The Safari browser uses different locations to store different kind of information.
The user directory:
The cache directory:
The browser history is stored in a binary plist file named History.plist in the user directory.
In the plist date and time values are stored as a floating point value containing the number of seconds since Jan 1, 2001 00:00:00 UTC.
The downloads history can also be found in the user directory in a binary plist file named Downloads.plist.
The Safari cache is stored in Cache.db in the cache directory.
This file uses the SQLite database format.