Difference between pages "Rekall" and "Mac OS X"

From ForensicsWiki
(Difference between pages)
Jump to: navigation, search
(lmap)
 
 
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Infobox_Software |
+
{{Expand}}
  name = Rekall |
+
  maintainer = [[Michael Cohen]] |
+
  os = {{Cross-platform}} |
+
  genre = {{Memory analysis}}, {{Memory imaging}} |
+
  license = {{GPL}} |
+
  website = [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/ www.rekall-forensic.com] |
+
}}
+
  
Rekall is the stand-alone continuation of the [[Volatility]] Technology Preview (TP) version, aka the scudette branch.
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
  
One of Rekalls goals is to provide better integration with [[GRR]] by improved modularity of the framework and having memory acquisition capability [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/about.html].
+
== EFI boot ==
 +
* Configuration in nvram
 +
* EFI executables:
 +
<pre>
 +
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
 +
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
 +
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
 +
</pre>
  
== Memory acquisition drivers ==
+
== Disk image types ==
  
The drivers can be found under:
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
 +
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
 +
 
 +
== Burn Folder ==
 +
 
 +
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/linux
+
$NAME.fpbf
rekall/tools/osx
+
rekall/tools/windows
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Linux ===
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
==== lmap ====
+
In rekall RC11 the advanced Linux acquisition tool (LMAP) was added. lmap allows to inject the pmem functionality into existing kernel modules to bypass having to build a pmem kernel module for every different kernel version. See the corresponding DFRWS EU 2014 paper for more information about LMAP. LMAP is also known as the "pmem parasite".
+
 
+
==== pmem ====
+
To build the kernel module for the current kernel version, make sure you have a working build environment and the kernel headers installed. Change into this directory and run make:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
cd rekall/tools/linux/
+
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
make
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The acquisition driver is named pmem.ko.
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
  
To load the driver:
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo insmod pmem.ko
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To check if the driver is running:
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo lsmod
+
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The driver create a device file named:
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
 +
 
 +
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
 +
 
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/dev/pmem
+
import datetime
 +
 
 +
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To unload the driver:
+
== Launch Agents ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo rmmod pmem
+
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To read acquire the memory just read from the device file. e.g.
+
Per user:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
dd if=/dev/pmem of=image.raw
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
For more information see:
+
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/linux/README
+
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Mac OS X ===
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
  
For more information see:
+
== Startup Items ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/osx/OSXPMem/README
+
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Windows ===
+
== Crash Reporter ==
Since recent versions of Windows require a signed driver rekall comes with both pre-built (signed binary) and source versions of the driver.
+
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
  
Both the i386 and amd64 binary version of the driver can be found in the directory:
+
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/windows/winpmem/binaries
+
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
E.g.
+
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/winpmem/binaries/amd64/winpmem.sys
+
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
A standalone tool for imaging memory that uses an embedded copy of the pmem driver can be found as winpmem.exe in:
+
Per user:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/winpmem/executables/Release/
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To load the driver:
+
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe -l
+
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The device filename is (This can not be changed without recompiling):
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
\\.\pmem
+
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Note that running dd directly on this device file can crash the machine.
+
Lion and later
Use the winpmem.exe tool instead because it handles protected memory regions.
+
 
+
To read and acquire the physical memory and write it to image.raw:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe image.raw
+
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To unload the driver:
+
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe -u
+
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
For more information see:
+
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Last shutdown logs ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/windows/README
+
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== See Also ==
+
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
* [[Memory analysis]]
+
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
* [[Memory Imaging]]
+
 
* [[Volatility]]
+
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/ Project site]
+
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs.html Project documentation]
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
* [http://rekall-forensic.blogspot.com/ Rekall Memory Forensics blog]
+
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs/References/Papers/DFRWS2013.html Anti-forensic resilient memory acquisition]] by [[Johannes Stüttgena]], [[Michael Cohen]], August 2013
+
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs/References/Papers/DFRWS2014EU.html Robust Linux memory acquisition with minimal target impact], [[Johannes Stüttgena]], [[Michael Cohen]], May 2014
+
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== EFI ===
 +
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 03:50, 25 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

EFI boot

  • Configuration in nvram
  • EFI executables:
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Internet Plug-Ins

System-wide:

/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Last shutdown logs

/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

EFI

iCloud