Difference between pages "Tools:Memory Imaging" and "Slack"

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The [[physical memory]] of computers can be imaged and analyzed using a variety of tools. Because the procedure for accessing physical memory varies between [[operating systems]], these tools are listed by operating system. Usually memory images are used as part of [[memory analysis]].
== Microsoft Windows ==
== Definition ==
; [[dd]]
In Computer Forensics '''slack''' refers to the bytes after the logical end of a file and the end of the cluster wherein the final byte of the valid file resides.
: A version of [[dd]] by [[George Garner]] allows an Administrator user to image memory using the ''\device\physicalmemory'' object. Userland access to this object is denied starting in Windows 2003 Service Pack 1 and Windows Vista. This program cannot be used on Windows 2003 SP1 and above.
; [[hibernation]] files
== Slack Types ==
: [[Windows]] 98, 2000, XP, 2003, and Vista support a feature called [[hibernation]] that saves the machine's state to the disk when the computer is powered off. When the machine is turned on again, the state is restored and the user can return to the exact point where they left off. The machine's state, including a compressed image of [[physical memory]], is written to the disk on the system drive, usually C:, as [[hiberfil.sys]]. This file can be parsed and decompressed to obtain the memory image.
== Imaging with Firewire ==  
=== RAM Slack ===
It is possible for [[Firewire]] or IEEE1394 devices to directly access the memory of a computer. Using this capability has been suggested as a method for acquiring memory images for forensic analysis. Unfortunately, the method is not safe enough to be widely used yet. There are some published papers and tools, listed below, but they are not yet forensically sound. These tools do not work with all Firewire controllers and on other can cause system crashes. The technology holds promise for future development, in general should be avoided for now.
=== File Slack ===
At [[CanSec West 05]], [[Michael Becher]], [[Maximillian Dornseif]], and [[Christian N. Klein]] discussed an [[exploit]] which uses [[DMA]] to read arbitrary memory locations of a [[firewire]]-enabled system. The [http://md.hudora.de/presentations/firewire/2005-firewire-cansecwest.pdf paper] lists more details. The exploit is run on an [http://ipodlinux.org/Main_Page iPod running Linux]. This can be used to grab screen contents.
== External Links ==
This technique has been turned into a tool that you can download from:  http://www.storm.net.nz/projects/16

Revision as of 16:19, 3 March 2008

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In Computer Forensics slack refers to the bytes after the logical end of a file and the end of the cluster wherein the final byte of the valid file resides.

Slack Types

RAM Slack

File Slack

External Links