Difference between pages "Global Positioning System" and "Windows Memory Analysis"

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The '''Global Positioning System''' ('''GPS''') is a satellite navigation system.
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Analysis of [[physical memory]] from [[Windows]] systems can yield significant information about the target operating system. This field is still very new, but holds great promise.
  
== Forensics ==
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== Sample Memory Images ==
  
There are several places where GPS information can found. It can be very useful for forensic investigations in certain situations. GPS devices have expanded their capabilities and features as the technology has improved. Some of the most popular GPS devices today are made by [http://www.TomTom.com TomTom]. Some of the other GPS manufacturers include [http://www.garmin.com Garmin] and [http://www.magellangps.com Magellan].
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Getting started with memory analysis can be difficult without some known images to practice with.  
  
[[File:http://directhitinc.com/Images/Blackthorn.gif]]
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* The 2005 [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop]] [http://www.dfrws.org/2005/challenge/ Memory Analysis Challenge] published two Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 memory images with some [[malware]] installed.
Berla Corp. Has has released a BETA version of their new GPS forensics tool. It integrates acquisition, examination, and analysis into one small easy to use piece of software. [http://blackthorngps.com Get your free copy today]. Blackthorn currently supports both legacy and current Garmin, TomTom, and Magellan devices.
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=== TomTom ===
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* The [http://dftt.sourceforge.net/ Digital Forensics Tool Testing] project has published a few [http://dftt.sourceforge.net/test13/index.html Windows memory images].
  
TomTom provides a wide range of devices for biking, hiking, and car navigation. Depending on the capabilities of the model, several different types of digital evidence can be located on these devices. For instance, the [http://www.tomtom.com/products/product.php?ID=212&Category=0&Lid=1 TomTom 910] is basically a 20GB external harddrive. This model can be docked with a personal computer via a USB cable or through the use of Bluetooth technology. The listed features include the ability to store pictures, play MP3 music files, and connect to certain cell phones via bluetooth technology. Data commonly found on cell phones could easily be found on the TomTom910. Via the Bluetooth, the TomTom can transfer the entire contact list from your phone. The GPS unit also records your call logs and SMS messages. Research needs to be done to see if the TomTom stores actual trips conducted with the unit. This would include routes, times, and travel speeds.  
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* The [[CFReDS Project]] has created some [http://www.cfreds.nist.gov/mem/memory-images.rar downloadable memory images].
  
The TomTom unit connects to a computer via a USB base station. An examiner should be able to acquire the image of the harddrive through a USB write blocker. If not, it may be necessary to remove the hard drive from the unit.  
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== See Also ==
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* [[Memory analysis]]
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* [[Tools:Memory Imaging]]
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* [[Pagefile.sys]]
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa366778%28VS.85%29.aspx Memory Limits for Windows Releases], Microsoft MSDN.
  
TomTom models such the TomTom One Regional, TomTom Europe, Go 510, Go 710 and the Go 720 store map data, favourites, and recent destinations on a removable SD card.  This allows the forensic examiner to remove the SD card and make a backup with a write blocked SD card reader.  The most important file for the forensic examiner will be the CFG file that is held in the map data directory.  This holds a list of all recent destinations that the user has entered into the device.  The information is held in a hex file and stores the grid coordinates of these locations. 
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== History ==
  
Certain TomTom models (Go 510, Go 910, Go 920 etc.) allow the user to pair their mobile phone to the device so they can use the TomTom as a hands free kit. If the user has paired their phone to the TomTom device, then the TomTom will store the Bluetooth MAC ID for up to five phones, erasing the oldest if a sixth phone is paired. Depending on the phone model paired with the TomTom, there may also be Call lists, contacts and text messages (sent & received) stored in the device too.  
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During the 1990s, it became a [[best practice]] to capture a [[Tools:Memory_Imaging|memory image]] during [[Incident Response|incident response]]. At the time, the only way to analyze such memory images was using [[strings]]. Although this method could reveal interesting details about the memory image, there was no way to associate what data came from what program, let alone what user.  
  
Automated forensic analysis for TomTom GPS units is possible with software from Digivence - Forensic Analyser - TomTom Edition.   [http://www.digivence.com/SCREEN%20OPTIMISED%20REPORT%20-%20Demo%2011072007%20163219.htm Sample Report]. Whilst not shown in the example report, call history, contacts, text messages, Bluetooth MAC ID, and unit info is also automatically processed if available.
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In the summer 2005 the [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop]] published a ''Memory Analysis Challenge''. They distributed two memory images and asked researchers to answer a number of questions about a security incident. The challenge produced two seminal works. The first, by [[Chris Betz]], introduced a tool called [[memparser]]. The second, by [[George Garner]] and [[Robert-Jan Mora]] produced [[KnTList]].
  
Another tool for forensically analysing TomToms is [http://www.forensicnavigation.com TomTology]. This will retrieve all journey details from both live and unallocated space. It will tell you which is the home, favourites and recent destinations and will also tell you the last journey that was plotted and where the TomTom last had a GPS fix. It will also extract phone numbers if the device has been paired with a phone and will find deleted phone numbers, useful for potentially tracing a previous owner.
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At the [[Blackhat (conference)|Blackhat Federal]] conference in March 2007, [[AAron Walters]] and [[Nick Petroni]] released a suite called [[volatools]]. Although it only worked on [[Windows XP]] Service Pack 2 images, it was able to produce a number of useful data. [[volatools]] was updated and re-released as [[Volatility]] in August 2007, and is now maintained and distributed by [https://www.volatilesystems.com/ Volatile Systems].
  
=== Garmin ===
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==Bibliography==
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; 2008
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* [http://citp.princeton.edu/memory/ Lest We Remember: Cold Boot Attacks on Encryption Keys] ([http://citp.princeton.edu.nyud.net/pub/coldboot.pdf PDF]), Usenix Security 2008 (Best student paper)
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* [http://blogs.technet.com/markrussinovich/archive/2008/07/21/3092070.aspx Pushing the Limits of Windows: Physical Memory], Mark Russinovich, Technet Blogs, July 21, 2008
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p58-schuster.pdf The impact of Microsoft Windows pool allocation strategies on memory forensics], Andreas Schuster, DFRWS 2008 [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p58-schuster_pres.pdf [slides]]
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* [http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-federal-06/BH-Fed-06-Burdach/bh-fed-06-burdach-up.pdf Finding Digital Evidence In Physical Memory], Mariusz Burdach, Black Hat Federal, 2008
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p52-vanBaar.pdf Forensic Memory Analysis: Files mapped in memory], Ruud van Baar, DFRWS 2008, [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p52-vanBaar_pres.pdf [slides]]
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt.pdf Forensic Analysis of the Windows Registry in Memory], Brendan Dolan-Gavitt, DFRWS 2008 [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt_pres.pdf [slides]]
  
Garmin units connect to a PC in the same way as TomTom, via a USB cable. The unit will mount as a Mass Storage Unit, similar to a USB Memory Stick. After drivers for the unit have loaded, it is possible to navigate the Garmin unit's file system. Many of the files inside can easily be opened in a text or Hex editor.
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; 2007
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* [http://www.first.org/conference/2007/papers/rutkowska-joanna-slides.pdf Beyond The CPU: Defeating Hardware Based RAM Acquisition (part I: AMD case)], Joanna Rutkowska COSEINC Advanced Malware Labs
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2007/proceedings/p114-arasteh.pdf Forensic Memory Analysis: From Stack and Code to Execution History], Ali Reza Arasteh and Mourad Debbabi, DFRWS 2007
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2007/proceedings/p126-schatz.pdf BodySnatcher: Towards Reliable Volatile Memory Acquisition by Software], Bradley Schatz, DFRWS 2007
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2007/proceedings/p62-dolan-gavitt.pdf The VAD Tree: A Process-Eye View of Physical Memory], Brendan F Dolan-Gavitt, DFRWS 2007
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* [http://www.friendsglobal.com/papers/FireWire%20Memory%20Dump%20of%20Windows%20XP.pdf FireWire Memory Dump of a Windows XP Computer: A Forensic Approach], Antonio Martin, 2007
  
Raw trip data including waypoints, date & time stamps, latitude & longitude coordinates and elevations can be extracted from the Current.gpx file located in the \Garmin\GPX\ folder. It can be viewed by opening the file with a text editor such as [http://notepad-plus.sourceforge.net/ Notepad++]. All recent trips are stored in this file.
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; 2006
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2006/proceedings/2-Schuster.pdf Searching for Processes and Threads in Microsoft Windows Memory Dumps], Andreas Schuster, Deutsche Telekom AG, Germany, DFRWS 2006
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* Using every part of the buffalo in Windows memory an, Jesse D. Kornblum, DFRWS 2006
  
Data can also be easily viewed via [http://earth.google.com/ Google Earth]'s import feature. If available, Google Earth will import waypoints, tracks and routes from the unit. A slider bar in the program will show saved routes by date and time. When a specific waypoint is selected, a window will open that shows Lat/Long Coordinates, Altitude, Speed, Heading and Date/Time (Zulu).
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[[Category:Bibliographies]]
 
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With this data, raw or when viewed in Google Earth, entire trips can easily be reproduced giving exact time and locations for the GPS unit. It is unknown how many trips the unit is capable of storing or will store by default, but the [https://buy.garmin.com/shop/shop.do?pID=37418#nuvi260w Garmin Nuvi 260W] test unit had 16 days of trip data stored to memory.
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=== Magellan ===
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Magellan GPS units also connect to a PC via a USB cable. The [http://www.magellangps.com/products/product.asp?segID=354&prodID=2053 Magellan Roadmate 1400] unit tested runs a version of Windows CE. The operating system did not appear to be tailored to the specific unit and had options included in the menus that were not available (e.g. backup and restore functionality via a SD memory card slot that did not exist). Upon connecting the unit to a PC, it will mount as a Mass Storage Unit when and if it is recognized. 
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Files that may contain useful information when opened in a text editor:
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* /App/Unit.xml
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** This file contains information about the unit such as Model and Serial number.
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* /App/Media.cfg
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** This file is a short list of what types of files are stored in the file structure. (e.g. User data is stored in /USR)
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* /Sys/USBTRANS/Unit_ID.dat
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** This file is similar to Unit.xml. It contains more information such as Operating System Version and Firmware version.
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* /USR/TGUSERA.dat
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** This file may contain addresses, phone numbers and some user set points such as "Home". There is no recognizable structure to this data so finding useful data is difficult.
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* /USR/CITYHIST.dat
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** This file may contain cities entered into the unit by a user. Like TGUSERA.dat, there is little structure here. Unfortunately, only City and State may be listed here.
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Magellan provides [http://www.magellangps.com/products/map.asp?PRODID=1903 VantagePoint] software to view map and waypoint data. In order to use this software, the Magellan unit must be powered on prior to connecting it to a PC. It is unknown how useful the VantagePoint software is in collecting data as the software would not recognize the Roadmate 1400 unit. VantagePoint also did not support the .dat or .cfg files stored on the unit. [http://earth.google.com/ Google Earth] also supports Magellan units via its import feature. Earth lists Explorist and Serial as available import options.
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=== Digital Camera Images with GPS Information ===
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Some recent digital cameras have built-in GPS receivers (or external modules you can connect to the camera). This makes it possible for the camera to record where exactly a photo was taken. This positioning information (latitude, longitude) can be stored in the [[Exif]] [[metadata]] header of [[JPEG]] files. Tools such as [[jhead]] can display the GPS information in the [[Exif]] headers.
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=== Cell Phones with GPS ===
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Some recent cell phones (e.g. a [http://wiki.openezx.org Motorola EZX phone] such as the Motorola A780) have a built-in GPS receiver and navigation software. This software might record the paths travelled (and the date/time), which can be very useful in forensic investigations.
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== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
 
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; Jesse Kornblum Memory Analysis discussion on Cyberspeak
* [http://www.gpsforensics.org GPSForensics.org - A communitiy dedicated to GPS device forensics]
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: http://cyberspeak.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id=98104
 
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; Memory Analysis Bibliography
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System Wikipedia: GPS]
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: http://www.4tphi.net/fatkit/#links
 
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* [http://www.digivence.com Digivence: TomTom Forensic Analyser]
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* [http://www.paraben-forensics.com/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=25&products_id=405 Paraben's Device Seizure]
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* [http://www.forensicnavigation.com TomTology by Forensic Navigation]
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* [http://www.blackthorngps.com Blackthorn | GPS Forensics]
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Revision as of 01:58, 4 December 2009

Analysis of physical memory from Windows systems can yield significant information about the target operating system. This field is still very new, but holds great promise.

Sample Memory Images

Getting started with memory analysis can be difficult without some known images to practice with.

See Also

History

During the 1990s, it became a best practice to capture a memory image during incident response. At the time, the only way to analyze such memory images was using strings. Although this method could reveal interesting details about the memory image, there was no way to associate what data came from what program, let alone what user.

In the summer 2005 the Digital Forensic Research Workshop published a Memory Analysis Challenge. They distributed two memory images and asked researchers to answer a number of questions about a security incident. The challenge produced two seminal works. The first, by Chris Betz, introduced a tool called memparser. The second, by George Garner and Robert-Jan Mora produced KnTList.

At the Blackhat Federal conference in March 2007, AAron Walters and Nick Petroni released a suite called volatools. Although it only worked on Windows XP Service Pack 2 images, it was able to produce a number of useful data. volatools was updated and re-released as Volatility in August 2007, and is now maintained and distributed by Volatile Systems.

Bibliography

2008
2007
2006

External Links

Jesse Kornblum Memory Analysis discussion on Cyberspeak
http://cyberspeak.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id=98104
Memory Analysis Bibliography
http://www.4tphi.net/fatkit/#links