Difference between pages "SIM Cards" and "Global Positioning System"

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[[Image:Simpic.jpg|thumb|A typical SIM card.]]
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The '''Global Positioning System''' ('''GPS''') is a satellite navigation system.
  
== SIM-Subscriber Identity Module ==
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== Forensics ==
  
The UICC (Universal Integrated Circuit Card) is a smart card which contains account information and memory that is used to enable GSM cellular telephones. One of the applications running on the smart card is the SIM, or Subscriber Identity Module. In common parlance the term "UICC" is not used an the phrase "SIM" is used to describe the smart card itself.
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There are several places where GPS information can found. It can be very useful for forensic investigations in certain situations. GPS devices have expanded their capabilites and features as the technology has improved. Some of the most popular GPS devices today are made by [http://www.TomTom.com TomTom]. Some of the other GPS manufacturors include [http://www.garmin.com Garmin] and [http://www.magellangps.com Magellan].
  
Because the SIM is just one of several applications running on the smart card, a given card could, in theory, contain multiple SIMs. This would allow multiple phone numbers or accounts to be accessed by a single UICC. This is seldom seen, though there is at least one "12-in-1" SIM card being advertised at present.
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[http://www.cortextech.com/tomtom910.jpg Picture of TomTom910]
  
Early versions of the UICC used full-size smart cards (85mm x 54mm x 0.76mm). The card has since been shrunk to the standard size of 25mm x 15mm x 0.76mm.
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TomTom provides a wide range of devices for biking, hiking, and car navigation. Depending on the capabilities of the model, several different types of digital evidence can be located on these devices. For instance, the [http://www.tomtom.com/products/product.php?ID=212&Category=0&Lid=1 TomTom 910] is basically a 20GB external harddrive. This model can be docked with a personal computer via a USB cable or through the use of Bluetooth technology. The listed features include the ability to store pictures, play MP3 music files, and connect to certain cell phones via bluetooth technology. Data commonly found on cell phones could easily be found on the TomTom910. Via the Bluetooth, the TomTom can transfer the entire contact list from your phone. The GPS unit also records your call logs and SMS messages. Research needs to be done to see if the TomTom stores actual trips conducted with the unit. This would include routes, times, and travel speeds.  
  
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The TomTom unit connects to a computer via a USB base station. An examiner should be able to acquire the image of the harddrive through a USB write blocker. If not, it may be necessary to remove the hard drive from the unit.
  
Although UICC cards traditionally held just 16 to 64KB of memory, the recent trend has been to produce SIM cards with larger storage capacities, ranging from 512MB up to [http://www.m-systems.com/site/en-US/ M-Systems'] 1GB SIM Card slated for release in late 2006.
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TomTom models such the TomTom One Regional, TomTom Europe, Go 510, Go 710 and the Go 720 store map data, favourites, and recent destinations on a removable SD card.  This allows the forensic examiner to remove the SD card and make a backup with a write blocked SD card reader. The most important file for the forensic examiner will be the CFG file that is held in the map data directory.  This holds a list of all recent destinations that the user has entered into the device.  The information is held in a hex file and stores the represents grid coordinates of these locations.
  
== ICCID ==
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Certain TomTom models (Go 510, Go 910, Go 920 etc.) allow the user to pair their mobile phone to the device so they can use the TomTom as a hands free kit.  If the user has paired their phone to the TomTom device, then the TomTom will store the Bluetooth MAC ID for up to five phones, erasing the oldest if a sixth phone is paired.  Depending on the phone model paired with the TomTom, there may also be Call lists, contacts and text messages (sent & received) stored in the device too.
  
Each SIM is internationally identified by its ICC-ID (Integrated Circuit Card ID). ICC-IDs are stored in the SIM card and can also be engraved or printed on the SIM card’s body during a process called personalization. The number is up to 18 digits long with an addition of a single “check digit” that is used for error detection.  This single digit allows us to detect an input error of digits, mistyped digits or a permutation of two successive digitsThis digit was calculated using the Luhn algorithm.
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Automated forensic analysis for TomTom GPS units is possible with software from Digivence - Forensic Analyser - TomTom Edition.  [http://www.digivence.com/SCREEN%20OPTIMISED%20REPORT%20-%20Demo%2011072007%20163219.htm Sample Report].  Whilst not shown in the example report, call history, contacts, text messages, Bluetooth MAC ID, and unit info is also automatically processed if available.
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=== Digital Camera Images with GPS Information ===
  
A typical SIM (19 digits) example 89 91 10 1200 00 320451 0, provide several details as follows:
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Some recent digital cameras have built-in GPS receivers (or external modules you can connect to the camera). This makes it possible for the camera to record where extactly a photo was taken. This positioning information (latitude, longitude) can be stored in the [[Exif]] [[metadata]] header of [[JPEG]] files. Tools such as [[jhead]] can display the GPS information in the [[Exif]] headers.
  
*The first two digits (89 in the example) refers to the Telecom Id.
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=== Cell Phones with GPS ===
*The next two digits (91 in the example) refers to the country code (91-India).
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*The next two digits (10 in the example) refers to the network code.
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*The next four digits (1200 in the example) refers to the month and year of manufacturing.
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*The next two digits (00 in the example) refers to the switch configuration code.
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*The next six digits (320451 in the example) refers to the SIM number.
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*The last digit which is separated from the rest is called the “check digit”.
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Some recent cell phones (e.g. a [http://wiki.openezx.org Motorola EZX phone] such as the Motorola A780) have a built-in GPS receiver and navigation software. This software might record the paths travelled (and the date/time), which can be very useful in forensic investigations.
  
These digits can be further grouped for additional information:
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== External Links ==
*The first 3 to 4 digits represents the Mobile Country Code (MCC)(Some cards only have 3 digits to represent the Telecom ID and country code.)
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*The next 2 digits represent the Mobile Network Code (MNC, AKA the mobile operator)
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*The next 12 digits is the number represent the Home Location Register
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*And mentioned above, the “check digit”
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== Location Area Identity==
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System Wikipedia: GPS]
  
Operation networks for cell phone devices are divided into area locations called Location Areas.  Each location is identified with its own unique identification number creating the LAI (Location Area Identity).  A phone will store this number on its SIM card so it knows what location it’s in and to be able to receive service.  If a phone were to change to a new Location Area, it stores the new LAI in the SIM card, adding to a list of all the previous LAIs it has been in.  This way if a phone is powered down, when it boots back up, it can search its list of LAIs it has stored until it finds the one its in and can start to receive service again.  This is much quicker than scanning the whole list of frequencies that a telephone can have access on. 
 
This is a real plus for forensic investigators because when a SIM card is reviewed, they can get a general idea of where the SIM card has been geographically.  In turn this tells them where the phone has been and can then relate back to where the individual who owns the phone has been. 
 
  
== SIM Security ==
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* [http://www.digivence.com Digivence: TomTom Forensic Analyser]
 
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Information inside the UICC can be protected with a PIN and a PUK.
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A PIN locks the SIM card until correct code is entered. Each phone network sets the PIN of SIM to a standard default number (this can be changed via handset). If PIN protection is enabled, the PIN will need to be entered each time phone is switched on. If the PIN is entered incorrectly 3 times in a row, the SIM card will be blocked requiring a PUK from the network/service provider.
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A PUK is needed if the PIN is entered incorrectly 3 times and the SIM is blocked (phone is unable to make and receive calls/texts). The PUK can be received from the network provider, or possibly the GSM cell phone manual. '''Caution:''' if PUK is entered 10 times incorrectly, the SIM card is permanently disabled and must be exchanged.
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== SIM Forensics ==
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The data that a SIM card can provide the forensics examiner can be invaluable to an investigation. Acquiring a SIM card allows a large amount of information that the suspect has dealt with over the phone to be investigated.
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In general, some of this data can help an investigator determine:
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* Phone numbers of calls made/received
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* Contacts
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* [[SMS]] details (time/date, recipient, etc.)
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* SMS text (the message itself)
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There are many software solutions that can help the examiner to acquire the information from the SIM card. Several products include 3GForensics SIMIS [http://www.3gforensics.co.uk/products.htm], Inside Out's [http://simcon.no/ SIMCon], or SIM Content Controller, and Paraben Forensics' [http://www.paraben-forensics.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=289 SIM Card Seizure].
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The SIM file system is hierarchical in nature consisting of 3 parts:
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*Master File (MF) - root of the file system that contains
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DF’s and EF’s
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*Dedicated File (DF)
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*Elementary Files (EF)
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=== Data Acquisition ===
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These software titles can extract such technical data from the SIM card as:
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* '''International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)''': A unique identifying number that identifies the phone/subscription to the [[GSM]] network
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* '''Mobile Country Code (MCC)''': A three-digit code that represents the SIM card's country of origin
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* '''Mobile Network Code (MNC)''': A two-digit code that represents the SIM card's home network
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* '''Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN)''': A unique ten-digit identifying number that identifies the specific subscriber to the GSM network
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* '''Mobile Subscriber International ISDN Number (MSISDN)''': A number that identifies the phone number used by the headset
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* '''Abbreviated Dialing Numbers (ADN)''': Telephone numbers stored in sims memory
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* '''Last Dialed Numbers (LDN)'''
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* '''Short Message Service (SMS)''': Text Messages
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* '''Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) selector'''
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* '''Forbidden PLMNs'''
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* '''Location Information (LOCI)'''
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* '''General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) location'''
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* '''Integrated Circuit Card Identifier (ICCID)'''
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* '''Service Provider Name (SPN)'''
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* '''Phase Identification'''
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* '''SIM Service Table (SST)'''
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* '''Language Preference (LP)'''
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* '''Card Holder Verification (CHV1) and (CHV2)'''
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* '''Broadcast Control Channels (BCCH)'''
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* '''Ciphering Key (Kc)'''
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* '''Ciphering Key Sequence Number'''
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* '''Emergency Call Code'''
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* '''Fixed Dialing Numbers (FDN)'''
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* '''Forbidden PLMNs'''
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* '''Local Area Identitity (LAI)'''
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* '''Own Dialing Number'''
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* '''Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)'''
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* '''Routing Area Identifier (RIA) netowrk code'''
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* '''Service Dialing Numbers (SDNs)'''
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* '''Service Provider Name'''
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* '''Depersonalizatoin Keys'''
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This information can be used to contact the service provider to obtain even more information than is stored on the SIM card.
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== USIM-Universal Subscriber Identity Module ==
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A Universal Subscriber Identity Module is an application for UMTS mobile telephony running on a UICC smart card which is inserted in a 3G mobile phone. There is a common misconception to call the UICC card itself a USIM, but the USIM is merely a logical entity on the physical card.
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It stores user subscriber information, authentication information and provides storage space for text messages and phone book contacts. The phone book on a UICC has been greatly enhanced.
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For authentication purposes, the USIM stores a long-term preshared secret key K, which is shared with the Authentication Center (AuC) in the network. The USIM also verifies a sequence number that must be within a range using a window mechanism to avoid replay attacks, and is in charge of generating the session keys CK and IK to be used in the confidentiality and integrity algorithms of the KASUMI block cipher in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).
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In Mobile Financial Services, USIM seems to be a mandetory Security Element for user authentication, authorization and stored credentials. With the integration of NFC Handset and USIM, users will be able to make proximity payments where the NFS handset enables contactless payment and USIM enables independent security element.
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This is the evolution of the SIM for 3G devices. It can allow for multiple phone numbers to be assigned to the USIM, thus giving more than one phone number to a device.
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== Service Provider Data ==
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Some additional information the service provider might store:
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* A customer database
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* [[Call Detail Record]]s (CDR)
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* [[Home Location Register]] (HLR)
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== Service Providers that use SIM Cards in the United States ==
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* T-Mobile
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* Cingular/AT&T
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== Sim Card Text Encoding ==
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Originally the middle-European [[GSM]] network used only a 7-bit code derived from the basic [[ASCII]] code. However as GSM spread worldwide it was concluded that more characters, such as the major characters of all living languages, should be able to be represented on GSM phones. Thus, there was a movement towards a 16-bit code known as [[UCS-2]] which is now the standard in GSM text encoding. This change in encoding can make it more difficult to accurately obtain data form [[SIM cards]] of the older generation which use the 7-bit encoding. This encoding is used to compress the hexadecimal size of certain elements of the SIMs data, particularly in [[SMS]] and [[Abbreviated Dialing Numbers]].
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== Authentication Key (Ki) ==
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The authentication key or Ki is a 128 bit key used in the authentication and cipher key generation process. In a nutshell, the key is used to authenticate the SIM on the GSM network. Each SIM contains this key which is assigned to it by the operator during the personalization process. The SIM card is specially designed so the Ki can't be compromised using a smart-card interface. However, flaws in the GSM cryptography have been discovered that do allow the extraction of the Ki from the SIM card, and essentially SIM card duplication.
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== See also ==
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* [[SIM Card Forensics]]
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== References ==
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* [http://www.simcon.no/ SIMCon]
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* [http://www.sectorforensics.co.uk/sim-examination.shtml Sector Forensics]
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* [http://www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/ijde/articles.cfm?action=issue&id=5  IJDE Spring 2003 Volume 2, Issue 1 ]: [http://www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/A0658858-BFF6-C537-7CF86A78D6DE746D.pdf Forensics and the GSM Mobile Telephone System] (PDF)
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* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subscriber_Identity_Module
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Revision as of 08:53, 17 October 2007

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation system.

Forensics

There are several places where GPS information can found. It can be very useful for forensic investigations in certain situations. GPS devices have expanded their capabilites and features as the technology has improved. Some of the most popular GPS devices today are made by TomTom. Some of the other GPS manufacturors include Garmin and Magellan.

Picture of TomTom910

TomTom provides a wide range of devices for biking, hiking, and car navigation. Depending on the capabilities of the model, several different types of digital evidence can be located on these devices. For instance, the TomTom 910 is basically a 20GB external harddrive. This model can be docked with a personal computer via a USB cable or through the use of Bluetooth technology. The listed features include the ability to store pictures, play MP3 music files, and connect to certain cell phones via bluetooth technology. Data commonly found on cell phones could easily be found on the TomTom910. Via the Bluetooth, the TomTom can transfer the entire contact list from your phone. The GPS unit also records your call logs and SMS messages. Research needs to be done to see if the TomTom stores actual trips conducted with the unit. This would include routes, times, and travel speeds.

The TomTom unit connects to a computer via a USB base station. An examiner should be able to acquire the image of the harddrive through a USB write blocker. If not, it may be necessary to remove the hard drive from the unit.

TomTom models such the TomTom One Regional, TomTom Europe, Go 510, Go 710 and the Go 720 store map data, favourites, and recent destinations on a removable SD card. This allows the forensic examiner to remove the SD card and make a backup with a write blocked SD card reader. The most important file for the forensic examiner will be the CFG file that is held in the map data directory. This holds a list of all recent destinations that the user has entered into the device. The information is held in a hex file and stores the represents grid coordinates of these locations.

Certain TomTom models (Go 510, Go 910, Go 920 etc.) allow the user to pair their mobile phone to the device so they can use the TomTom as a hands free kit. If the user has paired their phone to the TomTom device, then the TomTom will store the Bluetooth MAC ID for up to five phones, erasing the oldest if a sixth phone is paired. Depending on the phone model paired with the TomTom, there may also be Call lists, contacts and text messages (sent & received) stored in the device too.

Automated forensic analysis for TomTom GPS units is possible with software from Digivence - Forensic Analyser - TomTom Edition. Sample Report. Whilst not shown in the example report, call history, contacts, text messages, Bluetooth MAC ID, and unit info is also automatically processed if available.

Digital Camera Images with GPS Information

Some recent digital cameras have built-in GPS receivers (or external modules you can connect to the camera). This makes it possible for the camera to record where extactly a photo was taken. This positioning information (latitude, longitude) can be stored in the Exif metadata header of JPEG files. Tools such as jhead can display the GPS information in the Exif headers.

Cell Phones with GPS

Some recent cell phones (e.g. a Motorola EZX phone such as the Motorola A780) have a built-in GPS receiver and navigation software. This software might record the paths travelled (and the date/time), which can be very useful in forensic investigations.

External Links