Difference between pages "Network forensics" and "Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS)"

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(How to detect)
 
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'''Network forensics''' is the process of capturing information that moves over a [[network]] and trying to make sense of it in some kind of forensics capacity. A [[network forensics appliance]] is a device that automates this process.
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{{expand}}
  
There are both open source and proprietary network forensics systems available.
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Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is commonly used by Linux to encrypt storage media volumes. LUKS is implemented in the Linux kernel in dm-crypt (dm = Device Mapper) and the user-space component cryptsetup.
  
== Overview ==
+
LUKS supports various encryption methods, like:
 +
* [[AES]]
 +
* [[Anubis]]
 +
* [[Blowfish|BlowFish]]
 +
* [[Cast5]]
 +
* [[Cast6]]
 +
* [[Serpent]]
 +
* Tnepres a reversed variant of [[Serpent]]
 +
* [[Twofish|TwoFish]]
  
<!--
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These encryption methods can be used in various chaining modes and with various initialization vector modes.
  
  PLEASE DO NOT ADD ENTRIES THAT DO NOT HAVE AN ARTICLE.
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== How to detect ==
 +
A LUKS encrypted volume starts with the "LUKS\xba\xbe" signature.
  
  Please keep these in alphabetical order.
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A hexdump of the start of the volume should look similar to:
 +
<pre>
 +
00000000  4c 55 4b 53 ba be 00 01  61 65 73 00 00 00 00 00  |LUKS....aes.....|
 +
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
 +
00000020  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  63 62 63 2d 65 73 73 69  |........cbc-essi|
 +
00000030  76 3a 73 68 61 32 35 36  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |v:sha256........|
 +
00000040  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  72 69 70 65 6d 64 31 36  |........ripemd16|
 +
00000050  30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |0...............|
 +
</pre>
  
  When updating any table, please update all tables as appropriate.
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The encryption mode is in the format:
 +
<pre>
 +
chaining_mode[-initialization_vector_mode[:initialization_vector_options]]
 +
</pre>
  
-->
+
Which in the example is:
 +
<pre>
 +
cbc-essiv:sha256
 +
</pre>
  
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width: auto; font-size: smaller"
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And the password hashing method in the example is:
|-
+
<pre>
! System
+
ripemd160
! [[software license|License]]
+
</pre>
! User Interface
+
! Supported Platform
+
! Supported Protocols
+
! class="unsortable" | Refs <!-- This column is for a general reference and does not replace the need to identify references for specific features if the feature is not explained in the general reference -->
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[Argus]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI via [http://www.datenspionage.de/arguseye/ ArgusEye]
+
| Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, AIX, IRIX, Windows (under Cygwin) and OpenWrt
+
| L2 addresses, tunnel identifiers (MPLS, GRE, ESP, etc...), protocol ids, SAP's, hop-count, options, L4 transport identification (RTP, RTCP detection), host flow control indication; netflow
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[Chaosreader]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI
+
| Solaris, RedHat, Windows
+
| FTP files, HTTP transfers (HTML, GIF, JPEG, ...), SMTP emails, ... from the captured data inside network traffic logs
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[DataEcho]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| GUI
+
| Windows
+
| www, http
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[Junkie]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| GUI
+
| unknown
+
| unknown
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[kisMAC]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| GUI
+
| Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, AIX, IRIX, Windows (under Cygwin) and OpenWrt
+
| L2 addresses, tunnel identifiers (MPLS, GRE, ESP, etc...), protocol ids, SAP's, hop-count, options, L4 transport identification (RTP, RTCP detection), host flow control indication; netflow
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[kismet]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line /GUI via [http://www.datenspionage.de/arguseye/ ArgusEye]
+
| Mac OS X
+
| unknown
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[n2disk]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI
+
| Ubuntu, CentOS
+
| unknown
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[net-sniff-ng]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| unknown
+
| unknown
+
| unknown
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[netfse]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| GUI
+
| unknown
+
| TCP/IP, UDP
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[netsleuth]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI
+
| Windows, [[Backtrack]]
+
| Apple MDNS / Bonjour, SMB / CIFS / NetBios, DHCP (using the www.fingerbank.org resource), SSDP (as used in Microsoft Zero Config)
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[NetworkMiner]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Windows GUI, Commandline
+
| Linux / Mac OS X / FreeBSD, Windows
+
| http, smb, ftp, tfpt, ssl , tls, tor
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[ntop]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI
+
| Unix (including Linux, *BSD, Solaris, and MacOSX), linux, windows
+
| DPI via OpenDPI Library; FTP POP SMTP IMAP DNS IPP HTTP MDNS NTP NFS SSDP BGP SNMP XDMCP SMB SYSLOG DHCP PostgreSQL MySQL TDS DirectDownloadLink I23V5 AppleJuice DirectConnect Socrates WinMX MANOLITO PANDO Filetopia iMESH Kontiki OpenFT Kazaa/Fasttrack Gnutella eDonkey Bittorrent (Extended) OFF AVI Flash OGG MPEG QuickTime RealMedia Windowsmedia MMS XBOX QQ MOVE RTSP Feidian Icecast PPLive PPStream Zattoo SHOUTCast SopCast TVAnts TVUplayer VeohTV QQLive Thunder/Webthunder Soulseek GaduGadu IRC Popo Jabber MSN Oscar Yahoo Battlefield Quake Second Life Steam Halflife2 World of Warcraft Telnet STUN IPSEC GRE ICMP IGMP EGP SCTP OSPF IP in IP RTP RDP VNC PCAnywhere SSL SSH USENET MGCP IAX TFTP
+
|
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[OSSEC]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI
+
| Windows 7, XP, 2000 and Vista Windows Server 2003 and 2008 VMWare ESX 3.0,3.5 (including CIS checks) FreeBSD (all versions) OpenBSD (all versions) NetBSD (all versions) Solaris 2.7, 2.8, 2.9 and 10 AIX 5.3 and 6.1 HP-UX 10, 11, 11i MacOSX 10 remote syslog: Cisco PIX, ASA and FWSM (all versions) Cisco IOS routers (all versions) Juniper Netscreen (all versions) SonicWall firewall (all versions) Checkpoint firewall (all versions) Cisco IOS IDS/IPS module (all versions) Sourcefire (Snort) IDS/IPS (all versions) Dragon NIDS (all versions) Checkpoint Smart Defense (all versions) McAfee VirusScan Enterprise (v8 and v8.5) Bluecoat proxy (all versions) Cisco VPN concentrators (all versions) Database monitoring is available for the following systems: MySQL (all versions) PostgreSQL (all versions) Oracle, MSSQL (to be available soon)"
+
| Unknown
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[Snort]]
+
| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI
+
| Linux, Windows
+
| Unknown
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[Wireshark]]
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| [[Open Source]]
+
| Command Line, GUI
+
| Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, FreeBSD, NetBSD, and others
+
| IPsec, ISAKMP, Kerberos, SNMPv3, SSL/TLS, WEP, and WPA/WPA2; Wireshark can decrypt IEEE 802.11 WLAN data with user specified encryption keys, and others
+
|
+
|
+
|-
+
| [[xplico]]
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| [[Open Source]]
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| Command Line, GUI
+
| Linux
+
| ARP Radiotap Ethernet PPP VLAN L2TP IPv4 IPv6 TCP UDP DNS HTTP SMTP POP IMAP SIP MGCP H323 RTP RTCP SDP FB chat FTP IPP CHDLC PJL NNTP MSN IRC YAHOO GTALK EMULE SSL/TLS IPsec 802.11 LLC MMSE Linux cooked TFTP SNOOP PPPoE Telnet WebMail Paltalk Exp. Paltalk NetBIOS SMB PPI syslog G711ulaw, G711alaw, G722, G729, G723, G726 and RTAudio (x-msrta: Real Time Audio).
+
| Unknown
+
|
+
|
+
|- class="sortbottom"
+
! System
+
! [[software license|License]]
+
! User Interface
+
! Supported Platform
+
! Supported Protocols
+
! class="unsortable" | Refs <!-- This column is for a general reference and does not replace the need to identify references for specific features if the feature is not explained in the general reference -->
+
|}
+
  
== Open Source Network Forensics ==
+
== External Links ==
* [[Argus]]
+
* [http://clemens.endorphin.org/nmihde/nmihde-A4-ds.pdf New Methods in Hard Disk Encryption], by Clemens Fruhwirth, July 18, 2005
* [[Bulk Extractor]] [https://github.com/simsong/bulk_extractor]
+
* [http://wiki.cryptsetup.googlecode.com/git/LUKS-standard/on-disk-format.pdf LUKS On-Disk Format Specification - Version 1.2.1], by Clemens Fruhwirth, October 16, 2011
* [[Chaosreader]] is a session reconstruction tool (supports both live or captured network traffic)
+
* [https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Security_Guide/sect-Security_Guide-LUKS_Disk_Encryption.html LUKS Disk Encryption], by [[RedHat]]
* [[DataEcho]]
+
* [https://googledrive.com/host/0B3fBvzttpiiSNUVYSFF1TmRONmc/Linux%20Unified%20Key%20Setup%20(LUKS)%20Disk%20Encryption%20format.pdf LUKS Disk Encryption format specification], by the [[libluksde|libluksde project]], July 2013
* [[FlowGREP]] is a basic IDS/IPS tool written in python [http://www.monkey.org/~jose/software/flowgrep/]
+
* [http://www.jakoblell.com/blog/2013/12/22/practical-malleability-attack-against-cbc-encrypted-luks-partitions/ Practical malleability attack against CBC-Encrypted LUKS partitions], by Jakob Lell, December 22, 2013
* [[KisMAC]] is a free, open source wireless stumbling and security tool for Mac OS X. [http://kismac-ng.org]
+
* [[Kismet]]
+
* [[logstash]] is a tool for managing events and logs. You can use it to collect logs, parse them, and store them for later use (like, for searching). Speaking of searching, logstash comes with a web interface for searching and drilling into all of your logs. [http://logstash.net/]
+
  
* [[log2Timeline]] a framework for automatic creation of a super timeline. The main purpose is to provide a single tool to parse various log files and artifacts found on suspect systems (and supporting systems, such as network equipment) and produce a timeline that can be analysed by forensic investigators/analysts. [https://code.google.com/p/log2timeline/]
 
* [[NetFSE]] is a web-based search and analysis application for high-volume network data [http://www.netfse.org available at NetFSE.org]
 
* [http://www.netgrab.co.uk NetSleuth] is a live and retrospective network analysis and triage tool.
 
* [[ntop]]
 
* [[NetGREP]] is a command line tool which tells you which lines in a text file contain network resources related to a particular country or Autonomous Network (AS) [https://pypi.python.org/pypi/netgrep/]
 
* [[NetworkMiner]] is [http://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawiki/networkminer/index.php?title=NetworkMiner an open source Network Forensics Tool available at SourceForge]
 
* [[OSSEC]]
 
* [[Plaso]] (plaso langar að safna öllu) is the Python based back-end engine used by tools such as log2timeline for automatic creation of a super timelines [http://plaso.kiddaland.net/]
 
  
* [[RegRipper]] is an open source tool, written in Perl, for extracting/parsing information (keys, values, data) from the Registry and presenting it for analysis [http://regripper.wordpress.com/]
+
[[Category:Disk encryption]]
* [[Snort]]
+
[[Category:Linux]]
* [[Wireshark]]
+
* [[Xplico]] is an Internet/IP Traffic Decoder (NFAT). Protocols supported: [http://www.xplico.org/status.html HTTP, SIP, FTP, IMAP, POP, SMTP, TCP, UDP, IPv4, IPv6, ...]
+
 
+
== Commercial Network Forensics ==
+
 
+
===Deep-Analysis Systems===
+
* Code Green Networks [http://www.codegreennetworks.com Content Inspection Appliance] - Passive monitoring and mandatory proxy mode. Easy to use Web GUI. Linux platform. Uses Stellent Outside In to access document content and metadata.
+
* E-Detective [http://www.edecision4u.com/] [http://www.digi-forensics.com/home.html]
+
* [http://www.infowatch.com InfoWatch Traffic Monitor]
+
* Mera Systems [http://netbeholder.com/ NetBeholder]
+
* MFI Soft [http://sormovich.ru/ SORMovich] (in Russian)
+
* Solera Networks - Provider of full packet capture network forensics appliances [http://www.soleranetworks.com/ Solera Networks]
+
* NETRESEC [http://www.netresec.com/?page=NetworkMiner NetworkMiner Professional (portable network forensic analysis tool for Windows)]
+
* NetWitness Corporation - Freeware/Commercial, Enterprise-Wide, Real-Time Network Forensics [http://www.netwitness.com/ NetWitness]
+
* Network Instruments [http://www.networkinstruments.com/]
+
* NIKSUN's [[NetDetector]]
+
* PacketMotion [http://www.packetmotion.com/]
+
* Sandstorm's [http://www.sandstorm.net/products/netintercept/ NetIntercept] - Passive monitoring appliance. Qt/X11 GUI. FreeBSD platform. Uses forensic parsers written by Sandstorm to access document content and metadata.
+
* WildPackets [[OmniPeek]] [http://www.wildpackets.com/solutions/it_solutions/network_forensics] [http://www.wildpackets.com/products/distributed_network_analysis/omnipeek_network_analyzer/forensics_search]
+
* [[Xplico]] [http://www.xplico.org/]
+
 
+
===Flow-Based Systems===
+
* Arbor Networks
+
* GraniteEdge Networks
+
* Lancope http://www.lancope.com/
+
* Mantaro Product Development Services http://www.mantaro.com/products/MNIS/index.htm
+
* Mazu Networks http://www.mazunetworks.com/
+
 
+
===Hybrid Systems===
+
These systems combine flow analysis, deep analysis, and security event monitoring and reporting.
+
* Q1 Labs  http://www.q1labs.com/
+
 
+
== Tips and Tricks ==
+
 
+
* The time between two events triggered by an intruder (as seen in logfiles, for example) can be helpful. If it is very short, you can be pretty sure that the actions were performed by an automated script and not by a human user.
+
 
+
== See also ==
+
* [[Wireless forensics]]
+
* [[SSL forensics]]
+
 
+
* [[IP geolocation]]
+
* [[Tools:Network Forensics]]
+
* [[Tools:Logfile Analysis]]
+
 
+
[[Category:Network Forensics]]
+

Revision as of 13:52, 23 December 2013

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is commonly used by Linux to encrypt storage media volumes. LUKS is implemented in the Linux kernel in dm-crypt (dm = Device Mapper) and the user-space component cryptsetup.

LUKS supports various encryption methods, like:

These encryption methods can be used in various chaining modes and with various initialization vector modes.

How to detect

A LUKS encrypted volume starts with the "LUKS\xba\xbe" signature.

A hexdump of the start of the volume should look similar to:

00000000  4c 55 4b 53 ba be 00 01  61 65 73 00 00 00 00 00  |LUKS....aes.....|
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000020  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  63 62 63 2d 65 73 73 69  |........cbc-essi|
00000030  76 3a 73 68 61 32 35 36  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |v:sha256........|
00000040  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  72 69 70 65 6d 64 31 36  |........ripemd16|
00000050  30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |0...............|

The encryption mode is in the format:

chaining_mode[-initialization_vector_mode[:initialization_vector_options]]

Which in the example is:

cbc-essiv:sha256

And the password hashing method in the example is:

ripemd160

External Links