Difference between revisions of "Linux Memory Analysis"

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The output of a [[Tools:Memory_Imaging|memory acquisition tool]] is a memory image which contains the raw physical memory of a system.  A wide variety of tools can be used to search for strings or other patterns in a memory image, but to extract higher-level information about the state of the system a memory analysis tool is required.
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==Linux Memory Analysis Tools==
 
==Linux Memory Analysis Tools==
  
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Open Source Projects:
 
Open Source Projects:
* The [https://www.volatilesystems.com/default/volatility Volatility Framework] is a collection of tools, implemented in Python, for the extraction of digital artifacts from volatile memory (RAM) samples.  Support for Linux is experimental, but available from Subversion in the [http://code.google.com/p/volatility/source/browse/#svn%2Fbranches%2Flinux-support linux-support branch].  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
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* The [https://www.volatilesystems.com/default/volatility Volatility Framework] is a collection of tools, implemented in Python, for the extraction of digital artifacts from volatile memory (RAM) samples.  Support for Linux is experimental--see the [http://code.google.com/p/volatility/wiki/LinuxMemoryForensics LinuxMemoryForensics] page on the Volatility wiki.  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
 
* [http://hysteria.sk/~niekt0/foriana/ Foriana] is tool for extraction of information such as the process and modules lists from a RAM image using logical relations between OS structures.  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
 
* [http://hysteria.sk/~niekt0/foriana/ Foriana] is tool for extraction of information such as the process and modules lists from a RAM image using logical relations between OS structures.  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
 
* [http://code.google.com/p/draugr/ Draugr] is a Linux memory forensics tool written in Python.  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
 
* [http://code.google.com/p/draugr/ Draugr] is a Linux memory forensics tool written in Python.  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
 
* [http://code.google.com/p/volatilitux/ Volatilitux] is another Linux memory forensics tool written in Python.  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
 
* [http://code.google.com/p/volatilitux/ Volatilitux] is another Linux memory forensics tool written in Python.  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
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* The [http://people.redhat.com/anderson/ Red Hat Crash Utility] is an extensible Linux kernel core dump analysis program.  Although designed as a debugging tool, it also has been utilized for memory forensics.  See, for example, the [http://volatilesystems.blogspot.com/2008/07/linux-memory-analysis-one-of-major.html 2008 DFRWS challenge write-up by AAron Walters].  (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
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* Idetect (Linux) http://forensic.seccure.net/ is an older implementation of Linux memory analysis.
  
 
Commercial Products:
 
Commercial Products:
* [http://pikewerks.com/sl/ Second Look] from [http://www.pikewerks.com Pikewerks Corporation] can analyze live memory or stored snapshots (physical memory images).  It can be used to detect rootkits and other kernel-hooking malware, as well as obtain forensic information about the state of the system.  It has command-line and GUI interfaces, and reverse engineering capabilities including built-in disassembly and hexadecimal data views.  An online reference kernel repository provides baselines for verification of thousands of distribution stock kernels.  As of November 2010, it supports x86 and x86_64 targets running kernels 2.6.8 to 2.6.35.  (Availability/License: commercial)
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* [[Second Look: Linux Memory Forensics]] from [http://www.pikewerks.com Raytheon Pikewerks Corporation] can analyze live memory or stored snapshots (physical memory images).  It can be used to detect rootkits and other kernel-hooking malware, unauthorized applications and services, and stealthy user-level malware, as well as obtain forensic information about the state of the system.  It has command-line and GUI interfaces, and reverse engineering capabilities including built-in disassembly and hexadecimal data views.  An online reference kernel repository provides baselines for verification of thousands of distribution stock kernels, while an online pagehash database provides the baselines for verification of hundreds of thousands of Linux software packages.  As of April 2012, it supports x86 and x86_64 targets running any 2.6-series kernel and 3-series kernels up to 3.2.  (Availability/License: commercial)
  
 
==Linux Memory Analysis Challenges==
 
==Linux Memory Analysis Challenges==
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* The [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop]] [http://dfrws.org/2008/challenge/index.shtml 2008 Forensics Challenge] focused on the development of Linux memory analysis techniques and the fusion of evidence from memory, hard disk, and network.
 
* The [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop]] [http://dfrws.org/2008/challenge/index.shtml 2008 Forensics Challenge] focused on the development of Linux memory analysis techniques and the fusion of evidence from memory, hard disk, and network.
 
* [http://communaute.sstic.org/ChallengeSSTIC2010 Challenge SSTIC 2010] (French) dealt with analysis of physical memory from a mobile device running Android.
 
* [http://communaute.sstic.org/ChallengeSSTIC2010 Challenge SSTIC 2010] (French) dealt with analysis of physical memory from a mobile device running Android.
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* [http://www.honeynet.org/challenges/2011_7_compromised_server Challenge 7 of the Honeynet Project's Forensic Challenge 2011] included forensic analysis of a memory image from a potentially compromised Linux server.
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==Linux Memory Images==
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Aside from those in the challenges referenced above, sample Linux memory images can also be found on the Second Look web site at http://secondlookforensics.com/images.html.
  
 
==Linux Memory Analysis Bibliography==
 
==Linux Memory Analysis Bibliography==
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* [http://forensic.seccure.net/pdf/mburdach_digital_forensics_of_physical_memory.pdf Digital Forensics of the Physical Memory] M. Burdach, March 2005.
 
* [http://www.usenix.org/events/usenix05/tech/freenix/full_papers/movall/movall.pdf Linux Physical Memory Analysis], Paul Movall, Ward Nelson, Shaun Wetzstein; Usenix, 2005.
 
* [http://www.usenix.org/events/usenix05/tech/freenix/full_papers/movall/movall.pdf Linux Physical Memory Analysis], Paul Movall, Ward Nelson, Shaun Wetzstein; Usenix, 2005.
 
* [http://cisr.nps.edu/downloads/theses/06thesis_urrea.pdf An Analysis Of Linux RAM Forensics], J.M. Urrea, Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006.
 
* [http://cisr.nps.edu/downloads/theses/06thesis_urrea.pdf An Analysis Of Linux RAM Forensics], J.M. Urrea, Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006.
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* [http://volatilesystems.blogspot.com/2008/07/linux-memory-analysis-one-of-major.html Linux Memory Forensics for DFRWS Challenge 2008 using Volatility, Crash, and PyFlag], by AAron Walters on the Volatile Systems Blog.
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p65-case.pdf FACE: Automated digital evidence discovery and correlation], Andrew Case, Andrew Cristina, Lodovico Marziale, Golden G. Richard, Vassil Roussev, DFRWS 2008
 
* [http://esiea-recherche.eu/~desnos/papers/slidesdraugr.pdf Linux Live Memory Forensics], a presentation by Desnos Anthony describing the implementation of draugr, 2009.
 
* [http://esiea-recherche.eu/~desnos/papers/slidesdraugr.pdf Linux Live Memory Forensics], a presentation by Desnos Anthony describing the implementation of draugr, 2009.
 
* [http://is.cuni.cz/studium/dipl_st/index.php?doo=detail&did=48540 Forensic RAM Dump Image Analyzer] by Ivor Kollar, describing the implementation of foriana, 2009.
 
* [http://is.cuni.cz/studium/dipl_st/index.php?doo=detail&did=48540 Forensic RAM Dump Image Analyzer] by Ivor Kollar, describing the implementation of foriana, 2009.
 
* [http://www.dfrws.org/2010/proceedings/2010-305.pdf Treasure and tragedy in kmem_cache mining for live forensics investigation] by Andrew Case, Lodovico Marziale, Cris Neckar, Golden G. Richard III; Digital Investigation, Volume 7, Supplement 1, The Proceedings of the Tenth Annual DFRWS Conference, August 2010.  [http://www.dfrws.org/2010/proceedings/richard2.pdf (Presentation)]
 
* [http://www.dfrws.org/2010/proceedings/2010-305.pdf Treasure and tragedy in kmem_cache mining for live forensics investigation] by Andrew Case, Lodovico Marziale, Cris Neckar, Golden G. Richard III; Digital Investigation, Volume 7, Supplement 1, The Proceedings of the Tenth Annual DFRWS Conference, August 2010.  [http://www.dfrws.org/2010/proceedings/richard2.pdf (Presentation)]
* [http://pikewerks.com/_datasheets/secondlook.pdf Second Look Datasheet]
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* [http://secondlookforensics.com/ Second Look Web Page]
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* [http://blackhat.com/html/bh-dc-11/bh-dc-11-archives.html#Case De-Anonymizing Live CDs through Physical Memory Analysis] ([https://media.blackhat.com/bh-dc-11/Case/BlackHat_DC_2011_Case_De-Anonymizing_Live_CDs-wp.pdf Whitepaper]) ([https://media.blackhat.com/bh-dc-11/Case/BlackHat_DC_2011_Case_De-Anonymizing%20Live%20CDs-Slides.pdf Slides]) Andrew Case; Blackhat DC 2011.
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* [http://dfsforensics.blogspot.com/2011/03/bringing-linux-support-to-volatility.html Bringing Linux Support to Volatility], Andrew Case; Digital Forensics Solutions Blog, 2011.
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* [http://blackhat.com/html/bh-us-11/bh-us-11-briefings.html#Case Workshop - Linux Memory Analysis with Volatility] ([http://www.digitalforensicssolutions.com/papers/blackhat-workshop-full-presentation.pdf Slides]) Andrew Case; Blackhat Vegas 2011.
  
 
Volatility Mailing List Threads on Support for Linux:
 
Volatility Mailing List Threads on Support for Linux:
 
* http://lists.volatilesystems.com/pipermail/vol-users/2010-January/thread.html#143
 
* http://lists.volatilesystems.com/pipermail/vol-users/2010-January/thread.html#143
 
* http://lists.volatilesystems.com/pipermail/vol-dev/2010-September/thread.html#112
 
* http://lists.volatilesystems.com/pipermail/vol-dev/2010-September/thread.html#112
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[[Category:Memory Analysis]]

Revision as of 04:29, 27 July 2012

The output of a memory acquisition tool is a memory image which contains the raw physical memory of a system. A wide variety of tools can be used to search for strings or other patterns in a memory image, but to extract higher-level information about the state of the system a memory analysis tool is required.

Linux Memory Analysis Tools

Research Projects:

  • The Forensic Analysis Toolkit (FATKit) is a cross-platform, modular, and extensible digital investigation framework for analyzing volatile system memory. (Publication Date: 2006; Availability/License: not available)

Open Source Projects:

  • The Volatility Framework is a collection of tools, implemented in Python, for the extraction of digital artifacts from volatile memory (RAM) samples. Support for Linux is experimental--see the LinuxMemoryForensics page on the Volatility wiki. (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
  • Foriana is tool for extraction of information such as the process and modules lists from a RAM image using logical relations between OS structures. (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
  • Draugr is a Linux memory forensics tool written in Python. (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
  • Volatilitux is another Linux memory forensics tool written in Python. (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
  • The Red Hat Crash Utility is an extensible Linux kernel core dump analysis program. Although designed as a debugging tool, it also has been utilized for memory forensics. See, for example, the 2008 DFRWS challenge write-up by AAron Walters. (Availability/License: GNU GPL)
  • Idetect (Linux) http://forensic.seccure.net/ is an older implementation of Linux memory analysis.

Commercial Products:

  • Second Look: Linux Memory Forensics from Raytheon Pikewerks Corporation can analyze live memory or stored snapshots (physical memory images). It can be used to detect rootkits and other kernel-hooking malware, unauthorized applications and services, and stealthy user-level malware, as well as obtain forensic information about the state of the system. It has command-line and GUI interfaces, and reverse engineering capabilities including built-in disassembly and hexadecimal data views. An online reference kernel repository provides baselines for verification of thousands of distribution stock kernels, while an online pagehash database provides the baselines for verification of hundreds of thousands of Linux software packages. As of April 2012, it supports x86 and x86_64 targets running any 2.6-series kernel and 3-series kernels up to 3.2. (Availability/License: commercial)

Linux Memory Analysis Challenges

Linux Memory Images

Aside from those in the challenges referenced above, sample Linux memory images can also be found on the Second Look web site at http://secondlookforensics.com/images.html.

Linux Memory Analysis Bibliography

Volatility Mailing List Threads on Support for Linux: