Difference between pages "Windows Registry" and "Memory Imaging"

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==File Locations==
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{{expand}}
The Windows Registry is stored in multiple files.
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===Windows NT 4 ===
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Memory imaging is the process of making a bit-by-bit copy of memory. In principle it is similar to [[Disk Imaging]].
In Windows NT 4 (and later) the Registry is stored in the [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)]] format.
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Basically the following Registry hives are stored in the corresponding files:
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For physical memory it is common to have sections that are not accessible, e.g. because of memory-mapped I/O
* HKEY_USERS: \Documents and Setting\User Profile\NTUSER.DAT
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* HKEY_USERS\DEFAULT: C:\Windows\system32\config\default
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* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM: C:\Windows\system32\config\SAM
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* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY: C:\Windows\system32\config\SECURITY
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* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE: C:\Windows\system32\config\software
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* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM: C:\Windows\system32\config\system
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===Windows 98/ME===
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The resulting copy is stored in a [[:Category:Forensics_File_Formats|Forensics image format]].
* \Windows\user.dat
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Some of these formats have means to differentiate between an image of memory and e.g. that of a disk.
* \Windows\system.dat
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* \Windows\profiles\user profile\user.dat
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== Keys ==
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== Methods ==
  
=== Run/RunOnce ===
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=== Reading from the Physical Memory Object ===
System-wide:
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In [[Windows]] the Physical Memory Object, \\Device\PhysicalMemory, can be used the access physical memory. Since Windows 2003 SP1 user-mode access to this device-object is no longer permitted [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-en/library/cc787565(v=ws.10).aspx]. A kernel-mode process is still allowed to read from this device-object.
<pre>
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HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
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HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
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</pre>
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Per user:
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=== MmMapIoSpace ===
<pre>
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HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
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HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
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</pre>
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== Special cases ==
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The MmMapIoSpace function (or routine) is kernel-mode function to map a physical address range to non-paged system space [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/hardware/ff554618(v=vs.85).aspx].
The Windows Registry has several special case scenarios, mainly concerning key and value name, that are easy to fail to account for:
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* special characters key and value names
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* duplicate key and value names
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* the names when stored in extended ASCII (ANSI string) use a codepage that is dependent on the system settings
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=== special characters key and value names ===
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== Also see ==
Both key and values names are case insensitive. The \ character is used as the key separator. Note
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* [[Memory analysis]]
that the \ character can be used in value names. The / character is used in both key and value names.
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* [[:Tools:Memory_Imaging|Memory Imaging Tools]]
Some examples of which are:
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<pre>
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Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet002\Services\NetBT\Parameters\
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Value: Size/Small/Medium/Large
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</pre>
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<pre>
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== External Links ==
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\Terminal Server\VIDEO\disc\
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory-mapped_I/O Wikipedia article on Memory-mapped I/O]
Value: \Device\Video0
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2013/proceedings/DFRWS2013-13.pdf Anti-forensic resilient memory acquisition], by [[Johannes Stuettgen]], [[Michael Cohen]], August 2013
</pre>
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* [http://takahiroharuyama.github.io/blog/2014/01/07/64bit-big-size-ram-acquisition-problem/ 64bit Big Sized RAM Image Acquisition Problem], by [[Takahiro haruyama]], January 7, 2014
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* [http://brimorlabs.blogspot.com/2014/01/all-memory-dumping-tools-are-not-same.html All memory dumping tools are not the same], by [[Brian Moran]], January 14, 2014
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* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs/References/Papers/DFRWS2014EU.html Robust Linux memory acquisition with minimal target impact], [[Johannes Stüttgen]] [[Michael Cohen]], May 2014
  
<pre>
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[[Category:Memory Analysis]]
Key:
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HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet002\services\xmlprov\Parameters\SchemaGroups\User\http://www.microsoft.com/provisioning/eaptlsuserpropertiesv1\
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Value: SchemaFile
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</pre>
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=== codepaged ASCII strings ===
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Value with name "ëigenaardig" created on Windows XP codepage 1252.
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<pre>
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value key data:
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00000000: 76 6b 0b 00 46 00 00 00  20 98 1a 00 01 00 00 00  vk..F...  .......
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00000010: 01 00 69 6e eb 69 67 65  6e 61 61 72 64 69 67 00  ..in.ige naardig.
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00000020: 55 4e 49 43                                        UNIC
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value key signature                    : vk
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value key value name size              : 11
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value key data size                    : 0x00000046 (70)
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value key data offset                  : 0x001a9820
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value key data type                    : 1 (REG_SZ) String
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value key flags                        : 0x0001
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        Value name is an ASCII string
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value key unknown1                      : 0x6e69 (28265)
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value key value name                    : ëigenaardig
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value key value name hash              : 0xb78835ee
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value key padding:
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00000000: 00 55 4e 49 43                                    .UNIC
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</pre>
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As you can see the name is stored in extended ASCII (ANSI) using codepage 1252.
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==Tools==
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===Open Source===
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* [https://www.pinguin.lu/index.php Forensic Registry EDitor (fred)] - "Forensic Registry EDitor (fred) is a cross-platform M$ registry hive editor" by [[Daniel Gillen]]
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* [http://projects.sentinelchicken.org/data/doc/reglookup/regfi/ libregfi] - The regfi library is a read-only NT registry library which serves as the main engine behind the reglookup tool
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* [http://projects.sentinelchicken.org/reglookup/ reglookup] — "small command line utility for reading and querying Windows NT-based registries."
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* [http://sourceforge.net/projects/regviewer/ regviewer] — a tool for looking at the registry.
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* [[Regripper|RegRipper]] — "the fastest, easiest, and best tool for registry analysis in forensics examinations."
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* [http://search.cpan.org/~jmacfarla/Parse-Win32Registry-0.51/lib/Parse/Win32Registry.pm Parse::Win32Registry] Perl module.
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* [http://www.williballenthin.com/registry/index.html python-registry] Python module.
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* [http://code.google.com/p/registrydecoder/ Registry Decoder] offline analysis component, by [[Andrew Case]]
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* [http://code.google.com/p/registrydecoder/ RegDecoderLive] live hive acquisition component, by [[Andrew Case]]
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* [[libregf]] - Library and tools to access the Windows NT Registry File (REGF) format
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* [[Registryasxml]] - Tool to import/export registry sections as XML
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* [http://samba.org/~jelmer/kregedit/ kregedit] - a KDE utility for viewing and editing registry files.
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* [http://www.bindview.com/Services/RAZOR/Utilities/Unix_Linux/ntreg_readme.cfm ntreg] a file system driver for linux, which understands the NT registry file format.
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===Freeware===
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* [http://www.tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=3 Yet Another Registry Utility (yaru)] Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X. If run in admin mode, allows viewing of registry hives on live system.
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* [http://www.tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=14 Windows ShellBag Parser] Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X.
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* [http://tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=19 ''cafae''] - Computer Account Forensic Artifact Extractor.  Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X to parse ntuser.dat hives.
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===Commercial===
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* [http://www.abexo.com/free-registry-cleaner.htm Abexo Free Regisry Cleaner]
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* [http://www.auslogics.com/registry-defrag Auslogics Registry Defrag]
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* [http://lastbit.com/arv/ Alien Registry Viewer]
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* [http://www.larshederer.homepage.t-online.de/erunt/index.htm NT Registry Optimizer]
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* [http://www.registry-clean.net/free-registry-defrag.htm iExpert Software-Free Registry Defrag]
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* [http://arsenalrecon.com/apps Registry Recon]
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* [http://paullee.ru/regundel Registry Undelete (russian)]
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* [http://mitec.cz/wrr.html Windows Registry Recovery]
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* [http://registrytool.com/ Registry Tool]
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==Bibliography==
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2009/proceedings/p69-zhu.pdf Using ShellBag Information to Reconstruct User Activities], by Yuandong Zhu*, Pavel Gladyshev, Joshua James, DFRWS 2009
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* [http://www.sentinelchicken.com/research/registry_format/ The Windows NT Registry File Format], by [[Timothy Morgan]], June 9, 2009
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* [http://amnesia.gtisc.gatech.edu/~moyix/suzibandit.ltd.uk/MSc/ The Internal Structure of the Windows Registry], by Peter Norris, February 2009
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p33-morgan.pdf Recovering Deleted Data From the Windows Registry] and [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p33-morgan_pres.pdf slides], by [[Timothy Morgan]], DFRWS 2008
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* [http://dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt.pdf Forensic Analysis of the Windows Registry in Memory] and [http://dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt_pres.pdf slides], by Brendan Dolan-Gavitt, DFRWS 2008
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* [http://www.sentinelchicken.com/data/JolantaThomassenDISSERTATION.pdf Forensic analysis of unallocated space in Windows Registry Hive files], by Jolanta Thomassen, March 11, 2008
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* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7CW4-4GX1J3B-1&_user=3326500&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000060280&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3326500&md5=ab887593e7be6d5257696707886978f1 The Windows Registry as a forensic resource], Digital Investigation, Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 201--205.
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=== Undated ===
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* [http://eptuners.com/forensics/A%20Windows%20Registry%20Quick%20Reference.pdf A Windows Registry Quick-Reference], by Derrick Farmer, Burlington, VT.
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* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-windows-registry.pdf Forensic Analysis of the Windows Registry], by Lih Wern Wong , School of Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University
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==See Also==
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Registry Wikipedia: Windows Registry]
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* [http://windowsir.blogspot.com/search/label/Registry Windows Incident Response Articles on Registry]
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* [http://www.answers.com/topic/win-registry Windows Registry Information]
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* [http://moyix.blogspot.com/search/label/registry Push the Red Button] — Articles on Registry
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* [http://www.beginningtoseethelight.org/ntsecurity/ Security Accounts Manager]
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=== Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64) ===
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa384253(v=vs.85).aspx Registry Keys Affected by WOW64], by [[Microsoft]]
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa384232(VS.85).aspx Registry Redirector], by [[Microsoft]]
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[[Category:Windows Analysis]]
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[[Category:Bibliographies]]
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Revision as of 01:57, 27 June 2014

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Memory imaging is the process of making a bit-by-bit copy of memory. In principle it is similar to Disk Imaging.

For physical memory it is common to have sections that are not accessible, e.g. because of memory-mapped I/O

The resulting copy is stored in a Forensics image format. Some of these formats have means to differentiate between an image of memory and e.g. that of a disk.

Methods

Reading from the Physical Memory Object

In Windows the Physical Memory Object, \\Device\PhysicalMemory, can be used the access physical memory. Since Windows 2003 SP1 user-mode access to this device-object is no longer permitted [1]. A kernel-mode process is still allowed to read from this device-object.

MmMapIoSpace

The MmMapIoSpace function (or routine) is kernel-mode function to map a physical address range to non-paged system space [2].

Also see

External Links