Difference between pages "Solid State Drive (SSD) Forensics" and "Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)"

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Solid State Drives pose a variety of interesting challenges for computer forensics. Most SSD devices are based on flash memory. Flash has two properties that complicate its use in computer storage systems:
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{{expand}}
# Unlike normal hard drives that can be written in a single pass, flash memory is arranged in pages that must first be erased before it can be written.
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# Each flash page consists of multiple blocks. Typically block size is 512 bytes and page size is 2KiB, 4KiB, or larger.
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# Each page can be erased and rewritten a limited number of times---typically 1000 to 10,000. (Hard drive sectors, in contrast, can be rewritten millions of times or more.)
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To overcome these problems, SSD manufacturers have created a system for ''wear leveling''---that is, spreading the writes to flash out among different sectors. Wear leveling is typically done with a ''flash translation layer'' that maps ''logical sectors'' (or LBAs) to ''physical pages.''  Most FTLs are contained within the SSD device and are not accessible to end users.
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The Windows XML Event Log (EVTX) format was introduces in [[Windows|Windows Vista]] as a replacement for the [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]] format.
  
==Bibliography==
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== Event Viewer ==
<bibtex>
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On Windows the event logs can be managed with "Event Viewer" (eventvwr.msc) or "Windows Events Command Line Utility" (wevtutil.exe). Event Viewer can represent the EVTX files in both "general view" (or formatted view) and "details view" (which has both a "friendly view" and "XML view"). Note that the formatted view can hide significant event data that is stored in the event record and can be seen in the detailed view.
@inproceedings{wei2011,
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  author = {Michael Wei and Laura M. Grupp and Frederick M. Spada and Steven Swanson},
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  title = {Reliably Erasing Data from Flash-Based Solid State Drives},
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  booktitle={FAST 2011},
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  year = 2011,
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  keywords = {erasing flash security ssd},
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  added-at = {2011-02-22T09:22:03.000+0100},
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  url={http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/users/m3wei/assets/pdf/FMS-2010-Secure-Erase.pdf},
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  biburl = {http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/27c408ad559fc19f829717f485707a909/schmidt2}
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}
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</bibtex>
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<bibtex>
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@article{bell2011,
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author="Graeme B. Bell and Richard Boddington",
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title="Solid State Drives: The Beginning of the End for Current Practice in Digital Forensic Recovery?",
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journal="Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law",
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volume=5,
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issue=3,
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year=2011,
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url={http://www.jdfsl.org/subscriptions/JDFSL-V5N3-Bell.pdf}
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}
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</bibtex>
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<bibtex>
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@inproceedings{Billard:2010:MSU:1774088.1774426,
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author = {Billard, David and Hauri, Rolf},
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title = {Making sense of unstructured flash-memory dumps},
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booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing},
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series = {SAC '10},
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year = {2010},
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isbn = {978-1-60558-639-7},
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location = {Sierre, Switzerland},
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pages = {1579--1583},
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numpages = {5},
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url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1774088.1774426},
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doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1774088.1774426},
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acmid = {1774426},
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publisher = {ACM},
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address = {New York, NY, USA},
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keywords = {cell phone, computer forensics, file carving, flash-memory dumps, forensics},
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}
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</bibtex>
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<bibtex>
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@mastersthesis{regan:2009,
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  title="The Forensic Potential of Flash Memory",
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  author="James E. Regan",
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  school="Naval Postgraduate School",
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  address="Monterey, CA",
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  date=Sep,
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  year=2009,
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  pages=86,
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  url="http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509258"
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}
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</bibtex>
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<bibtex>
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@inproceedings{Phillips:2008:RDU:1363217.1363243,
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author = {Phillips, B. J. and Schmidt, C. D. and Kelly, D. R.},
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title = {Recovering data from USB flash memory sticks that have been damaged or electronically erased},
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booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Forensic applications and techniques in telecommunications, information, and multimedia and workshop},
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series = {e-Forensics '08},
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year = {2008},
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isbn = {978-963-9799-19-6},
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location = {Adelaide, Australia},
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pages = {19:1--19:6},
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articleno = {19},
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numpages = {6},
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url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1363217.1363243},
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acmid = {1363243},
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publisher = {ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering)},
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address = {ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium},
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keywords = {data recovery, flash memory, semiconductor data remanence},
+
}
+
</bibtex>
+
  
==Presentations==
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If you export an event log from Event Viewer additional "display information" can be exported. This display information is stored in a corresponding file named:
* [http://www.snia.org/events/storage-developer2009/presentations/thursday/NealChristiansen_ATA_TrimDeleteNotification_Windows7.pdf ATA Trim / Delete Notification Support in Windows 7], Neal Christiansen, Storage Developer 2009
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<pre>
* [http://www.slideshare.net/digitalassembly/challenges-of-ssd-forensic-analysis Challenges of SSD Forensic Analysis], Digital Assembly,
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LocaleMetaData\%FILENAME%_%LCID%.MTA
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcO7xn0wJ2I Solid State Drives: Ruining Forensics], by Scott Moulton, DEFCON 16 (2008)
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</pre>
* Scott Moulton, Shmoocon 20008, SSD drives vs. Hard Drives.
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** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4hbdZFWGog SSD Flash Hard Drives - Shmoocon 2008 - Part 1]
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Where LCID is the "locale identifier" [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/goglobal/bb964664.aspx].
** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mglEnIPnzjo SSD Flash Hard Drives - Shmoocon 2008 - Part 2]
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** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3psy_d-pyNg SSD Flash Hard Drives - Shmoocon 2008 - Part 3]
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== See Also ==
** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKeZvhDd5c4 SSD Flash Hard Drives - Shmoocon 2008 - Part 4]
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* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XMBdDypSO4 SSD Flash Hard Drives - Shmoocon 2008 - Part 5]
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* [[Windows]]
** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LY36SWbfQg0 SSD Flash Hard Drives - Shmoocon 2008 - Part 6]
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* [http://risky.biz/RB185 Risky Business #185], Peter Gutmann talks SSD forensics, March 4, 2011 (Radio Show)
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== External Links ==
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=== File Format ===
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc231282(v=prot.10).aspx EventLog Remoting Protocol Version 6.0 Specification], by [[Microsoft]]
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc231354.aspx Simple BinXml Example], by [[Microsoft]]
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* [http://computer.forensikblog.de/mt/mt-search.cgi?IncludeBlogs=3&tag=Evtx&limit=20 int for(ensic){blog;} - results tagged Evtx], by [[Andreas Schuster]]
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2007/proceedings/p65-schuster_pres.pdf Introducing the Microsoft Vista Event Log File Format], by [[Andreas Schuster]], in 2007
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* [http://computer.forensikblog.de/en/2010/10/linking-event-messages-and-resource-dlls.html Linking Event Messages and Resource DLLs], by [[Andreas Schuster]], in 2010
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* [https://googledrive.com/host/0B3fBvzttpiiSRnQ0SExzX3JjdFE/Windows%20XML%20Event%20Log%20(EVTX).pdf Windows XML Event Log (EVTX) format], by the [[libevtx|libevtx project]]
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=== Event Identifiers ===
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* [http://eventid.net/ EventID.net]
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=== Windows Vista/2008 ===
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* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/947226 Description of security events in Windows Vista and in Windows Server 2008]
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=== Windows 7 ===
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/ee412263.aspx Core OS Events in Windows 7, Part 1]
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/ee358703.aspx Core Instrumentation Events in Windows 7, Part 2]
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== Tools ==
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* [http://computer.forensikblog.de/files/evtx/Parse-Evtx-current.zip Evtx Parser]
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* [[libevtx]]
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* [[log2timeline]]
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* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc749339.aspx wevtutil]
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* [http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=24659 LogParser]
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* [http://www.williballenthin.com/evtx/ python-evtx]
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[[Category:File Formats]]

Latest revision as of 03:11, 12 July 2013

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The Windows XML Event Log (EVTX) format was introduces in Windows Vista as a replacement for the Windows Event Log (EVT) format.

Contents

Event Viewer

On Windows the event logs can be managed with "Event Viewer" (eventvwr.msc) or "Windows Events Command Line Utility" (wevtutil.exe). Event Viewer can represent the EVTX files in both "general view" (or formatted view) and "details view" (which has both a "friendly view" and "XML view"). Note that the formatted view can hide significant event data that is stored in the event record and can be seen in the detailed view.

If you export an event log from Event Viewer additional "display information" can be exported. This display information is stored in a corresponding file named:

LocaleMetaData\%FILENAME%_%LCID%.MTA

Where LCID is the "locale identifier" [1].

See Also

External Links

File Format

Event Identifiers

Windows Vista/2008

Windows 7

Tools