Difference between pages "Prefetch" and "Organizations"

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= International Organisations =
Windows Prefetch files, introduced in [[Windows|Windows XP]], are designed to speed up the application startup process. Prefetch files contain the name of the executable, a Unicode list of DLLs used by that executable, a count of how many times the executable has been run, and a timestamp indicating the last time the program was run. Although Prefetch is present in Windows 2003, by default it is only enabled for boot prefetching. The feature is also found in [[Windows|Windows Vista]], where it has been augmented with [[SuperFetch]], [[ReadyBoot]], and [[ReadyBoost]]. For SSD drives Prefetch is disabled by default [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/e7/archive/2009/05/05/support-and-q-a-for-solid-state-drives-and.aspx].
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Up to 128 Prefetch files are stored in the <tt>%SystemRoot%\Prefetch</tt> directory [http://blogs.msdn.com/ryanmy/archive/2005/05/25/421882.aspx]. Each file in that directory should contain the name of the application, a dash, and then an eight character hash of the location from which that application was run, and a <tt>.pf</tt> extension. The filenames should be all uppercase except for the extension. The format of hashes is not known. A sample filename for [[md5deep]] would look like: <tt>MD5DEEP.EXE-4F89AB0C.pf</tt>. If an application is run from two different locations on the drive (i.e. the user runs <tt>C:\md5deep.exe</tt> and then <tt>C:\Apps\Hashing\md5deep.exe</tt>), there will be two different prefetch files in the Prefetch folder.
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* [http://www.interpol.int/Public/TechnologyCrime/default.asp INTERPOL IT Crime Unit]
  
== File format ==
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= US Government =
Each Prefetch file has a 4-byte signature (at offset 4) "SCCA" (or in hexadecimal notation 0x53 0x43 0x43 0x41). The signature is assumed to be preceded by a 4-byte format version indicator:
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* 17 (0x00000011) for [[Windows XP]] and [[Windows 2003]]
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* 23 (0x00000017) for [[Windows Vista]], [[Windows 2008]], [[Windows 7]] and [[Windows 2012]] (note Windows 2012 has not been confirmed)
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* 26 (0x0000001a) for [[Windows 8|Windows 8.1]] (note this could be Windows 8 as well but has not been confirmed)
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For more information about the file format see: [[Windows Prefetch File Format]]
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* [http://cybercrime.gov/ Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section of the Department of Justice]
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* [http://www.ctin.org Computer Technology Investigators Network]
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* [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/ National Institute of Justice]
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* [http://ncfs.ucf.edu/home.html National Center for Forensic Science]
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* [http://www.cftt.nist.gov/ National Institute of Standards and Technology, Computer Forensic Tool Testing]
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* [http://www.dc3.mil/dc3/dc3.htm Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center]
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* Department of [[Defense Cybercrime Center]]
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* [http://www.rcfl.gov/ FBI Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program]
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* [http://www.osi.andrews.af.mil/ Air Force Office of Special Investigations]
  
== Metadata ==
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= Trade Organizations =
The Prefetch file contains various metadata.
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* The executable's name, up to 29 characters.
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* The run count, or number of times the application has been run.
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* Volume related information, like volume path and volume serial number.
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* The size of the Prefetch file (sometimes referred to as end of file (EOF)).
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* The files and directories that were used doing the application's start-up.
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=== Timestamps ===
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* [http://www.naidonline.org/ National Association for Information Destruction]
The Prefetch file contains 2 types of timestamps
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* The time when the application was last ran (executed). Version 26 of the Prefetch format maintains 7 previous last run times.
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* The volume creation time (part of the volume information) of the volume the Prefetch file was created on.
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The file system creation time of the Prefetch file indicates the first time the application was executed. Both the file system modification time of the Prefetch file and the embedded last run time indicate the last time the application was executed.
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= Professional Organizations =
  
== Prefetch hash ==
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* [http://www.sans.org/ The SANS Institute]
There are multiple known hashing functions to be used for prefetch file filename hashing, namely:
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* [http://www.htcia.org/ High Technology Crime Investigation Association]
* SCCA XP hash function; used on Windows XP and Windows 2003
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* [http://www.cops.org/ International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists]
* SCCA Vista hash function; used on Windows Vista
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* [http://www.rcfg.org/ Regional Computer Forensic Group]
* SCCA 2008 hash function; used on Windows 2008, Windows 7, (possibly: Windows 2012) and Windows 8 (including 8.1)
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* [http://www.htcn.org/ High Tech Crime Network]
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* [http://www.aafs.org/ American Academy of Forensic Science] The AAFS Board of Directors has approved the creation of the Digital and Multi-media section, which will be voted upon during the AAFS business meeting (during the annual meeting) in Feb 2008.
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* [http://www.infoperitos.com/ Infoperitos - Computer Expert Witness Group from the Spanish Computer Engineers Association]
  
=== SCCA XP hash function ===
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[[Category:Organizations]]
A Python implementation of the SCCA XP hash function:
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<pre>
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def ssca_xp_hash_function(filename):
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    hash_value = 0
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    for character in filename:
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        hash_value = ((hash_value * 37) + ord(character)) % 0x100000000
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        hash_value = (hash_value * 314159269) % 0x100000000
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        if hash_value > 0x80000000:
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            hash_value = 0x100000000 - hash_value
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    return (abs(hash_value) % 1000000007) % 0x100000000
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</pre>
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=== SCCA Vista hash function ===
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A Python implementation of the SCCA Vista hash function:
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<pre>
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def ssca_vista_hash_function(filename):
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    hash_value = 314159
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    for character in filename:
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        hash_value = ((hash_value * 37) + ord(character)) % 0x100000000
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    return hash_value
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</pre>
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=== SCCA 2008 hash function ===
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A Python implementation of the SCCA 2008 hash function:
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<pre>
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def ssca_2008_hash_function(filename):
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    hash_value = 314159
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    filename_index = 0
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    filename_length = len(filename)
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    while filename_index + 8 < filename_length:
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        character_value = ord(filename[filename_index + 1]) * 37
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        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 2])
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        character_value *= 37
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        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 3])
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        character_value *= 37
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        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 4])
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        character_value *= 37
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        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 5])
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        character_value *= 37
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        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 6])
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        character_value *= 37
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        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index]) * 442596621
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        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 7])
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        hash_value = ((character_value - (hash_value * 803794207)) % 0x100000000)
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        filename_index += 8
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    while filename_index < filename_length:  
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      hash_value = (((37 * hash_value) + ord(filename[filename_index])) % 0x100000000)
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      filename_index += 1
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    return hash_value
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</pre>
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== Registry Keys ==
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<pre>
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Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\PrefetchParameters
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</pre>
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The EnablePrefetcher Registry value can be used to disable prefetch.
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== See Also ==
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* [[Windows Prefetch File Format]]
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* [[SuperFetch]]
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* [[Prefetch XML]]
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* [[Windows]]
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== External Links ==
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/01/12/XPKernel/default.aspx More detail from Microsoft]
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefetcher Wikipedia Prefetcher]
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms940847(v=winembedded.5).aspx MSDN: Disabling Prefetch]
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* [http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/driver/kernel/XP_kernel.mspx Kernel Enhancements for Windows XP], by [[Microsoft]], January 13, 2003 (Microsoft's description of Prefetch when Windows XP was introduced)
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* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ryanmy/archive/2005/05/25/421882.aspx Misinformation and the The Prefetch Flag], MSDN Blogs, May 25, 2005
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* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2005/07/prefetch-file-metadata.html Prefetch file metadata], by [[Harlan Carvey]], July 13, 2005
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* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2006/04/prefetch-files-revisited.html Prefetch files, revisited], by [[Harlan Carvey]], April 13, 2006
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* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/e7/archive/2009/05/05/support-and-q-a-for-solid-state-drives-and.aspx Support and Q&A for Solid-State Drives], by Steven Sinofsky, May 5, 2009
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* [http://computer-forensics.sans.org/blog/2009/08/05/de-mystifying-defrag-identifying-when-defrag-has-been-used-for-anti-forensics-part-1-windows-xp/ De-mystifying Defrag: Identifying When Defrag Has Been Used for Anti-Forensics (Part 1 - Windows XP)], by [[Chad Tilbury]], August 5, 2009
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* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2010/04/the-windows-prefetchfile.html Windows Prefetch File (old blog entry from 42 LLC)], by [[Yogesh Khatri]], April 14, 2010
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* [http://www.dfinews.com/articles/2010/12/decoding-prefetch-files-forensic-purposes-part-1 Decoding Prefetch Files for Forensic Purposes: Part 1], by [[Mark Wade]], December 8, 2010
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* [http://crucialsecurityblog.harris.com/2011/04/11/prefetch-files-at-face-value/ Prefetch Files at Face Value], by [[Mark Wade]], April 11, 2011
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* [http://kitrap08.blogspot.hk/2011/07/windows-logical-prefetcher.html Windows Logical Prefetcher], TTS blog, July 30, 2011 (article is in Russian)
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* [http://labit.in/pliki-prefetch-w-windows/ Prefetch i niedokładny licznik] by Paweł Hałdrzyński, August 20, 2011 (article in Polish; uncertain about the year of publication)
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* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2012/03/prefetch-analysis-revisited.html Prefetch Analysis, Revisited], by [[Harlan Carvey]], March 8, 2012
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* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2012/03/prefetch-analysis-revisitedagain.html Prefetch Analysis, Revisited...Again...], by [[Harlan Carvey]], March 15, 2012
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* [http://www.hexacorn.com/blog/2012/06/13/prefetch-hash-calculator-a-hash-lookup-table-xpvistaw7w2k3w2k8/ Prefetch Hash Calculator + a hash lookup table xp/vista/w7/w2k3/w2k8], Hexacorn blog, June 13, 2012
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* [http://www.hexacorn.com/blog/2012/10/29/prefetch-file-names-and-unc-paths/ Prefetch file names and UNC paths], Hexacorn blog, October 29, 2012
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* [http://journeyintoir.blogspot.ch/2012/12/ntosboot-prefetch-file.html NTOSBOOT Prefetch File], by [[Corey Harrell]], December 5, 2012
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* [http://www.invoke-ir.com/2013/09/whats-new-in-prefetch-for-windows-8.html What's New in the Prefetch for Windows 8??], by Jared Atkinson, September 21, 2013
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* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2013/10/windows-prefetch-pf-files.html?m=1 Windows Prefetch (.PF) files], by [[Yogesh Khatri]], October 21, 2013
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* [http://i.imgur.com/riuljsK.jpg Prefetch 101 -  a Windows 8 Prefetch file walkthrough], by Jared Atkinson, 2014
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== Tools ==
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=== Commercial ===
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=== Free - Non Open Source ===
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* [http://www.woanware.co.uk/forensics/prefetchforensics.html PrefetchForensics], PrefetchForensics is an application to extract information from Windows Prefetch files
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* [http://redwolfcomputerforensics.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=42&Itemid=55 Prefetch-Parser], Parse the prefetch files and display information
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* [http://www.mitec.cz/wfa.html Windows File Analyzer] - Parses Prefetch files, thumbnail databases, shortcuts, index.dat files, and the recycle bin
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* [http://www.tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=1 Windows Prefetch Parser (pf)], Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X
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=== Open Source ===
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* [https://code.google.com/p/prefetch-tool/ prefetch-tool], Script to extract information from windows prefetch folder
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Revision as of 05:14, 21 March 2014

International Organisations

US Government

Trade Organizations

Professional Organizations