Difference between pages "Carver 2.0 Planning Page" and "Windows"

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This page is for planning Carver 2.0.
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{{Expand}}
  
Please, do not delete text (ideas) here. Use something like this:
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'''Windows''' is a widely-spread [[operating system]] from [[Microsoft]].
  
<pre>
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There are 2 main branches of Windows:
<s>bad idea</s>
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* the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
:: good idea
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* the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista
</pre>
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This will look like:
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== Features ==
 +
* Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa363785(v=vs.85).aspx]
  
<s>bad idea</s>
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=== Introduced in Windows NT ===
:: good idea
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* [[NTFS]]
  
= License =
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=== Introduced in Windows 2000 ===  
  
BSD-3.
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=== Introduced in Windows XP ===
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] library based validators could require other licenses
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* [[Prefetch]]
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* System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME
  
= OS =
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==== SP2 ====
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* Windows Firewall
  
Linux/FreeBSD/MacOS
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=== Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server) ===
: Shouldn't this just match what the underlying afflib & sleuthkit cover? [[User:RB|RB]]
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* Volume Shadow Copies
:: Yes, but you need to test and validate on each. Question: Do we want to support windows? [[User:Simsong|Simsong]] 21:09, 30 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I think we would do wise to design with windows support from the start this will improve the platform independence from the start
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:::: Agreed; I would even settle at first for being able to run against Cygwin.  Note that I don't even own or use a copy of Windows, but the vast majority of forensic investigators do. [[User:RB|RB]] 14:01, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] Leaning heavily on the autotools might be the way to go. I do however feel that support requirements for windows would not be essential. Being able to run from a virtual machine with the main storage mounted over cifs should however be tested and if possible tuned extensively.
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] You'll need more than autotools to do native Windows support i.e. file access, UTF-16 support, wrap some basic system functions or have them available otherwise
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= Name tooling =
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=== Introduced in Windows Vista ===
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* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker]]
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* [[Windows Desktop Search | Search]] integrated in operating system
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* [[SuperFetch]]
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* [[NTFS|Transactional NTFS (TxF)]]
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* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)|Transactional Registry (TxR)]]
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* [[Windows Shadow Volumes|Shadow Volumes]]; the volume-based storage of the Volume Shadow Copy data
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* $Recycle.Bin
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* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
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* [[User Account Control (UAC)]]
  
* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] A name for the tooling I propose coldcut
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=== Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server) ===
:: How about 'butcher'?  ;)  [[User:RB|RB]] 14:20, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] cleaver ( scalpel on steroids ;-) )
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* I would like to propose Gouge or Chisel :-) [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]]
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= Requirements =
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=== Introduced in Windows 7 ===
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* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker To Go]]
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* [[Jump Lists]]
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* [[Sticky Notes]]
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Could we do a MoSCoW evaluation of these.
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=== Introduced in Windows 8 ===
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* [[Windows Shadow Volumes | File History]]
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* [[Windows Storage Spaces | Storage Spaces]]
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* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]; server edition will likely be available in Windows Server 2012
  
* AFF and EWF file images supported from scratch. ([[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would like to have raw/split raw and device access as well)
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== Forensics ==
:: If we base our image i/o on afflib, we get all three with one interface. [[User:RB|RB]] Instead of letting the tools use afflib, better to write an afflib module for carvfs, and update the libewf module. The tool could than be oblivious of the file format. [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]]
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] this layer should support multi threaded decompression of compressed image types, this speeds up IO
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] volume/partition aware layer (what about carving unpartioned space)
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* File system aware layer. This could be or make use of tsk-cp.
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** By default, files are not carved. (clarify: only identified? [[User:RB|RB]]; I guess that it operates like [[Selective file dumper]] [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 07:00, 29 October 2008 (UTC)). Alternatively, the tool could use libcarvpath and output carvpaths or create a directory with symlinks to carvpaths that point into a carvfs mountpoint [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]].
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* Plug-in architecture for identification/validation.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] support for multiple types of validators
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*** dedicated validator
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*** validator based on file library (i.e. we could specify/implement a file structure API for these)
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*** configuration based validator (Can handle config files,like Revit07, to enter different file formats used by the carver.)
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* Ship with validators for:
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I think we should distinguish between file format validators and content validators
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** JPEG
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** PNG
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** GIF
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** MSOLE
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** ZIP
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** TAR (gz/bz2)
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] For a production carver we need at least the following formats
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=== Partition layout ===
** Grapical Images
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Default partition layout, first partition starts:
*** JPEG (the 3 different types with JFIF/EXIF support)
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* at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
*** PNG
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* at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7
*** GIF
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*** BMP
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*** TIFF
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** Office documents
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*** OLE2 (Word/Excell content support)
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*** PDF
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*** Open Office/Office 2007 (ZIP+XML)
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:: Extension validation? AFAIK, MS Office 2007 [[DOCX]] format uses plain ZIP (or not?), and carved files will (or not?) have .zip extension instead of DOCX. Is there any way to fix this (may be using the file list in zip)? [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 20:25, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Addition: Office 2007 also has a binary file format which is also a ZIP-ed data
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** Archive files
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=== Filesystems ===
*** ZIP
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* [[FAT]], [[FAT|exFAT]]
*** 7z
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* [[NTFS]]
*** gzip
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* [[Resilient File System (ReFS) | ReFS]]
*** bzip2
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*** tar
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*** RAR
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** E-mail files
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*** PFF (PST/OST)
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*** MBOX (text based format, base64 content support)
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** Audio/Video files
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*** MPEG
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*** MP2/MP3
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*** AVI
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*** ASF/WMV
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*** QuickTime
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*** MKV
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** Printer spool files
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*** EMF (if I remember correctly)
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** Internet history files
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*** index.dat
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*** firefox (sqllite 3)
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** Other files
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*** thumbs.db
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*** pagefile?
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* Simple fragment recovery carving using gap carving.
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=== Recycle Bin ===
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] have hook in for more advanced fragment recovery?
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* Recovering of individual ZIP sections and JPEG icons that are not sector aligned.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would propose a generic fragment detection and recovery
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* Autonomous operation (some mode of operation should be completely non-interactive, requiring no human intervention to complete [[User:RB|RB]])
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] as much as possible, but allow to be overwritten by user
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* Tested on 500GB-sized images. Should be able to carve a 500GB image in roughly 50% longer than it takes to read the image.
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** Perhaps allocate a percentage budget per-validator (i.e. each validator adds N% to the carving time) [[User:RB|RB]]
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] have multiple carving phases for precision/speed trade off?
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* Parallelizable
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] tunable for different architectures
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* Configuration:
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** Capability to parse some existing carvers' configuration files, either on-the-fly or as a one-way converter.
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** Disengage internal configuration structure from configuration files, create parsers that present the expected structure
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] The validator should deal with the file structure the carving algorithm should not know anything about the file structure (as in revit07 design)
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**  Either extend Scalpel/Foremost syntaxes for extended features or use a tertiary syntax ([[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would prefer a derivative of the revit07 configuration syntax which already has encountered some problems of dealing with defining file structure in a configuration file)
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* Can output audit.txt file.
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Can output database with offset analysis values i.e. for visualization tooling
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Can output debug log for debugging the algorithm/validation
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* Easy integration into ascription software.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I'm no native speaker what do you mean with "ascription software"?
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:: I think this was another non-native requesting easy scriptability. [[User:RB|RB]] 14:20, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] that makes sense ;-)
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] When the tool output files the filenames should contain the offset in the input data (in hexadecimal?)
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:: [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I really like the fact carved files are named after the physical or logical sector in which the file is found (photorec)
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] This naming schema might cause duplicate name problem for extracting embedded files and extracting files from non sector aligned file systems.
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Should the tool allow to export embedded files?
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Should the tool allow to export fragments separately?
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* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I personally use photorec often for carving files in the whole volume (not only unallocated clusters), so I can store information about all potential interesting files in MySQL
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] interesting, Bas Kloet and me have been discussing to use information about allocated files in the recovery process, i.e. recovered fragments could be part of allocated files. Do we want to be able to extract them? Or could we rebuild the file from the fragments and the allocated files.
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* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] It would also be nice if the files can be hashed immediately (MD5) so looking for them in other tools (for example Encase) is a snap
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= Ideas =
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==== RECYCLER ====
* Use as much TSK if possible. Don't carry your own FS implementation the way photorec does.
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Used by Windows 2000, XP.
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] using TSK as much as possible would not allow to add your own file system support (i.e. mobile phones, memory structures, cap files) I would propose wrapping TSK and using it as much as possible but allow to integrate own FS implementations.
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Uses INFO2 file.
* Extracting/carving data from [[Thumbs.db]]? I've used [[foremost]] for it with some success. [[Vinetto]] has some critical bugs :( [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 19:18, 28 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] this poses an interesting addition to the carver do we want to support (let's call it) 'recursive in file carving' (for now) this is different from embedded files because there is a file system structure in the file and not just another file structure
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[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] :
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See: [http://www.cybersecurityinstitute.biz/downloads/INFO2.pdf]
* Use libcarvpath whenever possible and by default to avoid high storage requirements.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] For easy deployment I would not opt for making an integral part of the tool solely dependant on a single external library or the library must be integrated in the package
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::[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] Integrating libraries (libtsk,libaff.libewf,libcarvpath etc) is bad practice, autotools are your friend IMO.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I'm not talking about integrating (shared) libraries. I'm talking about that an integral part of a tool should be part of it's package. Why can't the tool package contain shared or static libraries for local use? A far worse thing to do is to have a large set of dependencies and making the tool difficult to install for most users. The tool package should contain the most necessary code. afflib/libewf support could be detected by the autotools a neat separation of functionality.
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* Dont stop with filesystem detection after the first match. Often if a partition is reused with a new FS and is not all that full yet, much of the old FS can still be valid. I have seen this with ext2/fat. The fact that you have identified a valid FS on a partition doesn't mean there isn't an(almost) valid second FS that would yield additional files. Identifying doubly allocated space might in some cases also be relevant.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] What your saying is that dealing with file system fragments should be part of the carving algorithm
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* Allow use where filesystem based carving is done by other tool, and the tool is used as second stage on (sets of) unallocated block (pseudo) files and/or non FS partition (pseudo) files.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would not opt for this. The tool would be dependent on other tools and their data format, which makes the tool difficult to maintain. I would opt to integrate the functionality of having multiple recovery phases (stages) and allow the tooling to run the phases after one and other or separately.
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::[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] More generically, I feel a way should exist to communicate the 'left overs' a previous (non open, for example LE-only) tool left.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I guess if the tool is designed to handle multiple phases it should store its data somewhere. So it should be possible to convert results of such non open tooling to the format required. However I would opt to design the recovery functionality of these non-open tools into open tools. And not to limit ourselves making translators due to the design of these non-open tools.
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* Ability to be used as a library instead of a tool. Ability to access metadata true library, and thus the ability to set metadata from the carving modules. This would be extremely usefull for integrating the project into a framework like ocfa.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I guess most of the code could be integrated into libraries, but I would not opt integrating tool functionality into a library
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* A wild idea that I hope at least one person will have a liking for: It might be very interesting to look at the possibilities of using a multi process style of module support and combine it with a least authority design. On platforms that support AppArmor (or similar) and uid based firewall rules, this could make for the first true POLA (principle of least authority) based forensic tool ever. POLA based forensics tools should make for a strong integrity guard against many anti forensics. Alternatively we could look at integrating a capability secure language (E?) for implementation of at least validation modules. I don't expect this idea to make it, but mentioning it I hope might spark off less strong alternatives that at least partially address the integrity + anti-forensics problem. If we can in some way introduce POLA to a wider forensics public, other tools might also pick up on it what would be great.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Could you give an example of how you see this in action?
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* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I think it would be very handy to have a CSV, TSV, XML or other delimited output (log)file with information about carved files. This output file can then be stored in a database or Excel sheet (report function)
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== Format syntax specification ==
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==== $RECYCLE.BIN ====
* Carving data structures. For example, extract all TCP headers from image by defining TCP header structure and some fields (e.g. source port > 1024, dest port = 80). This will extract all data matching the pattern and write a file with other fields. Another example is carving INFO2 structures and URL activity records from index.dat [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 20:51, 28 October 2008 (UTC)
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Used by Windows Vista.
** This has the opportunity to be extended to the concept of "point at blob FOO and interpret it as BAR"
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Uses $I and $R files.
.FUF added:
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The main idea is to allow users to define structures, for example (in pascal-like form):
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<pre>
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See: [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf]
Field1: Byte = 123;
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SomeTextLength: DWORD;
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SomeText: string[SomeTextLength];
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Field4: Char = 'r';
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...
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</pre>
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This will produce something like this:
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=== Registry ===
<pre>
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Field1 = 123
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SomeTextLength = 5
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SomeText = 'abcd1'
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Field4 = 'r'
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</pre>
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(In text or raw forms.)
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The [[Windows Registry]] is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic [[investigator]]s.
  
Opinions?
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=== Thumbs.db Files ===
  
Opinion: Simple pattern identification like that may not suffice, I think Simson's original intent was not only to identify but to allow for validation routines (plugins, as the original wording was). As such, the format syntax would need to implement a large chunk of some programming language in order to be sufficiently flexible. [[User:RB|RB]]
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[[Thumbs.db]] files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the [[investigator]].
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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See also: [[Vista thumbcache]].
In my option your example is too limited. Making the revit configuration I learned you'll need a near programming language to specify some file formats.
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A simple descriptive language is too limiting. I would also go for 2 bytes with endianess instead of using terminology like WORD and small integer, it's much more clear. The configuration also needs to deal with aspects like cardinality, required and optional structures.
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:: This is simply data structures carving, see ideas above. Somebody (I cannot track so many changes per day) separated the original text. There is no need to count and join different structures. [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 19:53, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] This was probably me is the text back in it's original form?
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:::: I started it by moving your Revit07 comment to the validator/plugin section in [http://www.forensicswiki.org/index.php?title=Carver_2.0_Planning_Page&diff=prev&oldid=7583 this edit], since I was still at that point thinking operational configuration for that section, not parser configurations. [[User:RB|RB]]
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I renamed the title to format syntax, clarity is important ;-)
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Please take a look at the revit07 configuration. It's not there yet but goes a far way. Some things currently missing:
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=== Browser Cache ===
* bitwise alignment
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* handling encapsulated streams (MPEG/capture files)
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* handling content based formats (MBOX)
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=Caving algorithm =
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=== Browser History ===
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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* should we allow for multiple carving phases (runs/stages)?
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:: I opt yes (separation of concern)
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* should we allow for multiple carving algorithms?
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:: I opt yes, this allows testing of different approaches
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* Should the algorithm try to do as much in 1 run over the input data? To reduce IO?
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:: I opt that the tool should allow for multiple and single run over the input data to minimize the IO or the CPU as bottleneck
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* Interaction between algorithm and validators
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** does the algorithm passes data blocks to the validators?
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** does a validator need to maintain a state?
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** does a validator need to revert a state?
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** How do we deal with embedded files and content validation? Do the validators call another validator?
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* do we use the assumption that a data block can be used by a single file (with the exception of embedded/encapsulated files)?
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* Revit07 allows for multiple concurrent result files states to deal with fragmentation. One has the attribute of being active (the preferred) and the other passive. Do we want/need something similar? The algorithm adds block of input data (offsets) to these result files states.
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** if so what info would these result files states require (type, list of input data blocks)
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* how do we deal with file system remainders?
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** Can we abstract them and compare them against available file system information?
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* Do we carve file systems in files?
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:: I opt that at least the validator uses this information
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==Caving scenarios ==
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The [[Web Browser History]] files can contain significant information. The default [[Web browser|web browser]] that comes with Windows is [[Internet Explorer|Microsoft Internet Explorer]] but other common browsers on Windows are [[Apple Safari]], [[Google Chrome]], [[Mozilla Firefox]] and [[Opera]].
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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* normal file (file structure, loose text based structure (more a content structure?))
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* fragmented file (the file entirely exist)
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* a file fragment (the file does not entirely exist)
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* intertwined file
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* encapsulated file (MPEG/network capture)
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* embedded file (JPEG thumbnail)
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* obfuscation ('encrypted' PFF) this also entails encryption and/or compression
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* file system in file
+
  
=File System Awareness =
+
=== Search ===
==Background: Why be File System Aware?==
+
See [[Windows Desktop Search]]
Advantages of being FS aware:
+
* You can pick up sector allocation sizes
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] do you mean file system block sizes?
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* Some file systems may store things off sector boundaries. (ReiserFS with tail packing)
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* Increasingly file systems have compression (NTFS compression)
+
* Carve just the sectors that are not in allocated files.
+
  
==Tasks that would be required==
+
=== Setup log files (setupapi.log) ===
 +
Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521].
  
==Discussion==
+
=== Sleep/Hibernation ===
:: As noted above, TSK should be utilized as much as possible, particularly the filesystem-aware portion.  If we want to identify filesystems outside of its supported set, it would be more worth our time to work on implementing them there than in the carver itself.  [[User:RB|RB]]
+
  
:::: I guess this tool operates like [[Selective file dumper]] and can recover files in both ways (or not?). Recovering files by using carving can recover files in situations where sleuthkit does nothing (e.g. file on NTFS was deleted using ntfs-3g, or filesystem was destroyed or just unknown). And we should build the list of filesystems supported by carver, not by TSK. [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 07:08, 29 October 2008 (UTC)
+
After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.
  
:: This tool is still in the early planning stages (requirements discovery), hence few operational details (like precise modes of operation) have been fleshed out - those will and should come later.  The justification for strictly using TSK for the filesystem-sensitive approach is simple: TSK has good filesystem APIs, and it would be foolish to create yet another standalone, incompatible implementation of filesystem(foo) when time would be better spent improving those in TSK, aiding other methods of analysis as well.  This is the same reason individuals that have implemented several other carvers are participating: de-duplication of effort.  [[User:RB|RB]]
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=== Users ===
 +
Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:
 +
<pre>
 +
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList
 +
</pre>
  
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] A design problem might be that TSK currently is a single library operating on multiple layers (storage media IO, volume/partition analysis and file system analysis). I'm not aware how easily the parts can be used separately. But I estimate that for the carver we want to use these 3 layers differently than TSK does.
+
The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would like to have the carver (recovery tool) also do recovery using file allocation data or remainders of file allocation data.
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=== Windows Error Reporting (WER) ===
 +
 
 +
As of Vista, for User Access Control (UAC) elevated applications WER reports can be found in:
 +
<pre>
 +
C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
As of Vista, for non-UAC elevated applications (LUA) WER reports can be found in:
 +
<pre>
 +
C:\Users\%UserName%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\WER\
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Corresponding registry key:
 +
<pre>
 +
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Windows Error Reporting
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives ==
 +
Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see [[Advanced Format]].
 +
 
 +
== %SystemRoot% ==
 +
The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:
 +
<pre>
 +
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
 +
Value: SystemRoot
 +
</pre>
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]  
+
== See Also ==
I would go as far to ask you all to look beyond the carver as a tool and look from the perspective of the carver as part of the forensic investigation process. In my eyes certain information needed/acquired by the carver could be also very useful investigative information i.e. what part of a hard disk contains empty sectors.
+
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
  
=Supportive tooling=
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== External Links ==
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* validator (definitions) tester (detest in revit07)
+
* tool to make configuration based definitions
+
* post carving validation
+
* the carver needs to provide support for fuse mount of carved files (carvfs)
+
  
=Testing =
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windows Wikipedia: Microsoft Windows]
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521 Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Vista setup log file locations]
* automated testing
+
* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf The Forensic Analysis of the Microsoft Windows Vista Recycle Bin], by [[Mitchell Machor]], 2008
* test data
+
* [http://www.ericjhuber.com/2013/02/microsoft-file-system-tunneling.html?m=1 Microsoft Windows File System Tunneling], by [[Eric Huber]], February 24, 2013
 +
* [http://www.nsa.gov/ia/_files/app/Spotting_the_Adversary_with_Windows_Event_Log_Monitoring.pdf Spotting the Adversary with Windows Event Log Monitoring], by National Security Agency/Central Security Service, February 28, 2013
  
=Validator Construction=
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=== Under the hood ===
Options:
+
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366533(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Comparing Memory Allocation Methods], by [[Microsoft]]
* Write validators in C/C++
+
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ntdebugging/archive/2007/06/28/how-windows-starts-up-part-the-second.aspx How Windows Starts Up (Part the second)]
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] you mean dedicated validators
+
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa375142.aspx DLL/COM Redirection]
* Have a scripting language for writing them (python? Perl?) our own?
+
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms682586(v=vs.85).aspx Dynamic-Link Library Search Order]
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] use easy to embed programming languages i.e. Phyton or Lua
+
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2004/04/28/121871.aspx Image File Execution Options]
* Use existing programs (libjpeg?) as plug-in validators?
+
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] define a file structure api for this
+
  
=Existing Code that we have=
+
=== MSI ===
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/heaths/archive/2009/02/02/changes-to-package-caching-in-windows-installer-5-0.aspx?Redirected=true Changes to Package Caching in Windows Installer 5.0], by Heath Stewart, February 2, 2009
Please add any missing links
+
* [http://blog.didierstevens.com/2013/07/26/msi-the-case-of-the-invalid-signature/ MSI: The Case Of The Invalid Signature], by Didier Stevens, July 26, 2013
  
Documentation/Articles
+
=== Side-by-side (WinSxS) ===
* DFRWS2006/2007 carving challenge results
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-by-side_assembly Wikipedia: Side-by-side assembly]
* DFRWS2008 paper on carving
+
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa374224.aspx Assembly Searching Sequence]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2007/06/26/rt-manifest-resource-and-isolation-aware-enabled.aspx RT_MANIFEST resource, and ISOLATION_AWARE_ENABLED]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd408052(v=vs.85).aspx Isolated Applications and Side-by-side Assemblies]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/01/24/517221.aspx#531208 DotLocal (.local) Dll Redirection], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], January 24, 2006
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/04/14/576314.aspx Diagnosing SideBySide failures], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], April 14, 2006
 +
* [http://omnicognate.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/winsxs/ EVERYTHING YOU NEVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT WINSXS]
  
Carvers
+
=== Application Compatibility Database ===
* DFRWS2006/2007 carving challenge results
+
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd837644(v=ws.10).aspx Technet: Understanding Shims], by [[Microsoft]]
* photorec (http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/PhotoRec)
+
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb432182(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Application Compatibility Database], by [[Microsoft]]
* revit06 and revit07 (http://sourceforge.net/projects/revit/)
+
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=39 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 1], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 20, 2007
* s3/scarve
+
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=40 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 2], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 21, 2007
 +
* [http://fred.mandiant.com/Whitepaper_ShimCacheParser.pdf Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in Forensic Investigations], by [[Andrew Davis]], May 4, 2012
  
Possible file structure validator libraries
+
=== System Restore (Restore Points) ===
* divers existing file support libraries
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Restore Wikipedia: System Restore]
* libole2 (inhouse experimental code of OLE2 support)
+
* [http://www.stevebunting.org/udpd4n6/forensics/restorepoints.htm Restore Point Forensics], by [[Steve Bunting]]
* libpff (alpha release for PFF (PST/OST) file support) (http://sourceforge.net/projects/libpff/)
+
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2007/06/restore-point-analysis.html Restore Point Analysis], by [[Harlan Carvey]],  June 16, 2007
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2006/10/restore-point-forensics.html Restore Point Forensics], by [[Harlan Carvey]], October 20, 2006
 +
* [http://www.ediscovery.co.nz/wip/srp.html System Restore Point Log Decoding]
  
Input support
+
=== Tracking removable media ===
* AFF (http://www.afflib.org/)
+
* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2012/08/tracking-usb-first-insertion-in-event.html Tracking USB First insertion in Event logs], by Yogesh Khatri, August 18, 2012
* EWF (http://sourceforge.net/projects/libewf/)
+
* TSK device & raw & split raw (http://www.sleuthkit.org/)
+
  
Volume/Partition support
+
=== Crash dumps ===
* disktype (http://disktype.sourceforge.net/)
+
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/yongrhee/archive/2010/12/29/drwtsn32-on-windows-vista-windows-server-2008-windows-7-windows-server-2008-r2.aspx Technet: Drwtsn32 on Windows Vista/Windows Server 2008/Windows 7/Windows Server 2008 R2], by Yong Rhee, December 29, 2010
* testdisk (http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk)
+
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315263 MSDN: How to read the small memory dump file that is created by Windows if a crash occurs], by [[Microsoft]]
* TSK
+
  
File system support
+
=== ReadyBoost ===
* TSK
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ReadyBoost Wikipedia: ReadyBoost]
* photorec FS code
+
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2013/04/plugin-emdmgmt.html Plugin: EMDMgmt], by [[Harlan Carvey]], April 05, 2013
* implementations of FS in Linux/BSD
+
* [http://hackingexposedcomputerforensicsblog.blogspot.ch/2013/08/daily-blog-65-understanding-artifacts.html Understanding the artifacts EMDMgmt], by [[David Cowen]], August 27, 2013
  
Content support
+
=== Windows Firewall ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Firewall Wikipedia: Windows Firewall]
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc737845(v=ws.10).aspx#BKMK_log Windows Firewall Tools and Settings]
  
Zero storage support
+
=== Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64) ===
* libcarvpath
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WoW64 Wikipedia: WoW64]
* carvfs
+
  
POLA
+
=== Windows XP ===
* joe-e (java)
+
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q308549 Description of Windows XP System Information (Msinfo32.exe) Tool]
* Emily (ocaml)
+
* the E language
+
* AppArmor
+
* iptables/ipfw
+
* minorfs
+
* plash
+
  
=Implementation Timeline=
+
=== Windows 8 ===
# gather the available resources/ideas/wishes/needs etc. (I guess we're in this phase)
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Features_new_to_Windows_8 Features new to Windows 8], Wikipedia
# start discussing a high level design (in terms of algorithm, facilities, information needed)
+
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics Windows 8 Forensics - part 1]
## input formats facility
+
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-2 Windows 8 Forensics - part 2]
## partition/volume facility
+
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-3 Windows 8 Forensics - part 3]
## file system facility
+
* [http://propellerheadforensics.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/thomson_windows-8-forensic-guide2.pdf Windows 8 Forensic Guide], by [[Amanda Thomson|Amanda C. F. Thomson]], 2012
## file format facility
+
* [http://forensicfocus.com/Forums/viewtopic/t=9604/ Forensic Focus: Windows 8 Forensics - A First Look], [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCooEz9FQs&feature=youtu.be Presentation], [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/windows-8-forensics-josh-brunty.pdf Slides], by [[Josh Brunty]], August 2012
## content facility
+
* [http://dfstream.blogspot.ch/2013/03/windows-8-tracking-opened-photos.html Windows 8: Tracking Opened Photos], by [[Jason Hale]], March 8, 2013
## how to deal with fragment detection (do the validators allow for fragment detection?)
+
## how to deal with recombination of fragments
+
## do we want multiple carving phases in light of speed/precision tradeoffs
+
# start detailing parts of the design
+
## Discuss options for a grammar driven validator?
+
## Hard-coded plug-ins?
+
## Which existing code can we use?
+
# start building/assembling parts of the tooling for a prototype
+
## Implement simple file carving with validation.
+
## Implement gap carving
+
# Initial Release
+
# Implement the ''threaded carving'' that [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] is describing above.
+
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Shouldn't multi threaded carving (MTC) not be part of the 1st version?
+
[[Category:Operating systems]]
The MT approach makes for different design decisions
+

Revision as of 00:32, 3 September 2013

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Windows is a widely-spread operating system from Microsoft.

There are 2 main branches of Windows:

  • the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
  • the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista

Features

  • Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [1]

Introduced in Windows NT

Introduced in Windows 2000

Introduced in Windows XP

  • Prefetch
  • System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME

SP2

  • Windows Firewall

Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server)

  • Volume Shadow Copies

Introduced in Windows Vista

Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server)

Introduced in Windows 7

Introduced in Windows 8

Forensics

Partition layout

Default partition layout, first partition starts:

  • at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
  • at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7

Filesystems

Recycle Bin

RECYCLER

Used by Windows 2000, XP. Uses INFO2 file.

See: [2]

$RECYCLE.BIN

Used by Windows Vista. Uses $I and $R files.

See: [3]

Registry

The Windows Registry is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic investigators.

Thumbs.db Files

Thumbs.db files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the investigator.

See also: Vista thumbcache.

Browser Cache

Browser History

The Web Browser History files can contain significant information. The default web browser that comes with Windows is Microsoft Internet Explorer but other common browsers on Windows are Apple Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Search

See Windows Desktop Search

Setup log files (setupapi.log)

Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [4].

Sleep/Hibernation

After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.

Users

Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList

The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.

Windows Error Reporting (WER)

As of Vista, for User Access Control (UAC) elevated applications WER reports can be found in:

C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\

As of Vista, for non-UAC elevated applications (LUA) WER reports can be found in:

C:\Users\%UserName%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\WER\

Corresponding registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Windows Error Reporting

Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives

Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see Advanced Format.

%SystemRoot%

The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:

Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
Value: SystemRoot

See Also

External Links

Under the hood

MSI

Side-by-side (WinSxS)

Application Compatibility Database

System Restore (Restore Points)

Tracking removable media

Crash dumps

ReadyBoost

Windows Firewall

Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64)

Windows XP

Windows 8