proprietary format that may limit how he or she may analyze it. An open standard enables investigators to quickly and efficiently use their preferred tools to solve crimes, gather intelligence, and resolve security incidents.
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In 2009 Cohen, Garfinkel and Schatz published an article on AFF4, a new file format that incorporated and expanded on the underlying AFF ideas. AFF4 provides for multiple data views within a single data archives and allows links between archives. As a result, AFF4 natively supports selective imaging, logical file volumes, hash-based imaging, and a variety of case-management scenarios.
  
==Extensible Design==
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==AFFv3 Extensions==
 
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Use AFF to store any type of metadata such as GPS coordinates, chain of custody information, or any other user-defined data.
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AFF supports the definition of arbitrary metadata by storing all data as name and value pairs, called segments. Some segments store the disk data and others store metadata. Because of this general design, any metadata can be defined by simply creating a new name and value pair. Each of the segments can be compressed to reduce the size of drive images, and cryptographic hashes can be calculated for each segment to ensure data integrity.
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==Flexible Design==
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For flexibility, there are three variations of AFF files – AFF, AFD and AFM – and freely available tools to easily convert between the variations.
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The original AFF format is a single file that contains segments with drive data and metadata. Its contents can be compressed, but it can be quite large as the data on modern hard disks often reach 100GB in size.
 
The original AFF format is a single file that contains segments with drive data and metadata. Its contents can be compressed, but it can be quite large as the data on modern hard disks often reach 100GB in size.
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AFFv3 supported three file extensions --– AFF, AFD and AFM –-- and provided a tool to easily convert between the variations.
  
For ease of transfer, large AFF files can be broken into multiple AFD format files. The smaller AFD files can be readily moved around a FAT32 file system which limits files to 2GB or stored on DVDs, which have similar size restrictions.
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For ease of transfer, large AFF files can be broken into multiple AFD format files. The smaller AFD files can be readily moved around a FAT32 file system which limits files to 2GB or stored on DVDs, which have similar size restrictions. The AFM format stores the metadata in an AFF file, and the disk data in a separate raw file. This format allows analysis tools that support the raw format to access the data, but without losing the metadata.
 
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The AFM format stores the metadata in an AFF file, and the disk data in a separate raw file. This format allows analysis tools that support the raw format to access the data, but without losing the metadata.
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==Compression and Encryption==
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===Compression and Encryption===
 
AFF supports two compression algorithms: zlib, which is fast and reasonably efficient, and LZMA, which is slower but dramatically more efficient. zlib is the same compression algorithm used by EnCase. As a result, AFF files compressed with zlib are roughly the same size as the equivalent EnCase file. AFF files can be recompressed using the LZMA algorithm. These files are anywhere from 1/2 to 1/10th the size of the original AFF/EnCase file.
 
AFF supports two compression algorithms: zlib, which is fast and reasonably efficient, and LZMA, which is slower but dramatically more efficient. zlib is the same compression algorithm used by EnCase. As a result, AFF files compressed with zlib are roughly the same size as the equivalent EnCase file. AFF files can be recompressed using the LZMA algorithm. These files are anywhere from 1/2 to 1/10th the size of the original AFF/EnCase file.
  
AFF2.0 supports encryption of disk images. Unlike the password implemented by EnCase, encrypted images cannot be accessed without the necessary encryption key.
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AFF2.0 supports encryption of disk images. Unlike the password implemented by EnCase, encrypted images cannot be accessed without the necessary encryption key. FTK Imager/FTK added support for this encryption  in version 3.0 and are able to create and access AFF encrypted images.
  
= AFF Tools =
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=== AFFLIBv3 Tools ===
  
 
* [[aimage]]
 
* [[aimage]]
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== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
 
* [http://www.afflib.org/ Official website]
 
 
* [http://www.basistech.com/digital-forensics/aff.html Basis Technology's AFF website]
 
* [http://www.basistech.com/digital-forensics/aff.html Basis Technology's AFF website]
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* [http://www.osforensics.com/tools/mount-disk-images.html OSFMount - 3rd party tool for mounting AFF disk images with a drive letter]
  
 
[[Category:Forensics File Formats]]
 
[[Category:Forensics File Formats]]
 
[[Category:Open Source Tools]]
 
[[Category:Open Source Tools]]

Revision as of 08:04, 8 April 2013

The Advanced Forensics Format (AFF) is an extensible open format for the storage of disk images and related forensic metadata. It was originally developed by Simson Garfinkel and Basis Technology. The last version of AFF is implemented in the AFFLIBv3 library, which can be found on github. AFF4 builds upon many of the concepts developed in AFF. AFF4 was developed by Michael Cohen, Simson Garfinkel and Bradley Schatz. That version can be downloaded from Google Code.

Sleuthkit, Autopsy , OSFMount, Xmount, FTK Imager and FTK support the AFFv3 image format.

AFF Background

AFF was created to be an open and extensible file format to store disk images and associated metadata. The goal was to create a disk imaging format that would not lock users into a proprietary format that may limit how he or she may analyze it. An open standard enables investigators to quickly and efficiently use their preferred tools to solve crimes, gather intelligence, and resolve security incidents. The format was implemented in AFFLIB which was distributed with an open source license.

After AFFLIB was published, Joachim Metz published libewf, an open source implementation of the EnCase Expert Witness format. Later, Guidance Software modified its format to allow single disk volumes larger than 4GiB. Together these two changes significantly decreased the need for AFF and AFFLIB.

In 2009 Cohen, Garfinkel and Schatz published an article on AFF4, a new file format that incorporated and expanded on the underlying AFF ideas. AFF4 provides for multiple data views within a single data archives and allows links between archives. As a result, AFF4 natively supports selective imaging, logical file volumes, hash-based imaging, and a variety of case-management scenarios.

AFFv3 Extensions

The original AFF format is a single file that contains segments with drive data and metadata. Its contents can be compressed, but it can be quite large as the data on modern hard disks often reach 100GB in size. AFFv3 supported three file extensions --– AFF, AFD and AFM –-- and provided a tool to easily convert between the variations.

For ease of transfer, large AFF files can be broken into multiple AFD format files. The smaller AFD files can be readily moved around a FAT32 file system which limits files to 2GB or stored on DVDs, which have similar size restrictions. The AFM format stores the metadata in an AFF file, and the disk data in a separate raw file. This format allows analysis tools that support the raw format to access the data, but without losing the metadata.

Compression and Encryption

AFF supports two compression algorithms: zlib, which is fast and reasonably efficient, and LZMA, which is slower but dramatically more efficient. zlib is the same compression algorithm used by EnCase. As a result, AFF files compressed with zlib are roughly the same size as the equivalent EnCase file. AFF files can be recompressed using the LZMA algorithm. These files are anywhere from 1/2 to 1/10th the size of the original AFF/EnCase file.

AFF2.0 supports encryption of disk images. Unlike the password implemented by EnCase, encrypted images cannot be accessed without the necessary encryption key. FTK Imager/FTK added support for this encryption in version 3.0 and are able to create and access AFF encrypted images.

AFFLIBv3 Tools

See Also

External Links