Difference between pages "Zip" and "Windows"

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(External file attributes)
 
(WMI)
 
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{{expand}}
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{{Expand}}
  
.ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression.
+
'''Windows''' is a widely-spread [[operating system]] from [[Microsoft]].
  
<b>TODO</b> describe ZIP64
+
There are 2 main branches of Windows:
 +
* the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
 +
* the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista
  
== File format ==
+
== Features ==
 +
* Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa363785(v=vs.85).aspx]
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
=== Introduced in Windows NT ===
! align="left"| Characteristics
+
* [[NTFS]]
! Description
+
|-
+
| Byte order
+
| little-endian
+
|-
+
| Date and time values
+
|
+
|-
+
| Character strings
+
|
+
|}
+
  
=== Central directory (archived) file header ===
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2000 ===  
The central directory (archived) file header is variable of size and consists of:
+
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
=== Introduced in Windows XP ===
! align="left"| Offset
+
* [[Prefetch]]
! Size
+
* System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME
! Value
+
! Description
+
|-
+
| 0
+
| 4
+
| "PK\x01\x02"
+
| Signature
+
|-
+
| 4
+
| 2
+
|
+
| Creator version
+
|-
+
| 6
+
| 2
+
|
+
| Extractor version
+
|-
+
| 8
+
| 2
+
|
+
| Flags
+
|-
+
| 10
+
| 2
+
|
+
| Last modification time
+
|-
+
| 12
+
| 2
+
|
+
| Last modification date
+
|-
+
| 14
+
| 4
+
|
+
| Checksum (CRC-32)
+
|-
+
| 18
+
| 4
+
|
+
| Uncompressed data size
+
|-
+
| 22
+
| 4
+
|
+
| Compressed data size
+
|-
+
| 26
+
| 2
+
|
+
| File name size
+
|-
+
| 28
+
| 2
+
|
+
| Extra field size
+
|-
+
| 30
+
| 2
+
|
+
| File comment size
+
|-
+
| 32
+
| 2
+
|
+
| Segment file (disk) number
+
|-
+
| 34
+
| 2
+
|
+
| internal file attributes
+
|-
+
| 36
+
| 4
+
|
+
| external file attributes
+
|-
+
| 40
+
| 4
+
|
+
| local header offset <br> The offset of the local header relative to the start of the segment file it is stored in.
+
|-
+
| 44
+
| ...
+
|
+
| File name
+
|-
+
| ...
+
| ...
+
|
+
| Extra field
+
|-
+
| ...
+
| ...
+
|
+
| File comment
+
|}
+
  
==== Creator version ====
+
==== SP2 ====
The creator (or version made by) is 2 bytes of size and consists of:
+
* Windows Firewall
{| class="wikitable"
+
! align="left"| Offset
+
! Size
+
! Value
+
! Description
+
|-
+
| 0
+
| 1
+
|
+
| ZIP format version <br> The value is stored as: ( major number x 10 ) + minor number
+
|-
+
| 1
+
| 1
+
|
+
| Creator system indicator
+
|}
+
  
===== Creator system indicator =====
+
=== Introduced in Windows Server 2003 ===
{| class="wikitable"
+
* Volume Shadow Copies
! align="left"| Value
+
! Identifier
+
! Description
+
|-
+
| 0
+
|
+
| MS-DOS and OS/2 (FAT / VFAT / FAT32 file systems) or compatible systems
+
|-
+
| 1
+
|
+
| Amiga
+
|-
+
| 2
+
|
+
| OpenVMS
+
|-
+
| 3
+
|
+
| UNIX
+
|-
+
| 4
+
|
+
| VM/CMS
+
|-
+
| 5
+
|
+
| Atari ST
+
|-
+
| 6
+
|
+
| OS/2 H.P.F.S.
+
|-
+
| 7
+
|
+
| Macintosh
+
|-
+
| 8
+
|
+
| Z-System
+
|-
+
| 9
+
|
+
| CP/M
+
|-
+
| 10
+
|
+
| Windows NTFS
+
|-
+
| 11
+
|
+
| MVS (OS/390 - Z/OS)
+
|-
+
| 12
+
|
+
| VSE
+
|-
+
| 13
+
|
+
| Acorn Risc
+
|-
+
| 14
+
|
+
| VFAT
+
|-
+
| 15
+
|
+
| alternate MVS
+
|-
+
| 16
+
|
+
| BeOS
+
|-
+
| 17
+
|
+
| Tandem
+
|-
+
| 18
+
|
+
| OS/400
+
|-
+
| 19
+
|
+
| OS X (Darwin)
+
|-
+
| 20 - 255
+
|
+
| unused
+
|}
+
  
==== Internal file attributes ====
+
=== Introduced in [[Windows Vista]] ===  
{| class="wikitable"
+
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker]]
! align="left"| Value
+
* [[Windows Desktop Search | Search]] integrated in operating system
! Identifier
+
* [[ReadyBoost]]
! Description
+
* [[SuperFetch]]
|-
+
* [[NTFS|Transactional NTFS (TxF)]]
| 0x01
+
* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)|Transactional Registry (TxR)]]
|
+
* [[Windows Shadow Volumes|Shadow Volumes]]; the volume-based storage of the Volume Shadow Copy data
| If set the uncompressed data needs to be treated as text instead of binary data. <br> This flag hints end-of-line conversion for cross-platform text files but does not enforce it.
+
* $Recycle.Bin
|-
+
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
| 0x02
+
* [[User Account Control (UAC)]]
|
+
| If set the file contains control fields for mainframe data transfer support.
+
|}
+
  
==== External file attributes ====
+
=== Introduced in Windows Server 2008 ===
The external attributes are creator system dependent.
+
  
The external attributes MS-DOS (0) is 4 bytes of size and consists of:
+
=== Introduced in [[Windows 7]] ===
{| class="wikitable"
+
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker To Go]]
! align="left"| Offset
+
* [[Jump Lists]]
! Size
+
* [[Sticky Notes]]
! Value
+
! Description
+
|-
+
| 0
+
| 1
+
|
+
| FAT (MS-DOS) file attributes.
+
|-
+
| 1
+
| 3
+
|
+
| Unknown
+
|}
+
  
The external attributes UNIX (3) is 4 bytes of size and consists of:
+
=== Introduced in [[Windows 8]] ===
{| class="wikitable"
+
* [[Windows File History | File History]]
! align="left"| Offset
+
* [[Windows Storage Spaces | Storage Spaces]]
! Size
+
* [[Search Charm History]]
! Value
+
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]; Was initially available in the Windows 8 server edition.
! Description
+
 
|-
+
=== Introduced in Windows Server 2012 ===
| 0
+
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]
| 1
+
 
|
+
== Forensics ==
| FAT (MS-DOS) file attributes.
+
 
|-
+
=== Partition layout ===
| 1
+
Default partition layout, first partition starts:
| 1
+
* at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
|
+
* at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7
| Unknown
+
 
|-
+
=== Filesystems ===
| 2
+
* [[FAT]], [[FAT|exFAT]]
| 16 bits
+
* [[NTFS]]
|
+
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS) | ReFS]]
| The UNIX mode (or permission). <br> The value seems to be similar to stat.st_mode value.
+
 
|}
+
=== Recycle Bin ===
 +
 
 +
==== RECYCLER ====
 +
Used by Windows 2000, XP.
 +
Uses INFO2 file.
 +
 
 +
See: [http://www.cybersecurityinstitute.biz/downloads/INFO2.pdf]
 +
 
 +
==== $RECYCLE.BIN ====
 +
Used by Windows Vista.
 +
Uses $I and $R files.
 +
 
 +
See: [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf]
 +
 
 +
=== Registry ===
 +
 
 +
The [[Windows Registry]] is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic [[investigator]]s.
 +
 
 +
=== Thumbs.db Files ===
 +
 
 +
[[Thumbs.db]] files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the [[investigator]].
 +
 
 +
See also: [[Vista thumbcache]].
 +
 
 +
=== Browser Cache ===
 +
 
 +
=== Browser History ===
 +
 
 +
The [[Web Browser History]] files can contain significant information. The default [[Web browser|web browser]] that comes with Windows is [[Internet Explorer|Microsoft Internet Explorer]] but other common browsers on Windows are [[Apple Safari]], [[Google Chrome]], [[Mozilla Firefox]] and [[Opera]].
 +
 
 +
=== Search ===
 +
See [[Windows Desktop Search]]
 +
 
 +
=== Setup log files (setupapi.log) ===
 +
Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521].
 +
 
 +
=== Sleep/Hibernation ===
 +
 
 +
After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.
 +
 
 +
=== Users ===
 +
Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:
 +
<pre>
 +
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.
 +
 
 +
=== Windows Error Reporting (WER) ===
 +
 
 +
As of Vista, for User Access Control (UAC) elevated applications WER reports can be found in:
 +
<pre>
 +
C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
As of Vista, for non-UAC elevated applications (LUA) WER reports can be found in:
 +
<pre>
 +
C:\Users\%UserName%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\WER\
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Corresponding registry key:
 +
<pre>
 +
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Windows Error Reporting
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives ==
 +
Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see [[Advanced Format]].
 +
 
 +
== %SystemRoot% ==
 +
The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:
 +
<pre>
 +
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
 +
Value: SystemRoot
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== See Also ==
 +
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
* [[Windows Vista]]
 +
* [[Windows 7]]
 +
* [[Windows 8]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
  
* [http://www.pkware.com/documents/casestudies/APPNOTE.TXT .ZIP File Format Specification], PKWARE Inc., September 1, 2012
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windows Wikipedia: Microsoft Windows]
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zip_(file_format) Wikipedia: Zip (file format)]
+
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521 Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Vista setup log file locations]
 +
* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf The Forensic Analysis of the Microsoft Windows Vista Recycle Bin], by [[Mitchell Machor]], 2008
 +
* [http://www.ericjhuber.com/2013/02/microsoft-file-system-tunneling.html?m=1 Microsoft Windows File System Tunneling], by [[Eric Huber]], February 24, 2013
 +
* [http://www.nsa.gov/ia/_files/app/Spotting_the_Adversary_with_Windows_Event_Log_Monitoring.pdf Spotting the Adversary with Windows Event Log Monitoring], by National Security Agency/Central Security Service, February 28, 2013
 +
 
 +
=== Malware/Rootkits ===
 +
* [http://forensicmethods.com/inside-windows-rootkits Inside Windows Rootkits], by [[Chad Tilbury]], September 4, 2013
 +
 
 +
=== Tracking removable media ===
 +
* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2012/08/tracking-usb-first-insertion-in-event.html Tracking USB First insertion in Event logs], by Yogesh Khatri, August 18, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== Under the hood ===
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366533(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Comparing Memory Allocation Methods], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ntdebugging/archive/2007/06/28/how-windows-starts-up-part-the-second.aspx How Windows Starts Up (Part the second)]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa375142.aspx DLL/COM Redirection]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms682586(v=vs.85).aspx Dynamic-Link Library Search Order]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2004/04/28/121871.aspx Image File Execution Options]
 +
 
 +
==== MSI ====
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/heaths/archive/2009/02/02/changes-to-package-caching-in-windows-installer-5-0.aspx?Redirected=true Changes to Package Caching in Windows Installer 5.0], by Heath Stewart, February 2, 2009
 +
* [http://blog.didierstevens.com/2013/07/26/msi-the-case-of-the-invalid-signature/ MSI: The Case Of The Invalid Signature], by Didier Stevens, July 26, 2013
 +
 
 +
==== Side-by-side (WinSxS) ====
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-by-side_assembly Wikipedia: Side-by-side assembly]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa374224.aspx Assembly Searching Sequence]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2007/06/26/rt-manifest-resource-and-isolation-aware-enabled.aspx RT_MANIFEST resource, and ISOLATION_AWARE_ENABLED]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd408052(v=vs.85).aspx Isolated Applications and Side-by-side Assemblies]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/01/24/517221.aspx#531208 DotLocal (.local) Dll Redirection], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], January 24, 2006
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/04/14/576314.aspx Diagnosing SideBySide failures], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], April 14, 2006
 +
* [http://omnicognate.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/winsxs/ EVERYTHING YOU NEVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT WINSXS]
 +
 
 +
==== Application Compatibility Database ====
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd837644(v=ws.10).aspx Technet: Understanding Shims], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb432182(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Application Compatibility Database], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=39 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 1], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 20, 2007
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=40 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 2], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 21, 2007
 +
* [http://fred.mandiant.com/Whitepaper_ShimCacheParser.pdf Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in Forensic Investigations], by [[Andrew Davis]], May 4, 2012
 +
 
 +
==== System Restore (Restore Points) ====
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Restore Wikipedia: System Restore]
 +
* [http://www.stevebunting.org/udpd4n6/forensics/restorepoints.htm Restore Point Forensics], by [[Steve Bunting]]
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2007/06/restore-point-analysis.html Restore Point Analysis], by [[Harlan Carvey]],  June 16, 2007
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2006/10/restore-point-forensics.html Restore Point Forensics], by [[Harlan Carvey]], October 20, 2006
 +
* [http://www.ediscovery.co.nz/wip/srp.html System Restore Point Log Decoding]
 +
 
 +
==== Crash dumps ====
 +
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/yongrhee/archive/2010/12/29/drwtsn32-on-windows-vista-windows-server-2008-windows-7-windows-server-2008-r2.aspx Technet: Drwtsn32 on Windows Vista/Windows Server 2008/Windows 7/Windows Server 2008 R2], by Yong Rhee, December 29, 2010
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315263 MSDN: How to read the small memory dump file that is created by Windows if a crash occurs], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
 
 +
==== RPC ====
 +
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/networking/archive/2008/10/24/rpc-to-go-v-1.aspx RPC to Go v.1], by Michael Platts, October 24, 2008
 +
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/networking/archive/2008/12/04/rpc-to-go-v-2.aspx RPC to Go v.2], by Michael Platts, December 4, 2008
 +
 
 +
==== USB ====
 +
* [https://blogs.sans.org/computer-forensics/files/2009/09/USBKEY-Guide.pdf USBKEY Guide], by [[SANS Institute - Digital Forensics and Incident Response]], September 2009
 +
* [https://blogs.sans.org/computer-forensics/files/2009/09/USB_Drive_Enclosure-Guide.pdf USB Drive Enclosure Guide], by [[SANS Institute - Digital Forensics and Incident Response]], September 2009
 +
 
 +
==== WMI ====
 +
* [http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp__understanding-wmi-malware.pdf Understanding WMI Malware], by Julius Dizon, Lennard Galang, and Marvin Cruz, July 2010
 +
 
 +
==== Windows Error Reporting (WER) ====
 +
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/yongrhee/archive/2010/12/29/drwtsn32-on-windows-vista-windows-server-2008-windows-7-windows-server-2008-r2.aspx Drwtsn32 on Windows Vista/Windows Server 2008/Windows 7/Windows Server 2008 R2], by Yong Rhee, December 29, 2010
 +
 
 +
==== Windows Firewall ====
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Firewall Wikipedia: Windows Firewall]
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc737845(v=ws.10).aspx#BKMK_log Windows Firewall Tools and Settings]
 +
 
 +
==== Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64) ====
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WoW64 Wikipedia: WoW64]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows XP ===
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q308549 Description of Windows XP System Information (Msinfo32.exe) Tool]
  
[[Category:File Formats]]
+
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 16:17, 3 December 2013

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Windows is a widely-spread operating system from Microsoft.

There are 2 main branches of Windows:

  • the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
  • the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista

Features

  • Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [1]

Introduced in Windows NT

Introduced in Windows 2000

Introduced in Windows XP

  • Prefetch
  • System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME

SP2

  • Windows Firewall

Introduced in Windows Server 2003

  • Volume Shadow Copies

Introduced in Windows Vista

Introduced in Windows Server 2008

Introduced in Windows 7

Introduced in Windows 8

Introduced in Windows Server 2012

Forensics

Partition layout

Default partition layout, first partition starts:

  • at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
  • at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7

Filesystems

Recycle Bin

RECYCLER

Used by Windows 2000, XP. Uses INFO2 file.

See: [2]

$RECYCLE.BIN

Used by Windows Vista. Uses $I and $R files.

See: [3]

Registry

The Windows Registry is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic investigators.

Thumbs.db Files

Thumbs.db files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the investigator.

See also: Vista thumbcache.

Browser Cache

Browser History

The Web Browser History files can contain significant information. The default web browser that comes with Windows is Microsoft Internet Explorer but other common browsers on Windows are Apple Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Search

See Windows Desktop Search

Setup log files (setupapi.log)

Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [4].

Sleep/Hibernation

After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.

Users

Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList

The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.

Windows Error Reporting (WER)

As of Vista, for User Access Control (UAC) elevated applications WER reports can be found in:

C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\

As of Vista, for non-UAC elevated applications (LUA) WER reports can be found in:

C:\Users\%UserName%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\WER\

Corresponding registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Windows Error Reporting

Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives

Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see Advanced Format.

%SystemRoot%

The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:

Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
Value: SystemRoot

See Also

External Links

Malware/Rootkits

Tracking removable media

Under the hood

MSI

Side-by-side (WinSxS)

Application Compatibility Database

System Restore (Restore Points)

Crash dumps

RPC

USB

WMI

Windows Error Reporting (WER)

Windows Firewall

Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64)

Windows XP