Difference between pages "Rekall" and "Mac OS X"

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{{Infobox_Software |
+
{{Expand}}
  name = Rekall |
+
  maintainer = [[Michael Cohen]] |
+
  os = {{Cross-platform}} |
+
  genre = {{Memory analysis}}, {{Memory imaging}} |
+
  license = {{GPL}} |
+
  website = [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/ www.rekall-forensic.com] |
+
}}
+
  
Rekall is the stand-alone continuation of the [[Volatility]] Technology Preview (TP) version, aka the scudette branch.
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
  
One of Rekalls goals is to provide better integration with [[GRR]] by improved modularity of the framework and having memory acquisition capability [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/about.html].
+
== EFI boot ==
 +
The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).
  
== Memory acquisition drivers ==
+
The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/nvram.8.html]. Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [http://www.cnet.com/news/boot-argument-options-in-os-x/].
  
The drivers can be found under:
+
Mac OS X estends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver.
 +
 
 +
HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application.
 +
 
 +
Mac OS X EFI boot process supports both MZ-PE/COFF and EFI fat binary type [[Executable|executables]].
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/linux
+
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
rekall/tools/osx
+
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
rekall/tools/windows
+
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Linux ===
+
The behavior of boot.efi can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man5/com.apple.Boot.plist.5.html] which can be found in:
==== lmap ====
+
In rekall RC11 the advanced Linux acquisition tool (LMAP) was added. lmap allows to inject the pmem functionality into existing kernel modules to bypass having to build a pmem kernel module for every different kernel version. See the corresponding DFRWS EU 2014 paper for more information about LMAP.
+
 
+
==== pmem ====
+
To build the kernel module for the current kernel version, make sure you have a working build environment and the kernel headers installed. Change into this directory and run make:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
cd rekall/tools/linux/
+
/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/
make
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The acquisition driver is named pmem.ko.
+
== Disk image types ==
  
To load the driver:
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
 +
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
 +
 
 +
== Burn Folder ==
 +
 
 +
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo insmod pmem.ko
+
$NAME.fpbf
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To check if the driver is running:
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo lsmod
+
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The driver create a device file named:
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
 +
 
 +
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/dev/pmem
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To unload the driver:
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo rmmod pmem
+
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To read acquire the memory just read from the device file. e.g.
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
 +
 
 +
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
 +
 
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
dd if=/dev/pmem of=image.raw
+
import datetime
 +
 
 +
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
For more information see:
+
== Launch Agents ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/linux/README
+
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Mac OS X ===
+
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
  
For more information see:
+
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/osx/OSXPMem/README
+
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Windows ===
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
Since recent versions of Windows require a signed driver rekall comes with both pre-built (signed binary) and source versions of the driver.
+
  
Both the i386 and amd64 binary version of the driver can be found in the directory:
+
== Startup Items ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/windows/winpmem/binaries
+
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
E.g.
+
== Crash Reporter ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/winpmem/binaries/amd64/winpmem.sys
+
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
A standalone tool for imaging memory that uses an embedded copy of the pmem driver can be found as winpmem.exe in:
+
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/winpmem/executables/Release/
+
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To load the driver:
+
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe -l
+
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The device filename is (This can not be changed without recompiling):
+
Per user:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
\\.\pmem
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Note that running dd directly on this device file can crash the machine.
+
== Quarantine event database ==
Use the winpmem.exe tool instead because it handles protected memory regions.
+
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
  
To read and acquire the physical memory and write it to image.raw:
+
Snow Leopard and earlier
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe image.raw
+
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To unload the driver:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe -u
+
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
For more information see:
+
Lion and later
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
rekall/tools/windows/README
+
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== See Also ==
+
== sleepimage ==
* [[Memory analysis]]
+
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
* [[Memory Imaging]]
+
<pre>
* [[Volatility]]
+
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Last shutdown logs ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/ Project site]
+
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs.html Project documentation]
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
* [http://rekall-forensic.blogspot.com/ Rekall Memory Forensics blog]
+
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs/References/Papers/DFRWS2013.html Anti-forensic resilient memory acquisition]] by [[Johannes Stüttgena]], [[Michael Cohen]], August 2013
+
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs/References/Papers/DFRWS2014EU.html Robust Linux memory acquisition with minimal target impact], [[Johannes Stüttgena]], [[Michael Cohen]], May 2014
+
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== EFI ===
 +
* [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html The Intel Mac boot process], by the [[rEFIt|rEFIt project]]
 +
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 05:33, 25 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

EFI boot

The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).

The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [1]. Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [2].

Mac OS X estends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver.

HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application.

Mac OS X EFI boot process supports both MZ-PE/COFF and EFI fat binary type executables.

/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi

The behavior of boot.efi can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [3] which can be found in:

/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Internet Plug-Ins

System-wide:

/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Quarantine event database

See [4]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [5]

Last shutdown logs

/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [6] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [7].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

EFI

iCloud