Difference between pages "Disk Imaging" and "First Responder's Evidence Disk"

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{{Infobox_Software |
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  name = FRED |
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  maintainer = Jesse Kornblum |
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  os = {{Linux}} |
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  genre = {{Incident response}} |
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  license = {{commercial}} |
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  website = [http://darkparticlelabs.com/projects darkparticlelabs.com/projects] |
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}}
  
Disk imaging is the process of making a bit-by-bit copy of a disk. Imaging (in more general terms) can apply to anything that can be considered as a bit-stream, e.g. a physical or logical volumes, network streams, etc.
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The First Responder's Evidence Disk, or FRED, is a script based [[Incident Response|incident response]] tool. It was designed to capture volatile information from a computer system for later analysis without modifying anything on the victim. It consists of a batch file used to execute a set of known good tools that gather the state of a victim computer system. It was similar to the [[IRCR]] program and has been widely imitated by other tools. Many other incident response tools used names similar to FRED.
  
The most straight-forward disk imaging method is reading a disk from start to end and writing the data to a [[:Category:Forensics_File_Formats|Forensics image format]].
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== Usage ==
This can be a time consuming process especially for disks with a large capacity.
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== Hardware solutions ==
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The program was distributed as a compressed 1.44 MB floppy image. The examiner runs this image on a safe system and writes the FRED program out to a piece of removable media such as a floppy disk or USB device. The examiner then connects this device to the victim machine. When run, the FRED program writes information out to an audit file on the removable device. The examiner takes this audit file back to the safe system for later analysis. The audit file can also be sent to other investigators if desired.
  
== Software solutions ==
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== History ==
  
== Compressed storage ==
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FRED was developed by [[Jesse Kornblum]] for the [[Air Force Office of Special Investigations]] starting in the fall of 2000 and was first released in 2001. The tool was publicly unveiled the following year at the [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop|DFRWS Conference]]. Although the component parts of FRED were not released, mostly due to licensing restrictions, Kornblum did present a paper, ''[http://dfrws.org/2002/papers/Papers/Jesse_Kornblum.pdf Preservation of Fragile Digital Evidence by First Responders]'', that included the FRED script.
  
A common technique to reduce the size of an image file is to compress the data.
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A version of the FRED script was later incorporated into the [[Helix]] disk.  
On modern computers, with multiple cores, the compression can be done in parallel reducing the output without prolonging the imaging process.
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Since the write speed of the target disk can be a bottleneck in imaging process parallel compression can reduce the total time of the imaging process.
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[[Guymager]] was one of the first imaging tools to implement the concept of multi-process compression for the [[Encase image file format]]. This technique is now used by various imaging tools including [http://www.tableau.com/index.php?pageid=products&model=TSW-TIM Tableau Imager (TIM)]
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Other techniques like storing the data sparse or '''empty-block compression''' can reduce the total time of the imaging process and the resulting size of new non-encrypted (0-byte filled) disks.
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There was a proposal for a program to process the audit files into [[HTML]], but this never came to fruition.
  
== Error tolerance and recovery ==
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Since 2004 FRED has been maintained by the [[Air Force Computer Emergency Response Team]]. The current version of FRED (version 4) has been redesigned as a single executable, with remote collection capabilities, and uses Native API functions. The audit file uses PKI for encryption to protect the contents from tampering and disclosure. The publicly available version has the remote functionality as well as the PKI encryption capabilities turned off.
  
== Smart imaging ==
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== Trivia ==  
Smart imaging is a combination of techniques to make the imaging process more intelligent.
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* Deduplication
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* Selective imaging
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* Decryption while imaging
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=== Deduplication ===
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The desire for a recursive [[MD5]] program for FRED inspired the development of [[md5deep]].
Deduplication is the process of determining and storing data that occurs more than once on-disk, only once in the image.
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It is even possible to store the data once for a corpus of images using techniques like hash based imaging.
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=== Selective imaging ===
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== See Also ==
Selective imaging is a technique to only make a copy of certain information on a disk like the $MFT on an [[NTFS]] volume with the necessary contextual information.
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* [[IRCR]]
 
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* [[COFEE]]
[[EnCase]] Logical Evidence Format (LEF) is an example of a selective image.
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=== Decryption while imaging ===
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Encrypted data is worst-case scenario for compression. Because the encryption process should be deterministic a solution to reduce the size of an encrypted image is to store it non-encrypted and compressed and encrypt it on-the-fly if required. Although this should be rare since the non-encrypted data is what undergoes analysis.
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== Also see ==
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[[:Category:Forensics_File_Formats|Forensics File Formats]]
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== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [http://www.tableau.com/pdf/en/Tableau_Forensic_Disk_Perf.pdf Benchmarking Hard Disk Duplication Performance in Forensic Applications], by [[Robert Botchek]]
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* [http://darkparticlelabs.com/projects Project site]
 
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=== Hash based imaging ===
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2010/proceedings/2010-314.pdf Hash based disk imaging using AFF4], by [[Michael Cohen]], [[Bradley Schatz]]
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Revision as of 04:34, 18 January 2014

FRED
Maintainer: Jesse Kornblum
OS: Linux
Genre: Incident Response
License: Commercial
Website: darkparticlelabs.com/projects

The First Responder's Evidence Disk, or FRED, is a script based incident response tool. It was designed to capture volatile information from a computer system for later analysis without modifying anything on the victim. It consists of a batch file used to execute a set of known good tools that gather the state of a victim computer system. It was similar to the IRCR program and has been widely imitated by other tools. Many other incident response tools used names similar to FRED.

Usage

The program was distributed as a compressed 1.44 MB floppy image. The examiner runs this image on a safe system and writes the FRED program out to a piece of removable media such as a floppy disk or USB device. The examiner then connects this device to the victim machine. When run, the FRED program writes information out to an audit file on the removable device. The examiner takes this audit file back to the safe system for later analysis. The audit file can also be sent to other investigators if desired.

History

FRED was developed by Jesse Kornblum for the Air Force Office of Special Investigations starting in the fall of 2000 and was first released in 2001. The tool was publicly unveiled the following year at the DFRWS Conference. Although the component parts of FRED were not released, mostly due to licensing restrictions, Kornblum did present a paper, Preservation of Fragile Digital Evidence by First Responders, that included the FRED script.

A version of the FRED script was later incorporated into the Helix disk.

There was a proposal for a program to process the audit files into HTML, but this never came to fruition.

Since 2004 FRED has been maintained by the Air Force Computer Emergency Response Team. The current version of FRED (version 4) has been redesigned as a single executable, with remote collection capabilities, and uses Native API functions. The audit file uses PKI for encryption to protect the contents from tampering and disclosure. The publicly available version has the remote functionality as well as the PKI encryption capabilities turned off.

Trivia

The desire for a recursive MD5 program for FRED inspired the development of md5deep.

See Also

External Links