Difference between pages "Tools:Memory Imaging" and "Global Positioning System"

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The [[physical memory]] of computers can be imaged and analyzed using a variety of tools. Because the procedure for accessing physical memory varies between [[operating systems]], these tools are listed by operating system. Once memory has been imaged, it is subjected to [[memory analysis]] to ascertain the state of the system, extract artifacts, and so on.
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The '''Global Positioning System''' ('''GPS''') is a satellite navigation system.
  
One of the most vexing problems for memory imaging is verifying that the image has been created correctly.  That is, verifying that it reflects the actual contents of memory at the time of its creation. Because the contents of memory are constantly changing on a running system, the process can be repeated but the results will never--to a high degree of probability--be the same.  Thus, repeating the acquisition and comparing the results is not a feasible means of validating correct image creation.  [[Memory analysis]] can reveal whether the image's contents are consistent with the known layout and structure of a given operating system, as well as answering other questions, but it cannot answer the question as to whether the image accurately reflects the system from which it was taken at the time it was taken.
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== Forensics ==
  
== Memory Imaging Techniques ==
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There are several places where GPS information can found. It can be very useful for forensic investigations in certain situations. GPS devices have expanded their capabilities and features as the technology has improved. Some of the most popular GPS devices today are made by [http://www.TomTom.com TomTom]. Some of the other GPS manufacturers include [http://www.garmin.com Garmin] and [http://www.magellangps.com Magellan].
  
; Crash Dumps
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Berla Corp. Has has released a BETA version of their new GPS forensics tool. It integrates acquisition, examination, and analysis into one small easy to use piece of software. [http://blackthorngps.com Get your free copy today]. Blackthorn currently supports both legacy and current Garmin, TomTom, and Magellan devices.
: When configured to create a full memory dump, [[Windows]] operating systems will automatically save an image of physical memory when a bugcheck (aka blue screen or kernel panic) occurs. [[Andreas Schuster]] has a [http://computer.forensikblog.de/en/2005/10/acquisition_2_crashdump.html blog post] describing this technique.
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; LiveKd Dumps
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: The [[Sysinternals]] tool [http://www.microsoft.com/technet/sysinternals/SystemInformation/LiveKd.mspx LiveKd] can be used to create an image of physical memory on a live machine in crash dump format. Once livekd is started, use the command ".dump -f [output file]"
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; Hibernation Files
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: [[Windows]] 98, 2000, XP, 2003, and Vista support a feature called [[hibernation]] that saves the machine's state to the disk when the computer is powered off. When the machine is turned on again, the state is restored and the user can return to the exact point where they left off. The machine's state, including a compressed image of [[physical memory]], is written to the disk on the system drive, usually C:, as [[hiberfil.sys]]. This file can be parsed and decompressed to obtain the memory image. Once [[hiberfil.sys]] has been obtained, [http://sandman.msuiche.net/ Sandman] can be used to convert it to a dd image.
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: [[Mac OS X]] very kindly creates a file called '''/var/vm/sleepimage''' on any laptop that is suspended. This file is NOT erased when the machine starts up. It is unencrypted even if the user turns on [[File Vault]] and enables Secure Virtual Memory. [http://pc-eye.blogspot.com/2008/08/live-memory-dump-on-mac-laptops.html].
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; Firewire
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: It is possible for [[Firewire]] or IEEE1394 devices to directly access the memory of a computer. Using this capability has been suggested as a method for acquiring memory images for forensic analysis. Unfortunately, the method is not safe enough to be widely used yet. There are some published papers and tools, listed below, but they are not yet forensically sound. These tools do not work with all Firewire controllers and on other can cause system crashes. The technology holds promise for future development, in general should be avoided for now.
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: At [[CanSec West 05]], [[Michael Becher]], [[Maximillian Dornseif]], and [[Christian N. Klein]] discussed an [[exploit]] which uses [[DMA]] to read arbitrary memory locations of a [[firewire]]-enabled system. The [http://md.hudora.de/presentations/firewire/2005-firewire-cansecwest.pdf paper] lists more details. The exploit is run on an [http://ipodlinux.org/Main_Page iPod running Linux]. This can be used to grab screen contents.
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: This technique has been turned into a tool that you can download from:  http://www.storm.net.nz/projects/16
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: Goldfish is a tool that is being developed to get RAM from a Mac. Contact cybercrime.com.
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== Memory Imaging Tools ==
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=== TomTom ===
===x86 Hardware===
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; Tribble PCI Card (research project)
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: http://www.digital-evidence.org/papers/tribble-preprint.pdf
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; CoPilot by Komoku
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TomTom provides a wide range of devices for biking, hiking, and car navigation. Depending on the capabilities of the model, several different types of digital evidence can be located on these devices. For instance, the [http://www.tomtom.com/products/product.php?ID=212&Category=0&Lid=1 TomTom 910] is basically a 20GB external harddrive. This model can be docked with a personal computer via a USB cable or through the use of Bluetooth technology. The listed features include the ability to store pictures, play MP3 music files, and connect to certain cell phones via bluetooth technology. Data commonly found on cell phones could easily be found on the TomTom910. Via the Bluetooth, the TomTom can transfer the entire contact list from your phone. The GPS unit also records your call logs and SMS messages. Research needs to be done to see if the TomTom stores actual trips conducted with the unit. This would include routes, times, and travel speeds.  
: Komoku was acquired by Microsoft and the card was not made publicly available.
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; Forensic RAM Extraction Device (FRED) by BBN
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The TomTom unit connects to a computer via a USB base station. An examiner should be able to acquire the image of the harddrive through a USB write blocker. If not, it may be necessary to remove the hard drive from the unit.  
: Not publicly available. http://www.ir.bbn.com/~vkawadia/
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===[[Windows]] Software===
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TomTom models such the TomTom One Regional, TomTom Europe, Go 510, Go 710 and the Go 720 store map data, favourites, and recent destinations on a removable SD card. This allows the forensic examiner to remove the SD card and make a backup with a write blocked SD card reader. The most important file for the forensic examiner will be the CFG file that is held in the map data directory. This holds a list of all recent destinations that the user has entered into the device. The information is held in a hex file and stores the grid coordinates of these locations.
; winen.exe (Guidance Software - included with Encase 6.11 and higher)
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: included on [http://www.e-fense.com/helix/ Helix 2.0]
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: http://forensiczone.blogspot.com/2008/06/winenexe-ram-imaging-tool-included-in.html
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; [[WinDD]]
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Certain TomTom models (Go 510, Go 910, Go 920 etc.) allow the user to pair their mobile phone to the device so they can use the TomTom as a hands free kit. If the user has paired their phone to the TomTom device, then the TomTom will store the Bluetooth MAC ID for up to five phones, erasing the oldest if a sixth phone is paired. Depending on the phone model paired with the TomTom, there may also be Call lists, contacts and text messages (sent & received) stored in the device too.  
: included on [http://www.e-fense.com/helix/ Helix 2.0]
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: http://windd.msuiche.net/
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: http://www.msuiche.net/2008/06/14/capture-memory-under-win2k3-or-vista-with-win32dd/
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; [[Mdd]] (Memory DD) ([[ManTech]])
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Automated forensic analysis for TomTom GPS units is possible with software from Digivence - Forensic Analyser - TomTom Edition.  [http://www.digivence.com/SCREEN%20OPTIMISED%20REPORT%20-%20Demo%2011072007%20163219.htm Sample Report]. Whilst not shown in the example report, call history, contacts, text messages, Bluetooth MAC ID, and unit info is also automatically processed if available.
: included on [http://www.e-fense.com/helix/ Helix 2.0]
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: http://sourceforge.net/projects/mdd
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; F-Response with FTK imager, dd, Encase, WinHex, etc
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Another tool for forensically analysing TomToms is [http://www.forensicnavigation.com TomTology]. This will retrieve all journey details from both live and unallocated space. It will tell you which is the home, favourites and recent destinations and will also tell you the last journey that was plotted and where the TomTom last had a GPS fix. It will also extract phone numbers if the device has been paired with a phone and will find deleted phone numbers, useful for potentially tracing a previous owner.
: Beta 2.03 provides remote access to memory that can be acquired using practically any standard imaging tool
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: http://www.f-response.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=79&Itemid=2
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; MANDIANT Memoryze
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=== Garmin ===
: Can capture and analyze memory. Supports reading dumps (raw/dd format) from other tools.
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: http://www.mandiant.com/software/memoryze.htm
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; [[Kntdd]]
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Garmin units connect to a PC in the same way as TomTom, via a USB cable. The unit will mount as a Mass Storage Unit, similar to a USB Memory Stick. After drivers for the unit have loaded, it is possible to navigate the Garmin unit's file system. Many of the files inside can easily be opened in a text or Hex editor.  
: http://www.gmgsystemsinc.com/knttools/
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; [[dd]]
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Raw trip data including waypoints, date & time stamps, latitude & longitude coordinates and elevations can be extracted from the Current.gpx file located in the \Garmin\GPX\ folder. It can be viewed by opening the file with a text editor such as [http://notepad-plus.sourceforge.net/ Notepad++]. All recent trips are stored in this file.
: On [[Microsoft Windows]] systems, [[dd]] can be used by an Administrator user to image memory using the ''\Device\Physicalmemory'' object. Userland access to this object is denied starting in Windows 2003 Service Pack 1 and Windows Vista.
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; Windows Memory Forensic Toolkit (WMFT)
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Data can also be easily viewed via [http://earth.google.com/ Google Earth]'s import feature. If available, Google Earth will import waypoints, tracks and routes from the unit. A slider bar in the program will show saved routes by date and time. When a specific waypoint is selected, a window will open that shows Lat/Long Coordinates, Altitude, Speed, Heading and Date/Time (Zulu).  
: http://forensic.seccure.net/
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: http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-usa-06/BH-US-06-Burdach.pdf
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; Nigilant32
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With this data, raw or when viewed in Google Earth, entire trips can easily be reproduced giving exact time and locations for the GPS unit. It is unknown how many trips the unit is capable of storing or will store by default, but the [https://buy.garmin.com/shop/shop.do?pID=37418#nuvi260w Garmin Nuvi 260W] test unit had 16 days of trip data stored to memory.  
: http://www.agilerm.net/publications_4.html
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;[[HBGary]]: Fastdump and Fastdump Pro
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=== Magellan ===
:http://www.hbgary.com
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:[[Fastdump]] (free with registration) Can acquire physical memory on Windows 2000 through Windows XP 32 bit but not Windows 2003 or Vista.
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:[[Fastdump Pro]] Can acquire physical memory on Windows 2000 through Windows 2008, all service packs.  Additionally, Fastdump Pro supports:
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:-32 bit and 64 bit architectures
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:-Acquisitions of greater than 4GB
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:-Fast acquisitions through the use of larger page sizes (1024KB) but also supports a strict mode that enforces 4KB page sizes.
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:-Process probing which allows for a more complete memory image of a process of interest.
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:-Acquisition of the system page file during physical memory acquisition.  This allows for a more complete memory analysis.
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===Unix===
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Magellan GPS units also connect to a PC via a USB cable. The [http://www.magellangps.com/products/product.asp?segID=354&prodID=2053 Magellan Roadmate 1400] unit tested runs a version of Windows CE. The operating system did not appear to be tailored to the specific unit and had options included in the menus that were not available (e.g. backup and restore functionality via a SD memory card slot that did not exist). Upon connecting the unit to a PC, it will mount as a Mass Storage Unit when and if it is recognized.
;[[dd]]
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: On Unix systems, the program [[dd]] can be used to capture the contents of [[physical memory]] using a device file (e.g. <tt>/dev/mem</tt> and <tt>/dev/kmem</tt>).  In recent Linux kernels, /dev/kmem is no longer available.  In even more recent kernels, /dev/mem has additional restrictions.  And in the most recent, /dev/mem is no longer available by default, either.  The throughout the 2.6 kernel series has been to reduce direct access to memory via pseudo-device files.  See, for example, the message accompanying this patch: http://lwn.net/Articles/267427/.
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;[http://www.pikewerks.com/sl/ Second Look]
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: This memory analysis product has the ability to acquire memory from Linux systems, either locally or from a remote target via DMA.
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; Idetect (Linux)
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: http://forensic.seccure.net/
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; fmem (Linux)
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fmem is kernel module, that creates device /dev/fmem, similar to /dev/mem but without limitations.
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This device (physical RAM) can be copied using dd or other tool.
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Works on 2.6 Linux kernels.
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Under GNU GPL.
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[http://hysteria.sk/~niekt0/foriana/fmem_current.tgz fmem]
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==See Also==
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Files that may contain useful information when opened in a text editor:
* [[Windows Memory Analysis]]
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* /App/Unit.xml
* http://blogs.23.nu/RedTeam/0000/00/antville-5201/
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** This file contains information about the unit such as Model and Serial number.
* http://www.storm.net.nz/projects/16
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* /App/Media.cfg
* http://www.friendsglobal.com/papers/FireWire%20Memory%20Dump%20of%20Windows%20XP.pdf
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** This file is a short list of what types of files are stored in the file structure. (e.g. User data is stored in /USR)
 +
* /Sys/USBTRANS/Unit_ID.dat
 +
** This file is similar to Unit.xml. It contains more information such as Operating System Version and Firmware version.
 +
* /USR/TGUSERA.dat
 +
** This file may contain addresses, phone numbers and some user set points such as "Home". There is no recognizable structure to this data so finding useful data is difficult.  
 +
* /USR/CITYHIST.dat
 +
** This file may contain cities entered into the unit by a user. Like TGUSERA.dat, there is little structure here. Unfortunately, only City and State may be listed here.
 +
 
 +
Magellan provides [http://www.magellangps.com/products/map.asp?PRODID=1903 VantagePoint] software to view map and waypoint data. In order to use this software, the Magellan unit must be powered on prior to connecting it to a PC. It is unknown how useful the VantagePoint software is in collecting data as the software would not recognize the Roadmate 1400 unit. VantagePoint also did not support the .dat or .cfg files stored on the unit. [http://earth.google.com/ Google Earth] also supports Magellan units via its import feature. Earth lists Explorist and Serial as available import options.
 +
 +
 
 +
=== Digital Camera Images with GPS Information ===
 +
 
 +
Some recent digital cameras have built-in GPS receivers (or external modules you can connect to the camera). This makes it possible for the camera to record where exactly a photo was taken. This positioning information (latitude, longitude) can be stored in the [[Exif]] [[metadata]] header of [[JPEG]] files. Tools such as [[jhead]] can display the GPS information in the [[Exif]] headers.
 +
 
 +
=== Cell Phones with GPS ===
 +
 
 +
Some recent cell phones (e.g. a [http://wiki.openezx.org Motorola EZX phone] such as the Motorola A780) have a built-in GPS receiver and navigation software. This software might record the paths travelled (and the date/time), which can be very useful in forensic investigations.
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [http://www.syngress.com/book_catalog/sample_159749156X.PDF  Windows Memory Analysis (Sample Chapter)]
 
  
[[Category:Tools]]
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* [http://www.gpsforensics.org GPSForensics.org - A communitiy dedicated to GPS device forensics]
 +
 
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System Wikipedia: GPS]
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.digivence.com Digivence: TomTom Forensic Analyser]
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.paraben-forensics.com/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=25&products_id=405 Paraben's Device Seizure]
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.forensicnavigation.com TomTology by Forensic Navigation]
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.blackthorngps.com Blackthorn | GPS Forensics]

Revision as of 16:14, 8 September 2009

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation system.

Forensics

There are several places where GPS information can found. It can be very useful for forensic investigations in certain situations. GPS devices have expanded their capabilities and features as the technology has improved. Some of the most popular GPS devices today are made by TomTom. Some of the other GPS manufacturers include Garmin and Magellan.

Berla Corp. Has has released a BETA version of their new GPS forensics tool. It integrates acquisition, examination, and analysis into one small easy to use piece of software. Get your free copy today. Blackthorn currently supports both legacy and current Garmin, TomTom, and Magellan devices.

TomTom

TomTom provides a wide range of devices for biking, hiking, and car navigation. Depending on the capabilities of the model, several different types of digital evidence can be located on these devices. For instance, the TomTom 910 is basically a 20GB external harddrive. This model can be docked with a personal computer via a USB cable or through the use of Bluetooth technology. The listed features include the ability to store pictures, play MP3 music files, and connect to certain cell phones via bluetooth technology. Data commonly found on cell phones could easily be found on the TomTom910. Via the Bluetooth, the TomTom can transfer the entire contact list from your phone. The GPS unit also records your call logs and SMS messages. Research needs to be done to see if the TomTom stores actual trips conducted with the unit. This would include routes, times, and travel speeds.

The TomTom unit connects to a computer via a USB base station. An examiner should be able to acquire the image of the harddrive through a USB write blocker. If not, it may be necessary to remove the hard drive from the unit.

TomTom models such the TomTom One Regional, TomTom Europe, Go 510, Go 710 and the Go 720 store map data, favourites, and recent destinations on a removable SD card. This allows the forensic examiner to remove the SD card and make a backup with a write blocked SD card reader. The most important file for the forensic examiner will be the CFG file that is held in the map data directory. This holds a list of all recent destinations that the user has entered into the device. The information is held in a hex file and stores the grid coordinates of these locations.

Certain TomTom models (Go 510, Go 910, Go 920 etc.) allow the user to pair their mobile phone to the device so they can use the TomTom as a hands free kit. If the user has paired their phone to the TomTom device, then the TomTom will store the Bluetooth MAC ID for up to five phones, erasing the oldest if a sixth phone is paired. Depending on the phone model paired with the TomTom, there may also be Call lists, contacts and text messages (sent & received) stored in the device too.

Automated forensic analysis for TomTom GPS units is possible with software from Digivence - Forensic Analyser - TomTom Edition. Sample Report. Whilst not shown in the example report, call history, contacts, text messages, Bluetooth MAC ID, and unit info is also automatically processed if available.

Another tool for forensically analysing TomToms is TomTology. This will retrieve all journey details from both live and unallocated space. It will tell you which is the home, favourites and recent destinations and will also tell you the last journey that was plotted and where the TomTom last had a GPS fix. It will also extract phone numbers if the device has been paired with a phone and will find deleted phone numbers, useful for potentially tracing a previous owner.

Garmin

Garmin units connect to a PC in the same way as TomTom, via a USB cable. The unit will mount as a Mass Storage Unit, similar to a USB Memory Stick. After drivers for the unit have loaded, it is possible to navigate the Garmin unit's file system. Many of the files inside can easily be opened in a text or Hex editor.

Raw trip data including waypoints, date & time stamps, latitude & longitude coordinates and elevations can be extracted from the Current.gpx file located in the \Garmin\GPX\ folder. It can be viewed by opening the file with a text editor such as Notepad++. All recent trips are stored in this file.

Data can also be easily viewed via Google Earth's import feature. If available, Google Earth will import waypoints, tracks and routes from the unit. A slider bar in the program will show saved routes by date and time. When a specific waypoint is selected, a window will open that shows Lat/Long Coordinates, Altitude, Speed, Heading and Date/Time (Zulu).

With this data, raw or when viewed in Google Earth, entire trips can easily be reproduced giving exact time and locations for the GPS unit. It is unknown how many trips the unit is capable of storing or will store by default, but the Garmin Nuvi 260W test unit had 16 days of trip data stored to memory.

Magellan

Magellan GPS units also connect to a PC via a USB cable. The Magellan Roadmate 1400 unit tested runs a version of Windows CE. The operating system did not appear to be tailored to the specific unit and had options included in the menus that were not available (e.g. backup and restore functionality via a SD memory card slot that did not exist). Upon connecting the unit to a PC, it will mount as a Mass Storage Unit when and if it is recognized.

Files that may contain useful information when opened in a text editor:

  • /App/Unit.xml
    • This file contains information about the unit such as Model and Serial number.
  • /App/Media.cfg
    • This file is a short list of what types of files are stored in the file structure. (e.g. User data is stored in /USR)
  • /Sys/USBTRANS/Unit_ID.dat
    • This file is similar to Unit.xml. It contains more information such as Operating System Version and Firmware version.
  • /USR/TGUSERA.dat
    • This file may contain addresses, phone numbers and some user set points such as "Home". There is no recognizable structure to this data so finding useful data is difficult.
  • /USR/CITYHIST.dat
    • This file may contain cities entered into the unit by a user. Like TGUSERA.dat, there is little structure here. Unfortunately, only City and State may be listed here.

Magellan provides VantagePoint software to view map and waypoint data. In order to use this software, the Magellan unit must be powered on prior to connecting it to a PC. It is unknown how useful the VantagePoint software is in collecting data as the software would not recognize the Roadmate 1400 unit. VantagePoint also did not support the .dat or .cfg files stored on the unit. Google Earth also supports Magellan units via its import feature. Earth lists Explorist and Serial as available import options.


Digital Camera Images with GPS Information

Some recent digital cameras have built-in GPS receivers (or external modules you can connect to the camera). This makes it possible for the camera to record where exactly a photo was taken. This positioning information (latitude, longitude) can be stored in the Exif metadata header of JPEG files. Tools such as jhead can display the GPS information in the Exif headers.

Cell Phones with GPS

Some recent cell phones (e.g. a Motorola EZX phone such as the Motorola A780) have a built-in GPS receiver and navigation software. This software might record the paths travelled (and the date/time), which can be very useful in forensic investigations.

External Links