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Difference between pages "Windows Registry" and "Windows SuperFetch Format"

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==File Locations==
+
{{expand}}
The Windows Registry is stored in multiple files.
+
  
===Windows NT 4 ===
+
SuperFetch, is a memory management scheme that enhances the least-recently accessed approach with historical information and proactive memory management. [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/2007.03.vistakernel.aspx]
In Windows NT 4 (and later) the Registry is stored in the [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)]] format.
+
  
Basically the following Registry hives are stored in the corresponding files:
+
<b>Note that the following format specification are incomplete.</b>
* HKEY_USERS: \Documents and Setting\User Profile\NTUSER.DAT
+
* HKEY_USERS\DEFAULT: C:\Windows\system32\config\default
+
* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM: C:\Windows\system32\config\SAM
+
* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY: C:\Windows\system32\config\SECURITY
+
* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE: C:\Windows\system32\config\software
+
* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM: C:\Windows\system32\config\system
+
  
===Windows 98/ME===
+
== SuperFetch DB files ==
* \Windows\user.dat
+
The <tt>Ag*.db</tt> files are of the SuperFetch file format. E.g.
* \Windows\system.dat
+
* \Windows\profiles\user profile\user.dat
+
 
+
== Keys ==
+
 
+
=== Run/RunOnce ===
+
System-wide:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
+
AgAppLaunch.db
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
+
AgCx_SC*.db
 +
AgGlFaultHistory.db
 +
AgGlFgAppHistory.db
 +
AgGlGlobalHistory.db
 +
AgGlUAD_%SID%.db
 +
AgGlUAD_P_%SID%.db
 +
AgRobust.db
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Per user:
+
The SuperFetch DB files can be stored in uncompressed or compressed form, where different version of Windows use different compressed forms:
<pre>
+
* Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEMO file format; Windows Vista
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
+
* Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEM0 file format; Windows 7
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
+
* Compressed SuperFetch DB - MAM file format; Windows 8
</pre>
+
  
== Special cases ==
+
=== Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEMO file format ===
The Windows Registry has several special case scenarios, mainly concerning key and value name, that are easy to fail to account for:
+
The MEM file consists of:
* special characters key and value names
+
* file header
* duplicate key and value names
+
* compressed blocks
* the names when stored in extended ASCII (ANSI string) use a codepage that is dependent on the system settings
+
  
=== special characters key and value names ===
+
This format uses the LZNT1 compression method
Both key and values names are case insensitive. The \ character is used as the key separator. Note
+
that the \ character can be used in value names. The / character is used in both key and value names.
+
Some examples of which are:
+
<pre>
+
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet002\Services\NetBT\Parameters\
+
Value: Size/Small/Medium/Large
+
</pre>
+
  
<pre>
+
==== File header ====
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\Terminal Server\VIDEO\disc\
+
The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:
Value: \Device\Video0
+
{| class="wikitable"
</pre>
+
|-
 +
! Offset
 +
! Size
 +
! Value
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| 4
 +
| "MEMO" (0x4d, 0x45, 0x4d, 0x4f)
 +
| Signature
 +
|-
 +
| 4
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Uncompressed (total) data size
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
<pre>
+
==== Compressed blocks ====
Key:
+
The compressed block size is the chunk data size, which is part of the LZNT1 compressed data, + 2 bytes for the size of the chunk header itself.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet002\services\xmlprov\Parameters\SchemaGroups\User\http://www.microsoft.com/provisioning/eaptlsuserpropertiesv1\
+
Value: SchemaFile
+
</pre>
+
  
=== codepaged ASCII strings ===
+
The uncompressed block size is 4096 (0x1000) or the remaining uncompressed data size for the last block.
  
Value with name "ëigenaardig" created on Windows XP codepage 1252.
+
=== Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEM0 file format ===
 +
The MEM file consists of:
 +
* file header
 +
* compressed blocks
  
<pre>
+
This format uses the LZXPRESS Huffman compression method
value key data:
+
00000000: 76 6b 0b 00 46 00 00 00  20 98 1a 00 01 00 00 00  vk..F...  .......
+
00000010: 01 00 69 6e eb 69 67 65  6e 61 61 72 64 69 67 00  ..in.ige naardig.
+
00000020: 55 4e 49 43                                        UNIC
+
  
value key signature                    : vk
+
==== File header ====
value key value name size               : 11
+
The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:
value key data size                    : 0x00000046 (70)
+
{| class="wikitable"
value key data offset                  : 0x001a9820
+
|-
value key data type                    : 1 (REG_SZ) String
+
! Offset
value key flags                        : 0x0001
+
! Size
        Value name is an ASCII string
+
! Value
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| 4
 +
| "MEM0" (0x4d, 0x45, 0x4d, 0x30)
 +
| Signature
 +
|-
 +
| 4
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Uncompressed (total) data size
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
value key unknown1                      : 0x6e69 (28265)
+
==== Compressed blocks ====
value key value name                    : ëigenaardig
+
The file header is followed by compressed blocks:
value key value name hash              : 0xb78835ee
+
{| class="wikitable"
value key padding:
+
|-
00000000: 00 55 4e 49 43                                    .UNIC
+
! Offset
</pre>
+
! Size
 +
! Value
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Compressed data size
 +
|-
 +
| 4
 +
| ...
 +
|
 +
| Compressed data
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
As you can see the name is stored in extended ASCII (ANSI) using codepage 1252.
+
The uncompressed block size is 65536 (0x10000) or the remaining uncompressed data size for the last block.
  
==Tools==
+
=== Compressed SuperFetch DB - MAM file format ===
===Open Source===
+
The MAM file consists of:
* [https://www.pinguin.lu/index.php Forensic Registry EDitor (fred)] - "Forensic Registry EDitor (fred) is a cross-platform M$ registry hive editor" by [[Daniel Gillen]]
+
* file header
* [http://projects.sentinelchicken.org/data/doc/reglookup/regfi/ libregfi] - The regfi library is a read-only NT registry library which serves as the main engine behind the reglookup tool
+
* compressed blocks
* [http://projects.sentinelchicken.org/reglookup/ reglookup] — "small command line utility for reading and querying Windows NT-based registries."
+
* [http://sourceforge.net/projects/regviewer/ regviewer] — a tool for looking at the registry.
+
* [[Regripper|RegRipper]] — "the fastest, easiest, and best tool for registry analysis in forensics examinations."
+
* [http://search.cpan.org/~jmacfarla/Parse-Win32Registry-0.51/lib/Parse/Win32Registry.pm Parse::Win32Registry] Perl module.
+
* [http://www.williballenthin.com/registry/index.html python-registry] Python module.
+
* [http://code.google.com/p/registrydecoder/ Registry Decoder] offline analysis component, by [[Andrew Case]]
+
* [http://code.google.com/p/registrydecoder/ RegDecoderLive] live hive acquisition component, by [[Andrew Case]]
+
* [[libregf]] - Library and tools to access the Windows NT Registry File (REGF) format
+
* [[Registryasxml]] - Tool to import/export registry sections as XML
+
  
===Freeware===
+
This format uses the <b>TODO</b> compression method
* [http://www.tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=3 Yet Another Registry Utility (yaru)] Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X. If run in admin mode, allows viewing of registry hives on live system.
+
  
* [http://www.tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=14 Windows ShellBag Parser] Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X.
+
==== File header ====
 +
<b>TODO</b>
  
* [http://tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=19 ''cafae''] - Computer Account Forensic Artifact Extractor.  Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X to parse ntuser.dat hives.
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Offset
 +
! Size
 +
! Value
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| 4
 +
| "MAM\x84" (0x4d, 0x41, 0x4d, 0x84)
 +
| Signature
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
===Commercial===
+
==== Compressed blocks ====
* [http://www.abexo.com/free-registry-cleaner.htm Abexo Free Regisry Cleaner]
+
<b>TODO</b>
* [http://www.auslogics.com/registry-defrag Auslogics Registry Defrag]
+
* [http://lastbit.com/arv/ Alien Registry Viewer]
+
* [http://www.larshederer.homepage.t-online.de/erunt/index.htm NT Registry Optimizer]
+
* [http://www.registry-clean.net/free-registry-defrag.htm iExpert Software-Free Registry Defrag]
+
* [http://arsenalrecon.com/apps Registry Recon]
+
* [http://paullee.ru/regundel Registry Undelete (russian)]
+
* [http://mitec.cz/wrr.html Windows Registry Recovery]
+
* [http://registrytool.com/ Registry Tool]
+
  
==Bibliography==
+
=== Uncompressed SuperFetch DB format ===
* [http://www.dfrws.org/2009/proceedings/p69-zhu.pdf Using ShellBag Information to Reconstruct User Activities.], Yuandong Zhu*, Pavel Gladyshev, Joshua James, DFRWS 2009
+
<b>TODO</b>
* Recovering Deleted Data From the Windows Registry. Timothy Morgan, DFRWS 2008 [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p33-morgan.pdf [paper]] [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p33-morgan_pres.pdf [slides]]
+
* [http://www.pkdavies.co.uk/documents/Computer_Forensics/registry_examination.pdf Registry Examination, by Paul Davies]
+
  
* [http://dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt.pdf Forensic Analysis of the Windows Registry in Memory], Brendan Dolan-Gavitt, DFRWS 2008  [http://dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt_pres.pdf [slides]]
+
==== File header ====
* [http://www.pkdavies.co.uk/downloads/registry_examination.pdf Forensic Analysis of the Windows Registry], Peter Davies, Computer Forensics: Coursework 2 (student paper)
+
<b>TODO</b>
* [http://eptuners.com/forensics/A%20Windows%20Registry%20Quick%20Reference.pdf A Windows Registry Quick-Reference], Derrick Farmer, Burlington, VT.
+
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Offset
 +
! Size
 +
! Value
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| 4
 +
| 0x0000000e
 +
| Unknown (Database type or signature?)
 +
|-
 +
| 4
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Uncompressed (total) data size
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
== TRX files ==
 +
The <tt>Ag*.db.trx</tt> files are of the TRX file format. E.g.
 +
<pre>
 +
AgCx_SC*.db.trx
 +
</pre>
  
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7CW4-4GX1J3B-1&_user=3326500&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000060280&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3326500&md5=ab887593e7be6d5257696707886978f1 The Windows Registry as a forensic resource], Digital Investigation, Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 201--205.
+
<b>Note that the following format specification is incomplete.</b>
  
* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-windows-registry.pdf Forensic Analysis of the Windows Registry], Lih Wern Wong , School of Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University
+
=== File header ===
 +
The file header is variable of size and consists of:
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Offset
 +
! Size
 +
! Value
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| 4
 +
| 1
 +
| Unknown (Version?)
 +
|-
 +
| 4
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Unknown
 +
|-
 +
| 8
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| File size
 +
|-
 +
| 12
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Maximum number of records (of the record offsets array)
 +
|-
 +
| 16
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Number of records
 +
|-
 +
| 20
 +
| ...
 +
|
 +
| Record offsets array, where the record offset is a 32-bit integer. Unused record offset are set to 0.
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
* [http://www.sentinelchicken.com/research/registry_format/ The Windows NT Registry File Format], Timothy D. Morgan
+
=== Record ===
 +
<b>TODO describe</b>
  
==See Also==
+
== See Also ==
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.com/search/label/Registry Windows Incident Response Articles on Registry]
+
* [[SuperFetch]]
* [http://www.answers.com/topic/win-registry Windows Registry Information]
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Registry Wikipedia Article on Windows Registry]
+
[[Category:Bibliographies]]
+
* [http://moyix.blogspot.com/search/label/registry Push the Red Button] — Articles on Registry
+
* [http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/win4n6/ Windows Forensics Mailing List]
+
* [http://samba.org/~jelmer/kregedit/ kregedit] - a KDE utility for viewing and editing registry files.
+
* [http://www.bindview.com/Services/RAZOR/Utilities/Unix_Linux/ntreg_readme.cfm ntreg] a file system driver for linux, which understands the NT registry file format.
+
* [http://www.beginningtoseethelight.org/ntsecurity/ Security Accounts Manager]
+
  
* http://www.opensourceforensics.org/tools/unix.html - Open Source Forensic Tools on Brian Carrier's website.
+
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/2007.03.vistakernel.aspx Inside the Windows Vista Kernel: Part 2], by [[Mark Russinovich]], March 2007
 +
* [http://blog.rewolf.pl/blog/?p=214 Windows SuperFetch file format – partial specification], by ReWolf, October 5, 2011
  
[[Category:Windows Analysis]]
+
[[Category:File Formats]]

Revision as of 05:41, 23 April 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

SuperFetch, is a memory management scheme that enhances the least-recently accessed approach with historical information and proactive memory management. [1]

Note that the following format specification are incomplete.

SuperFetch DB files

The Ag*.db files are of the SuperFetch file format. E.g.

AgAppLaunch.db
AgCx_SC*.db
AgGlFaultHistory.db
AgGlFgAppHistory.db
AgGlGlobalHistory.db
AgGlUAD_%SID%.db
AgGlUAD_P_%SID%.db
AgRobust.db

The SuperFetch DB files can be stored in uncompressed or compressed form, where different version of Windows use different compressed forms:

  • Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEMO file format; Windows Vista
  • Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEM0 file format; Windows 7
  • Compressed SuperFetch DB - MAM file format; Windows 8

Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEMO file format

The MEM file consists of:

  • file header
  • compressed blocks

This format uses the LZNT1 compression method

File header

The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 "MEMO" (0x4d, 0x45, 0x4d, 0x4f) Signature
4 4 Uncompressed (total) data size

Compressed blocks

The compressed block size is the chunk data size, which is part of the LZNT1 compressed data, + 2 bytes for the size of the chunk header itself.

The uncompressed block size is 4096 (0x1000) or the remaining uncompressed data size for the last block.

Compressed SuperFetch DB - MEM0 file format

The MEM file consists of:

  • file header
  • compressed blocks

This format uses the LZXPRESS Huffman compression method

File header

The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 "MEM0" (0x4d, 0x45, 0x4d, 0x30) Signature
4 4 Uncompressed (total) data size

Compressed blocks

The file header is followed by compressed blocks:

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 Compressed data size
4 ... Compressed data

The uncompressed block size is 65536 (0x10000) or the remaining uncompressed data size for the last block.

Compressed SuperFetch DB - MAM file format

The MAM file consists of:

  • file header
  • compressed blocks

This format uses the TODO compression method

File header

TODO

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 "MAM\x84" (0x4d, 0x41, 0x4d, 0x84) Signature

Compressed blocks

TODO

Uncompressed SuperFetch DB format

TODO

File header

TODO

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 0x0000000e Unknown (Database type or signature?)
4 4 Uncompressed (total) data size

TRX files

The Ag*.db.trx files are of the TRX file format. E.g.

AgCx_SC*.db.trx

Note that the following format specification is incomplete.

File header

The file header is variable of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 1 Unknown (Version?)
4 4 Unknown
8 4 File size
12 4 Maximum number of records (of the record offsets array)
16 4 Number of records
20 ... Record offsets array, where the record offset is a 32-bit integer. Unused record offset are set to 0.

Record

TODO describe

See Also

External Links