Hashing

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Hashing is a method for reducing large inputs to a smaller fixed size output. When doing forensics, typically cryptographic hashing algorithms like MD5 and SHA-1 are used. These functions have a few properties useful to forensics. Other types of hashing, such as Context Triggered Piecewise Hashing can also be used.

Tools

There are literally hundreds of hashing programs out there, but a few related to forensics are:

Hash Databases

National Software Reference Library
The largest hash database

Hash Lookup Services

There are several online services that you