Difference between pages "SIM Card Forensics" and "File Carving"

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== Procedures ==
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'''Carving''' is the practice of searching an input for files or other kinds of objects based on content, rather than on metadata. File carving is a powerful tool for recovering files and fragments of files when directory entries are corrupt or missing, as may be the case with old files that have been deleted or when performing an analysis on damaged media. Memory carving is a useful tool for analyzing physical and virtual memory dumps when the memory structures are unknown or have been overwritten.
  
Acquire [[SIM Card]] and analyze the following:
 
  
* ICCID - Integrated Circuit Card Identification
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=File Carving=
* MSISDN - Subscriber phone number
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* IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity
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* LND - Last Dialed numbers
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* [[LOCI]] - Location Information
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* LAI - Location Area Identifier
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* ADN - Abbreviated Dialing Numbers (Contacts)
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* FDN - Fixed Dialing Numbers (Provider entered Numbers)
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* SMS - (Short Messages)
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* SMSP - Text Message parameters
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* SMSS - Text message status
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* Phase - Phase ID
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* SST - SIM Service table
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* LP - Preferred languages variable
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* SPN - Service Provider name
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* EXT1 - Dialing Extension
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* EXT2 - Dialing Extension
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* GID1 - Groups
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* GID2 - Groups
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* CBMI - Preferred network messages
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* PUCT - Calls per unit
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* ACM - Accumulated Call Meter
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* ACMmax - Call Limit
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* HPLMNSP - HPLMN search period
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* PLMNsel - PLMN selector
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* FPLMN - Forbidden PLMNs
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* CCP - Capability configuration parameter
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* ACC - Access control class
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* BCCH - Broadcast control channels
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* Kc - Ciphering Key
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Most file carvers operate by looking for file headers and/or footers, and then "carving out" the blocks between these two boundaries. [[Semantic Carving]] performs carving based on an analysis of the contents of the proposed files.
  
== Hardware ==
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File carving should be done on a [[disk image]], rather than on the original disk.
  
=== Serial ===
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File carving tools are listed on the [[Tools:Data_Recovery]] wiki page.
  
* [[MicroDrive 120]] with SmartCard Adapter
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Many carving programs have an option to only look at or near sector boundaries where headers are found. However, searching the entire input can find files that have been embedded into other files, such as [[JPEG]]s being embedded into [[Microsoft]] [[DOC|Word documents]]. This may be considered an advantage or a disadvantage, depending on the circumstances.
  
=== USB ===
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Today most file carving programs will only recover files that are contiguous on the media.
  
* [[ACR 38T]]
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== FIle Carving Taxonomy==
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[[Simson Garfinkel]] and [[Joachim Metz]] have proposed the following file carving taxonomy:
  
== Software ==
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;Carving
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:General term for extracting data (files) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data), like "carving" a sculpture out of soap stone.
  
* [[ForensicSIM]]
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;Block Based Carving
* [http://www.quantaq.com/usimdetective.htm USIM Detective]
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:Any carving method (algorithm) that analyzes the input on block-by-block basis to determine if a block is part of a possible output file. This method assumes that each block can only be part of a single file (or embedded file).
* [[Paraben SIM Card Seizure]]
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* [[SIMIS]]
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* [http://www.simcon.no/ SIMcon]
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== Recovering SIM Card Data ==
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;Characteristic Based Carving
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:Any carving method (algorithm) that analyzes the input on characteristic basis (for example, entropy) to determine if the input is part of a possible output file.
  
* [[Damaged SIM Card Data Recovery]]
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;Header/Footer Carving
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:A method for carving files out of raw data using a distinct header (start of file marker) and footer (end of file marker).
  
== Security ==
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;Header/Maximum (file) size Carving
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:A method for carving files out of raw data using a distinct header (start of file marker) and a maximum (file) size. This approach works because many file formats (e.g. JPEG, MP3) do not care if additional junk is appended to the end of a valid file.
  
SIM cards can have their data protected by a PIN, or Personal Identification Number.  If a user has enabled the PIN on their SIM card, the SIM will remain locked until the PIN is properly entered.  Some phones provide the option of using a second PIN, or PIN2, to further protect data.  If a user incorrectly enters their PIN number multiple times, the phone may request a PUK, or Personal Unblocking Key.  The number of times a PIN must be incorrectly entered before the phone requests the PUK will vary from phone to phone. Once a phone requests a PUK, the SIM will remain locked until the PUK is correctly entered. The PUK must be obtained from the SIM's network provider. If a PUK is incorrectly entered 10 times the SIM will become permanently locked and the user must purchase a new SIM card in order to use the phone. In some cases the phone will request a PUK2 before it permanently locks the SIM card.
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;Header/Embedded Length Carving
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:A method for carving files out of raw data using a distinct header and a file length (size) which is embedded in the file format
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;File structure based carving
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:A method for carving files out of raw data using a certain level of knowledge of the internal structure of file types. Garfinkel called this approach "Semantic Carving" in his DFRWS2006 carving challenge submission, while Metz and Mora called the approach "Deep Carving."
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 +
;Semantic carving
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:A method for carving files based on a linguistic analysis of the file's content. For example, a semantic carver might conclude that six blocks of french in the middle of a long HTML file written in English is a fragment left from a previous allocated file, and not from the English-language HTML file.
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;Carving with Validation
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:A method for carving files out of raw data where the carved files are validated using a file type specific validator.
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;Fragment Recovery Carving
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:A carving method in which two or more fragments are reassembled to form the original file or object. Garfinkel previously called this approach "Split Carving."
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== File Carving challenges and test images ==
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[http://www.dfrws.org/2006/challenge/]
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File Carving Challenge - [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop|DFRWS]] 2006
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[http://dftt.sourceforge.net/test6/index.html]
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FAT Undelete Test #1 - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #6)
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[http://dftt.sourceforge.net/test7/index.html]
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NTFS Undelete (and leap year) Test #1 - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #7)
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[http://dftt.sourceforge.net/test11/index.html]
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Basic Data Carving Test - fat32 (by Nick Mikus) - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #11)
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[http://dftt.sourceforge.net/test12/index.html]
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Basic Data Carving Test - ext2 (by Nick Mikus) - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #12)
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==File Carving Bibliography==
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Mikus, Nicholas A. "An analysis of disc carving techniques," Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School. March 2005. http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432468
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== See also ==
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[[Tools:Data_Recovery#Carving | FIle Carving Tools]]
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=Memory Carving=

Revision as of 08:21, 20 April 2007

Carving is the practice of searching an input for files or other kinds of objects based on content, rather than on metadata. File carving is a powerful tool for recovering files and fragments of files when directory entries are corrupt or missing, as may be the case with old files that have been deleted or when performing an analysis on damaged media. Memory carving is a useful tool for analyzing physical and virtual memory dumps when the memory structures are unknown or have been overwritten.


File Carving

Most file carvers operate by looking for file headers and/or footers, and then "carving out" the blocks between these two boundaries. Semantic Carving performs carving based on an analysis of the contents of the proposed files.

File carving should be done on a disk image, rather than on the original disk.

File carving tools are listed on the Tools:Data_Recovery wiki page.

Many carving programs have an option to only look at or near sector boundaries where headers are found. However, searching the entire input can find files that have been embedded into other files, such as JPEGs being embedded into Microsoft Word documents. This may be considered an advantage or a disadvantage, depending on the circumstances.

Today most file carving programs will only recover files that are contiguous on the media.

FIle Carving Taxonomy

Simson Garfinkel and Joachim Metz have proposed the following file carving taxonomy:

Carving
General term for extracting data (files) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data), like "carving" a sculpture out of soap stone.
Block Based Carving
Any carving method (algorithm) that analyzes the input on block-by-block basis to determine if a block is part of a possible output file. This method assumes that each block can only be part of a single file (or embedded file).
Characteristic Based Carving
Any carving method (algorithm) that analyzes the input on characteristic basis (for example, entropy) to determine if the input is part of a possible output file.
Header/Footer Carving
A method for carving files out of raw data using a distinct header (start of file marker) and footer (end of file marker).
Header/Maximum (file) size Carving
A method for carving files out of raw data using a distinct header (start of file marker) and a maximum (file) size. This approach works because many file formats (e.g. JPEG, MP3) do not care if additional junk is appended to the end of a valid file.
Header/Embedded Length Carving
A method for carving files out of raw data using a distinct header and a file length (size) which is embedded in the file format
File structure based carving
A method for carving files out of raw data using a certain level of knowledge of the internal structure of file types. Garfinkel called this approach "Semantic Carving" in his DFRWS2006 carving challenge submission, while Metz and Mora called the approach "Deep Carving."
Semantic carving
A method for carving files based on a linguistic analysis of the file's content. For example, a semantic carver might conclude that six blocks of french in the middle of a long HTML file written in English is a fragment left from a previous allocated file, and not from the English-language HTML file.
Carving with Validation
A method for carving files out of raw data where the carved files are validated using a file type specific validator.
Fragment Recovery Carving
A carving method in which two or more fragments are reassembled to form the original file or object. Garfinkel previously called this approach "Split Carving."

File Carving challenges and test images

[1] File Carving Challenge - DFRWS 2006

[2] FAT Undelete Test #1 - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #6)

[3] NTFS Undelete (and leap year) Test #1 - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #7)

[4] Basic Data Carving Test - fat32 (by Nick Mikus) - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #11)

[5] Basic Data Carving Test - ext2 (by Nick Mikus) - Digital Forensics Tool Testing Image (dftt #12)

File Carving Bibliography

Mikus, Nicholas A. "An analysis of disc carving techniques," Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School. March 2005. http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432468

See also

FIle Carving Tools

Memory Carving