Difference between pages "Category:Forensics File Formats" and "Plaso"

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Many computer forensic programs, especially the all-in-one suites, use their own file formats to store information.  
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{{Infobox_Software |
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  name = plaso |
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  maintainer = [[Kristinn Gudjonsson]], [[Joachim Metz]] |
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  os = [[Linux]], [[Mac OS X]], [[Windows]] |
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  genre = {{Analysis}} |
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  license = {{APL}} |
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  website = [https://code.google.com/p/plaso/ code.google.com/p/plaso/] |
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}}
  
; [[AFF]]
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Plaso (plaso langar að safna öllu) is the Python based back-end engine used by tools such as log2timeline for automatic creation of a super timelines. The goal of log2timeline (and thus plaso) is to provide a single tool that can parse various log files and forensic artifacts from computers and related systems, such as network equipment to produce a single correlated timeline. This timeline can then be easily analysed by forensic investigators/analysts, speeding up investigations by correlating the vast amount of information found on an average computer system. Plaso is intended to be applied for creating super timelines but also supports creating [http://blog.kiddaland.net/2013/02/targeted-timelines-part-i.html targeted timelines].
Full details of the format and a working implementation can be downloaded from http://www.afflib.org/
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; [[AFF4]]
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The Plaso project site also provides [[4n6time]], formally "l2t_Review", which is a cross-platform forensic tool for timeline creation and review by [[David Nides]].
AFF4 is a complete redesign of the AFF format. AFF4 is geared towards very large corpuses of images. It features a choice of binary container formats such as Zip, Zip64 and simple directories. Storage can be done using regular HTTP, as well as imaging directly to a central HTTP server using webdav. The format includes support for maps - which are zero copy transformations of data - for example, instead of storing a whole new copy of a carved file we just store a map of the blocks allocated to this file. This makes it trivial to chop up an image in many different ways with no storage overheads (for example chop up a memory image into the different process address spaces, extract TCP streams from a PCAP file with no copying overheads or extract all files from a filesystem with no copying). AFF4 also supports cryptography and image signing. AFF4 support fuse to present the images transparently to clients.
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; [[Encase image file format]]
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== Supported Formats ==
Perhaps the de facto standard for forensic analyses in law
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enforcement, Guidance Software's [[EnCase]] Forensic uses
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a closed format for images. This format is heavily based on ASR Data's
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Expert Witness Compression Format.  EnCase's Evidence File
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(.E01) format contains a physical bitstream
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of an acquired disk, prefixed with a "Case Info" header,
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interlaced with CRCs for every block of 64 sectors (32 KB), and
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followed by a footer containing an [[MD5]] hash for the entire
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bitstream.  Contained in the header are the date and time of
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acquisition, an examiner's name, notes on the acquisition, and an
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optional password; the header concludes with its own CRC.
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Not only is the format is compressible, it is also searchable.
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=== Image File Formats ===
Compression is block-based, and jump tables and "file pointers" are maintained in the format's header or
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* [[Raw Image Format]]
between blocks "to enhance speed".  Disk images
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can be split into multiple segment files (e.g., for archival to CD or
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DVD).
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Up to version 5 of [[EnCase]] the segment files could be no larger than 2 GB. This restriction has been removed using a work around the 31-bit offset values in version 6 of EnCase.
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Image File Format support will be moved to [[dfvfs]].
  
The format restricts the type and quantity of metadata that can be associated with an image. Extended EWF (EWF-X) defined by the libewf project provides a work around for this restriction specifying a new header and (digest) hash section using XML string to store the metadata. These EWF-X E01 files are compatible with EnCase and allow to store more metadata.
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=== Volume System Formats ===
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* [[Windows Shadow Volumes]] using [[libvshadow]]
  
Though some have reverse-engineered the format for compatibility's sake, Guidances extensions to the format remains closed.
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Volume System Format support will be moved to [[dfvfs]].
  
; [[gfzip]] (generic forensic zip) file format
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=== File System Formats ===
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* uses [[sleuthkit]] and [[pytsk]]
  
Gfzip aims to provide an open file format for 'forensic complete' 'compressed' and 'signed' disk image data files.
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File System Format support will be moved to [[dfvfs]].
Uncompressed disk images can be used the same way [[dd]] images are, as gfzip uses a data first footer last design.
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Gfzip uses multi level [[SHA256]] digest based integrity guards instead of [[SHA1]] or the deprecated [[MD5]] algoritm.
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User supplied meta data is embedded in a meta data section within the file.
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A very important feature that gfzip focuses on extensively is the use of signed data and meta data sections using x509 certificates.
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; [[ILook Investigator]]'s IDIF, IRBF, and IEIF Formats
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=== File Formats ===
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* [[Property list (plist)|Binary property list (plist) format]] using [[binplist]]
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* [[Internet Explorer History File Format]] (also known as MSIE 4 - 9 Cache Files or index.dat) using [[libmsiecf]]
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* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]] using [[libevt]]
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* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)]] using [[libregf]]
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* [[LNK|Windows Shortcut File (LNK) format]] using [[liblnk]]
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* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]] using [[libevtx]]
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* Syslog
  
ILook Investigator v8 and its disk-imaging
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== History ==
counterpart, [[IXimager]], offer three proprietary, authenticated image
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Plaso is a Python-based rewrite of the Perl-based [[log2timeline]] initially created by [[Kristinn Gudjonsson]]. Plaso builds upon the [[SleuthKit]], [[libyal]] and other projects.
formats: compressed (IDIF), non-compressed (IRBF), and encrypted
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(IEIF). Although few technical details are disclosed publicly,
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IXimager's online documentation provides some
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insights: IDIF "includes protective mechanisms to detect changes
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from the source image entity to the output form" and supports
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"logging of user actions within the confines of that event;"  IRBF
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is similar to IDIF except that disk images are left uncompressed;
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IEIF, meanwhile, encrypts said images.
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For compatibility with ILook Investigator v7 and other forensic
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== See Also ==
tools, IXimager allows for the transformation of each of these
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* [[log2timeline]]
formats into raw format.
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; [[ProDiscover]] Family's ProDiscover Image File Format
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== External Links ==
 
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* [https://code.google.com/p/plaso/ Project site]
Used by [[Technology Pathways]] [[ProDiscover]] Family of security tools, the ProDiscover Image File format consists of five parts: a 16-byte Image File Header, which includes a signature and version number for an
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* [https://sites.google.com/a/kiddaland.net/plaso/home Project documentation]
image; a 681-byte Image Data Header, which contains user-provided
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* [http://blog.kiddaland.net/ Project blog]
metadata about the image; Image Data, which comprises a single block
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* [https://sites.google.com/a/kiddaland.net/plaso/usage/4n6time 4n6time]
of uncompressed data or an array of blocks of compressed data; an
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Array of Compressed Blocks sizes (if the Image Data is, in fact,
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compressed); and I/O Log Errors describing any problems during the
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image's acquisition.
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Though fairly well documented, the format is not extensible.
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; [[PyFlag]]'s [[sgzip]] Format
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Supported by [[PyFlag]], a "Forensic and Log
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Analysis GUI" begun as a project in the Australian Department of
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Defence, sgzip is a seekable variant of the gzip format. By
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compressing blocks (of 32KB, by default) individually, sgzip allows
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disk images to be searched for keywords without being fully
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decompressed. The format does not associate metadata with images. In addition to its own sgzip format, PyFlag can also read and write the Expert Witness Compression Format.
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; [[Rapid Action Imaging Device]] (RAID)'s Format
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Though relatively little technical detail is publicly available, DIBS USA's
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Rapid Action Imaging Device (RAID) offers "built in
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[sic] integrity checking" and is to be designed to
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create an identical copy in raw format of one disk on another.  The copy can then
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"be inserted into a forensic workstation".
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; [[Safeback]]'s Format
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SafeBack, a DOS-based utility designed to create
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exact copies of entire disks or partitions, offers a
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"self-authenticating" format for images, whereby [[SHA256]] hashes are
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stored along with data to ensure the latter's integrity. Although
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few technical details are disclosed publicly, SafeBack's authors
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claim that the software "safeguards the internally stored SHA256
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values".
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; [[SDi32]]'s Format
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Imaging software designed to be used with write-blocking hardware,
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Vogon International's SDi32 is capable of making identical copies
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of disks to tape, disk, or file, with optional CRC32 and [[MD5]]
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fingerprints. The copies are stored in raw format.
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; [[SMART]]'s Formats
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[[SMART]], a software utility for Linux designed by the
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original authors of Expert Witness (now sold under the name of
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EnCase), can store disk images as pure bitstreams
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(compressed or uncompressed) and also in ASR Data's [[Expert Witness]]
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Compression Format.  Images stored in the latter format
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can be stored as a single file or in multiple segment files, each of
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which consist of a standard 13-byte header followed by a series of
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sections, each of type "header", "volume", "table", "next",
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or "done". Each section includes its type string, a 64-bit offset
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to the next section, its 64-bit size, padding, and a CRC, in
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addition to actual data or comments, if applicable. Although the
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format's "header" section supports free-form notes, an image can
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have only one such section (in its first segment file only).
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Revision as of 04:30, 2 January 2014

plaso
Maintainer: Kristinn Gudjonsson, Joachim Metz
OS: Linux, Mac OS X, Windows
Genre: Analysis
License: APL
Website: code.google.com/p/plaso/

Plaso (plaso langar að safna öllu) is the Python based back-end engine used by tools such as log2timeline for automatic creation of a super timelines. The goal of log2timeline (and thus plaso) is to provide a single tool that can parse various log files and forensic artifacts from computers and related systems, such as network equipment to produce a single correlated timeline. This timeline can then be easily analysed by forensic investigators/analysts, speeding up investigations by correlating the vast amount of information found on an average computer system. Plaso is intended to be applied for creating super timelines but also supports creating targeted timelines.

The Plaso project site also provides 4n6time, formally "l2t_Review", which is a cross-platform forensic tool for timeline creation and review by David Nides.

Supported Formats

Image File Formats

Image File Format support will be moved to dfvfs.

Volume System Formats

Volume System Format support will be moved to dfvfs.

File System Formats

File System Format support will be moved to dfvfs.

File Formats

History

Plaso is a Python-based rewrite of the Perl-based log2timeline initially created by Kristinn Gudjonsson. Plaso builds upon the SleuthKit, libyal and other projects.

See Also

External Links

Pages in category "Forensics File Formats"

The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total.