Difference between pages "Carver 2.0 Planning Page" and "NAT detection"

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This page is for planning Carver 2.0.
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'''NAT detection''' is the process of determining hosts running [[Network Address Translator | Network Address Translators]] (NATs).
  
Please, do not delete text (ideas) here. Use something like this:
+
== Approaches ==
  
<pre>
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=== Active detection ===
<s>bad idea</s>
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:: good idea
+
</pre>
+
  
This will look like:
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==== Port scanning ====
  
<s>bad idea</s>
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Some software [[Network Address Translator | NAT]] solutions (such as [http://www.kerio.com/kwf_firewall.html Kerio WinRoute Firewall]), as well as many hardware solutions, provide a control port, which allows users to monitor and control their server (e.g. using a web browser). These control ports can be easily detected by means of port scanning (see [[Nmap]]).
:: good idea
+
  
= License =
+
==== Routing test ====
  
BSD-3.
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Some improperly configured [[Network Address Translator | NATs]] allow IP packets to be translated from an external network. Routing test can detect these translators by trying to contact external server (e.g. ''forensicswiki.org:80'') with modified routing tables.
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] library based validators could require other licenses
+
  
= OS =
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=== Passive detection ===
  
Linux/FreeBSD/MacOS
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==== IP TTL ====
: Shouldn't this just match what the underlying afflib & sleuthkit cover? [[User:RB|RB]]
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:: Yes, but you need to test and validate on each. Question: Do we want to support windows? [[User:Simsong|Simsong]] 21:09, 30 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I think we would do wise to design with windows support from the start this will improve the platform independence from the start
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:::: Agreed; I would even settle at first for being able to run against Cygwin.  Note that I don't even own or use a copy of Windows, but the vast majority of forensic investigators do. [[User:RB|RB]] 14:01, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
+
  
= Name tooling =
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[[Network Address Translator | Network Address Translators]] decrement IP TTL values of all translated packets.
  
* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] A name for the tooling I propose coldcut
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==== Leaked real IP address ====
:: How about 'butcher'?  ;)  [[User:RB|RB]] 14:20, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] cleaver ( scalpel on steroids ;-) )
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* I would like to propose Gouge or Chisel :-) [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]]
+
  
= Requirements =
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Some network protocols leak real IP address of a client. These protocols include:
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Could we do a MoSCoW evaluation of these.
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* SMTP, HELO/EHLO commands:
 
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* AFF and EWF file images supported from scratch. ([[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would like to have raw/split raw and device access as well)
+
:: If we base our image i/o on afflib, we get all three with one interface. [[User:RB|RB]] Instead of letting the tools use afflib, better to write an afflib module for carvfs, and update the libewf module. The tool could than be oblivious of the file format. [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]]
+
:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] this layer should support multi threaded decompression of compressed image types, this speeds up IO
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] volume/partition aware layer (what about carving unpartioned space)
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* File system aware layer. This could be or make use of tsk-cp.
+
** By default, files are not carved. (clarify: only identified? [[User:RB|RB]]; I guess that it operates like [[Selective file dumper]] [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 07:00, 29 October 2008 (UTC)). Alternatively, the tool could use libcarvpath and output carvpaths or create a directory with symlinks to carvpaths that point into a carvfs mountpoint [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]].
+
* Plug-in architecture for identification/validation.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] support for multiple types of validators
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*** dedicated validator
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*** validator based on file library (i.e. we could specify/implement a file structure API for these)
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*** configuration based validator (Can handle config files,like Revit07, to enter different file formats used by the carver.)
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* Ship with validators for:
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I think we should distinguish between file format validators and content validators
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** JPEG
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** PNG
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** GIF
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** MSOLE
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** ZIP
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** TAR (gz/bz2)
+
 
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] For a production carver we need at least the following formats
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** Grapical Images
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*** JPEG (the 3 different types with JFIF/EXIF support)
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*** PNG
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*** GIF
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*** BMP
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*** TIFF
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** Office documents
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*** OLE2 (Word/Excell content support)
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*** PDF
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*** Open Office/Office 2007 (ZIP+XML)
+
:: Extension validation? AFAIK, MS Office 2007 [[DOCX]] format uses plain ZIP (or not?), and carved files will (or not?) have .zip extension instead of DOCX. Is there any way to fix this (may be using the file list in zip)? [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 20:25, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
+
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Addition: Office 2007 also has a binary file format which is also a ZIP-ed data
+
 
+
** Archive files
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*** ZIP
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*** 7z
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*** gzip
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*** bzip2
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*** tar
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*** RAR
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** E-mail files
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*** PFF (PST/OST)
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*** MBOX (text based format, base64 content support)
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** Audio/Video files
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*** MPEG
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*** MP2/MP3
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*** AVI
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*** ASF/WMV
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*** QuickTime
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*** MKV
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** Printer spool files
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*** EMF (if I remember correctly)
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** Internet history files
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*** index.dat
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*** firefox (sqllite 3)
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** Other files
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*** thumbs.db
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*** pagefile?
+
 
+
* Simple fragment recovery carving using gap carving.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] have hook in for more advanced fragment recovery?
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* Recovering of individual ZIP sections and JPEG icons that are not sector aligned.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would propose a generic fragment detection and recovery
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* Autonomous operation (some mode of operation should be completely non-interactive, requiring no human intervention to complete [[User:RB|RB]])
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] as much as possible, but allow to be overwritten by user
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* Tested on 500GB-sized images. Should be able to carve a 500GB image in roughly 50% longer than it takes to read the image.
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** Perhaps allocate a percentage budget per-validator (i.e. each validator adds N% to the carving time) [[User:RB|RB]]
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] have multiple carving phases for precision/speed trade off?
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* Parallelizable
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] tunable for different architectures
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* Configuration:
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** Capability to parse some existing carvers' configuration files, either on-the-fly or as a one-way converter.
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** Disengage internal configuration structure from configuration files, create parsers that present the expected structure
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] The validator should deal with the file structure the carving algorithm should not know anything about the file structure (as in revit07 design)
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**  Either extend Scalpel/Foremost syntaxes for extended features or use a tertiary syntax ([[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would prefer a derivative of the revit07 configuration syntax which already has encountered some problems of dealing with defining file structure in a configuration file)
+
* Can output audit.txt file.
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Can output database with offset analysis values i.e. for visualization tooling
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Can output debug log for debugging the algorithm/validation
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* Easy integration into ascription software.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I'm no native speaker what do you mean with "ascription software"?
+
:: I think this was another non-native requesting easy scriptability. [[User:RB|RB]] 14:20, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
+
:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] that makes sense ;-)
+
* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] When the tool output files the filenames should contain the offset in the input data (in hexadecimal?)
+
* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Should the tool allow to export embedded files?
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Should the tool allow to export fragments separately?
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* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I really like the fact carved files are named after the physical or logical sector in which the file is found (photorec)
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* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I personally use photorec often for carving files in the whole volume (not only unallocated clusters), so I can store information about all potential interesting files in MySQL
+
* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] It would also be nice if the files can be hashed immediately (MD5) so looking for them in other tools (for example Encase) is a snap
+
 
+
= Ideas =
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* Use as much TSK if possible. Don't carry your own FS implementation the way photorec does.
+
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] using TSK as much as possible would not allow to add your own file system support (i.e. mobile phones, memory structures, cap files) I would propose wrapping TSK and using it as much as possible but allow to integrate own FS implementations.
+
* Extracting/carving data from [[Thumbs.db]]? I've used [[foremost]] for it with some success. [[Vinetto]] has some critical bugs :( [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 19:18, 28 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] this poses an interesting addition to the carver do we want to support (let's call it) 'recursive in file carving' (for now) this is different from embedded files because there is a file system structure in the file and not just another file structure
+
 
+
[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] :
+
* Use libcarvpath whenever possible and by default to avoid high storage requirements.
+
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] For easy deployment I would not opt for making an integral part of the tool solely dependant on a single external library or the library must be integrated in the package
+
* Dont stop with filesystem detection after the first match. Often if a partition is reused with a new FS and is not all that full yet, much of the old FS can still be valid. I have seen this with ext2/fat. The fact that you have identified a valid FS on a partition doesn't mean there isn't an(almost) valid second FS that would yield additional files. Identifying doubly allocated space might in some cases also be relevant.
+
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] What your saying is that dealing with file system fragments should be part of the carving algorithm
+
* Allow use where filesystem based carving is done by other tool, and the tool is used as second stage on (sets of) unallocated block (pseudo) files and/or non FS partition (pseudo) files.
+
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would not opt for this. The tool would be dependent on other tools and their data format, which makes the tool difficult to maintain. I would opt to integrate the functionality of having multiple recovery phases (stages) and allow the tooling to run the phases after one and other or separately.
+
* Ability to be used as a library instead of a tool. Ability to access metadata true library, and thus the ability to set metadata from the carving modules. This would be extremely usefull for integrating the project into a framework like ocfa.
+
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I guess most of the code could be integrated into libraries, but I would not opt integrating tool functionality into a library
+
[[User:Mark Stam|Mark]]
+
I think it would be very handy to have a CSV, TSV, XML or other delimited output (log)file with information about carved files. This output file can then be stored in a database or Excel sheet (report function)
+
 
+
== Configuration language/specification ==
+
* Carving data structures. For example, extract all TCP headers from image by defining TCP header structure and some fields (e.g. source port > 1024, dest port = 80). This will extract all data matching the pattern and write a file with other fields. Another example is carving INFO2 structures and URL activity records from index.dat [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 20:51, 28 October 2008 (UTC)
+
** This has the opportunity to be extended to the concept of "point at blob FOO and interpret it as BAR"
+
.FUF added:
+
The main idea is to allow users to define structures, for example (in pascal-like form):
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Field1: Byte = 123;
+
  These commands are used to identify the SMTP client to the SMTP
SomeTextLength: DWORD;
+
  server.  The argument field contains the fully-qualified domain name
SomeText: string[SomeTextLength];
+
  of the SMTP client if one is available.  In situations in which the
Field4: Char = 'r';
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  SMTP client system does not have a meaningful domain name (e.g., when
...
+
  its address is dynamically allocated and no reverse mapping record is
 +
  available), the client SHOULD send an address literal (see section
 +
  4.1.3), optionally followed by information that will help to identify
 +
  the client system.
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
This will produce something like this:
+
(see RFC 2821)
<pre>
+
Field1 = 123
+
SomeTextLength = 5
+
SomeText = 'abcd1'
+
Field4 = 'r'
+
</pre>
+
 
+
(In text or raw forms.)
+
 
+
Opinions?
+
 
+
Opinion: Simple pattern identification like that may not suffice, I think Simson's original intent was not only to identify but to allow for validation routines (plugins, as the original wording was).  As such, the format syntax would need to implement a large chunk of some programming language in order to be sufficiently flexible. [[User:RB|RB]]
+
 
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
In my option your example is too limited. Making the revit configuration I learned you'll need a near programming language to specify some file formats.
+
A simple descriptive language is too limiting. I would also go for 2 bytes with endianess instead of using terminology like WORD and small integer, it's much more clear. The configuration also needs to deal with aspects like cardinality, required and optional structures.
+
:: This is simply data structures carving, see ideas above. Somebody (I cannot track so many changes per day) separated the original text. There is no need to count and join different structures. [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 19:53, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
+
:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] This was probably me is the text back in it's original form?
+
 
+
Please take a look at the revit07 configuration. It's not there yet but goes a far way. Some things currently missing:
+
* bitwise alignment
+
* handling encapsulated streams (MPEG/capture files)
+
* handling content based formats (MBOX)
+
 
+
=Caving algorithm =
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* should we allow for multiple carving phases (runs/stages)?
+
:: I opt yes (separation of concern)
+
* should we allow for multiple carving algorithms?
+
:: I opt yes, this allows testing of different approaches
+
* Should the algorithm try to do as much in 1 run over the input data? To reduce IO?
+
:: I opt that the tool should allow for multiple and single run over the input data to minimize the IO or the CPU as bottleneck
+
* Interaction between algorithm and validators
+
** does the algorithm passes data blocks to the validators?
+
** does a validator need to maintain a state?
+
** does a validator need to revert a state?
+
** How do we deal with embedded files and content validation? Do the validators call another validator?
+
* do we use the assumption that a data block can be used by a single file (with the exception of embedded/encapsulated files)?
+
* Revit07 allows for multiple concurrent result files states to deal with fragmentation. One has the attribute of being active (the preferred) and the other passive. Do we want/need something similar? The algorithm adds block of input data (offsets) to these result files states.
+
** if so what info would these result files states require (type, list of input data blocks)
+
* how do we deal with file system remainders?
+
** Can we abstract them and compare them against available file system information?
+
* Do we carve file systems in files?
+
:: I opt that at least the validator uses this information
+
 
+
==Caving scenarios ==
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* normal file (file structure, loose text based structure (more a content structure?))
+
* fragmented file (the file entirely exist)
+
* a file fragment (the file does not entirely exist)
+
* intertwined file
+
* encapsulated file (MPEG/network capture)
+
* embedded file (JPEG thumbnail)
+
* obfuscation ('encrypted' PFF) this also entails encryption and/or compression
+
* file system in file
+
 
+
=File System Awareness =
+
==Background: Why be File System Aware?==
+
Advantages of being FS aware:
+
* You can pick up sector allocation sizes
+
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] do you mean file system block sizes?
+
* Some file systems may store things off sector boundaries. (ReiserFS with tail packing)
+
* Increasingly file systems have compression (NTFS compression)
+
* Carve just the sectors that are not in allocated files.
+
 
+
==Tasks that would be required==
+
 
+
==Discussion==
+
:: As noted above, TSK should be utilized as much as possible, particularly the filesystem-aware portion.  If we want to identify filesystems outside of its supported set, it would be more worth our time to work on implementing them there than in the carver itself.  [[User:RB|RB]]
+
 
+
:::: I guess this tool operates like [[Selective file dumper]] and can recover files in both ways (or not?). Recovering files by using carving can recover files in situations where sleuthkit does nothing (e.g. file on NTFS was deleted using ntfs-3g, or filesystem was destroyed or just unknown). And we should build the list of filesystems supported by carver, not by TSK. [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 07:08, 29 October 2008 (UTC)
+
  
:: This tool is still in the early planning stages (requirements discovery), hence few operational details (like precise modes of operation) have been fleshed out - those will and should come later.  The justification for strictly using TSK for the filesystem-sensitive approach is simple: TSK has good filesystem APIs, and it would be foolish to create yet another standalone, incompatible implementation of filesystem(foo) when time would be better spent improving those in TSK, aiding other methods of analysis as well.  This is the same reason individuals that have implemented several other carvers are participating: de-duplication of effort.  [[User:RB|RB]]
+
* DNS, reverse lookups to an external DNS server:
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would like to have the carver (recovery tool) also do recovery using file allocation data or remainders of file allocation data.
+
Reverse DNS lookups made to an external DNS server can leak information about hosts in an internal network.
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* Oscar (ICQ), MSN, MRA (Mail.Ru Agent), direct connections.
I would go as far to ask you all to look beyond the carver as a tool and look from the perspective of the carver as part of the forensic investigation process. In my eyes certain information needed/acquired by the carver could be also very useful investigative information i.e. what part of a hard disk contains empty sectors.
+
  
=Supportive tooling=
+
==== Strict source port translation ====
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* validator (definitions) tester (detest in revit07)
+
* tool to make configuration based definitions
+
* post carving validation
+
* the carver needs to provide support for fuse mount of carved files (carvfs)
+
  
=Testing =
+
Some network protocols use strict source ports for communication. These protocols include: NTP, Valve.
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
* automated testing
+
* test data
+
  
=Validator Construction=
+
Non-heuristic port translators (such as ICS in [[Windows]]) always translate source port numbers.
Options:
+
* Write validators in C/C++
+
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] you mean dedicated validators
+
* Have a scripting language for writing them (python? Perl?) our own?
+
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] use easy to embed programming languages i.e. Phyton or Lua
+
* Use existing programs (libjpeg?) as plug-in validators?
+
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] define a file structure api for this
+
  
=Existing Code that we have=
+
==== [[OS fingerprinting]] ====
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
+
Please add any missing links
+
  
Documentation/Articles
+
[[Network Address Translator | Network Address Translators]] can be detected by passively fingerprinting all transferred IP packets.
* DFRWS2006/2007 carving challenge results
+
* DFRWS2008 paper on carving
+
  
Carvers
+
Generally, single host will not produce different OS fingerprints in a short period of time. However, this method can be extended to fingerprinting different hosts running the same [[OS]] by using IP IDs and [[TCP timestamps]].
* DFRWS2006/2007 carving challenge results
+
* photorec (http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/PhotoRec)
+
* revit06 and revit07 (http://sourceforge.net/projects/revit/)
+
* s3/scarve
+
  
Possible file structure validator libraries
+
== Tools ==
* divers existing file support libraries
+
* libole2 (inhouse experimental code of OLE2 support)
+
* libpff (alpha release for PFF (PST/OST) file support) (http://sourceforge.net/projects/libpff/)
+
  
Input support
+
* [http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/p0f.shtml p0f] can do NAT detection using passive [[OS fingerprinting]]. It uses a variety of identifiers to create a score on the confidence level of device doing NAT.
* AFF (http://www.afflib.org/)
+
* EWF (http://sourceforge.net/projects/libewf/)
+
* TSK device & raw & split raw (http://www.sleuthkit.org/)
+
  
Volume/Partition support
+
* [http://itdefence.ru/content/pages/antinat/ AntiNAT] (GPLv2): performs NAT detection based on:
* disktype (http://disktype.sourceforge.net/)
+
* testdisk (http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk)
+
* TSK
+
  
File system support
+
** SMTP HELO/EHLO commands;
* TSK
+
** Oscar direct connections;
* photorec FS code
+
** DNS reverse lookup requests;
* implementations of FS in Linux/BSD
+
** NTP time synchronization;
 +
** Routing test.
  
Content support
+
== Links ==
  
Zero storage support
+
=== Non-English ===
* libcarvpath
+
* carvfs
+
  
=Implementation Timeline=
+
* [http://itdefence.ru/content/articles/obnaruzhenie_nat_i_proxy/ Обнаружение NAT и proxy], ITDefence, 2007
# gather the available resources/ideas/wishes/needs etc. (I guess we're in this phase)
+
# start discussing a high level design (in terms of algorithm, facilities, information needed)
+
## input formats facility
+
## partition/volume facility
+
## file system facility
+
## file format facility
+
## content facility
+
## how to deal with fragment detection (do the validators allow for fragment detection?)
+
## how to deal with recombination of fragments
+
## do we want multiple carving phases in light of speed/precision tradeoffs
+
# start detailing parts of the design
+
## Discuss options for a grammar driven validator?
+
## Hard-coded plug-ins?
+
## Which existing code can we use?
+
# start building/assembling parts of the tooling for a prototype
+
## Implement simple file carving with validation.
+
## Implement gap carving
+
# Initial Release
+
# Implement the ''threaded carving'' that [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] is describing above.
+
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Shouldn't multi threaded carving (MTC) not be part of the 1st version?
+
[[Category:Network Forensics]]
The MT approach makes for different design decisions
+

Revision as of 16:52, 5 November 2008

NAT detection is the process of determining hosts running Network Address Translators (NATs).

Approaches

Active detection

Port scanning

Some software NAT solutions (such as Kerio WinRoute Firewall), as well as many hardware solutions, provide a control port, which allows users to monitor and control their server (e.g. using a web browser). These control ports can be easily detected by means of port scanning (see Nmap).

Routing test

Some improperly configured NATs allow IP packets to be translated from an external network. Routing test can detect these translators by trying to contact external server (e.g. forensicswiki.org:80) with modified routing tables.

Passive detection

IP TTL

Network Address Translators decrement IP TTL values of all translated packets.

Leaked real IP address

Some network protocols leak real IP address of a client. These protocols include:

  • SMTP, HELO/EHLO commands:
   These commands are used to identify the SMTP client to the SMTP
   server.  The argument field contains the fully-qualified domain name
   of the SMTP client if one is available.  In situations in which the
   SMTP client system does not have a meaningful domain name (e.g., when
   its address is dynamically allocated and no reverse mapping record is
   available), the client SHOULD send an address literal (see section
   4.1.3), optionally followed by information that will help to identify
   the client system.

(see RFC 2821)

  • DNS, reverse lookups to an external DNS server:

Reverse DNS lookups made to an external DNS server can leak information about hosts in an internal network.

  • Oscar (ICQ), MSN, MRA (Mail.Ru Agent), direct connections.

Strict source port translation

Some network protocols use strict source ports for communication. These protocols include: NTP, Valve.

Non-heuristic port translators (such as ICS in Windows) always translate source port numbers.

OS fingerprinting

Network Address Translators can be detected by passively fingerprinting all transferred IP packets.

Generally, single host will not produce different OS fingerprints in a short period of time. However, this method can be extended to fingerprinting different hosts running the same OS by using IP IDs and TCP timestamps.

Tools

  • p0f can do NAT detection using passive OS fingerprinting. It uses a variety of identifiers to create a score on the confidence level of device doing NAT.
  • AntiNAT (GPLv2): performs NAT detection based on:
    • SMTP HELO/EHLO commands;
    • Oscar direct connections;
    • DNS reverse lookup requests;
    • NTP time synchronization;
    • Routing test.

Links

Non-English