Difference between pages "Windows Prefetch File Format" and "Mac OS X"

From ForensicsWiki
(Difference between pages)
Jump to: navigation, search
(Section D)
 
(Launch Daemons)
 
Line 1: Line 1:
A Windows Prefetch file consists of one file header and multiple file sections with different content. Not all content has an obvious forensic value.
+
{{Expand}}
  
As far as have been possible to ascertain, there is no public description of the format. The description below has been synthesised from examination
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
of multiple prefetch files.  
+
  
== Header ==
+
== Disk image types ==
  
This format has been observed on Windows XP, ...  will need to be modified for Vista/Win7 format
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
 +
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
== Burn Folder ==
|-
+
! Field
+
! Offset
+
! Length
+
! Type
+
! Notes
+
|-
+
| H1
+
| 0x0000
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Probably a version number, identifying the file structure. Observed values: 0x11 - Windows XP; 0x17 - Vista, Windows 7
+
|-
+
| H2
+
| 0x0004
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Probably a file magic number. Only observed value: 0x41434353
+
|-
+
| H3
+
| 0x0008
+
| 4
+
| DWORD?
+
| ? Observed values: 0x0F - Windows XP, 0x11 - Windows 7
+
|-
+
| H4
+
| 0x000C
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Prefetch file length.
+
|-
+
| H5
+
|0x0010
+
| 60
+
| USTR
+
| Name of executable as Unicode string, truncated after character 29 if necessary, and terminated by U+0000. As it appears in the prefetch file file name.
+
|-
+
| H6
+
|0x004C
+
|4
+
|DWORD
+
|The prefetch hash, as it appears in the pf file name.
+
|-
+
| H7
+
|0x0050
+
|4
+
|?
+
|? Observed values: 0 for almost all prefetch files (XP); 1 for NTOSBOOT-B00DFAAD.pf (XP)
+
|-
+
| H8
+
| 0x0054
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Offset to section A
+
|-
+
| H9
+
| 0x0058
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Nr of entries in section A
+
|-
+
| H10
+
| 0x005C
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Offset to section B
+
|-
+
| H11
+
| 0x0060
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Nr of entries in section B
+
|-
+
| H12
+
| 0x0064
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Offset to section C
+
|-
+
| H13
+
| 0x0068
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Length of section C
+
|-
+
| H14
+
| 0x006C
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Offset to section D
+
|-
+
| H15
+
| 0x0070
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Probably the number of entries in the D section header
+
|-
+
| H16
+
| 0x0074
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Length of section D
+
|-
+
| H17
+
| 0x0078
+
| 8
+
| FTIME
+
| Latest execution time of executable (FILETIME)
+
|-
+
| H18
+
| 0x0080
+
| 16
+
| ?
+
| ? Possibly structured as 4 DWORD. Observed values: /0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000/, /0x47868c00 0x00000000 0x47860c00 0x00000000/
+
|-
+
| H19
+
| 0x0090
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Execution counter
+
|-
+
| H20
+
| 0x0094
+
| 4
+
| DWORD?
+
| ? Observed values: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (XP)
+
|-
+
|}
+
  
It's worth noting that the name of a carved prefetch file can be restored using the information in field H5 and H6, and its size can be determined by field H4.
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 +
<pre>
 +
$NAME.fpbf
 +
</pre>
  
== Section A and B ==
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 +
<pre>
 +
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 +
</pre>
  
The content of these two sections is unknown.
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
  
== Section C ==
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 +
</pre>
  
== Section D ==
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 +
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
  
Section D begins with one or more headers. The number is (most likely) determined by the DWORD at file offset 0x0070. Each header refers to a hard drive.
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
  
In this sections, all offsets are assumed to be counted from the start of the D section.
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
|-
+
<pre>
! Field
+
import datetime
! Offset
+
! Length
+
! Type
+
! Notes
+
|-
+
| DH1
+
| 0x0000
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Offset to volume string (Unicode, terminated by U+0000)
+
|-
+
|}
+
  
If all the executables and libraries referenced in the C section are from one single disk volume, there will be only one header in the D section. If multiple volumes are referenced by section C, section D will contain multiple headers. (A simple way to force this situation is to copy, say, NOTEPAD.EXE to a USB drive, and start it from that volume. The corresponding prefetch file with have one D header referring to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISK1\DP(1)0-0+4 (the USB drive), and one to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISKVOLUME1\ (where the .DLLs and other support files were found).
+
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Launch Agents ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 14:08, 12 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

/System/Library/LaunchAgents/

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

iCloud