Difference between pages "Volatility Framework" and "Mac OS X"

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{{Infobox_Software |
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{{Expand}}
  name = Volatility |
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  maintainer = [[AAron Walters]] |
+
  os = {{Cross-platform}} |
+
  genre = {{Memory analysis}} |
+
  license = {{GPL}} |
+
  website = [https://www.volatilesystems.com/default/volatility https://www.volatilesystems.com/] |
+
}}
+
  
The '''Volatility Framework''' is a completely open collection of tools, implemented in Python under the GNU General Public License, for the extraction of digital artifacts from volatile memory (RAM) samples. The extraction techniques are performed completely independent of the system being investigated but offer unprecedented visibility into the runtime state of the system. The framework is intended to introduce people to the techniques and complexities associated with extracting digital artifacts from volatile memory samples and provide a platform for further work into this exciting area of research.  
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
  
The project was originally developed by and is now headed up by [[AAron Walters]] of [[Volatile Systems]].
+
== Disk image types ==
  
== Plugins ==
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
See: [[List of Volatility Plugins]]
+
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
== Memory acquisition drivers ==
+
== Burn Folder ==
  
In 2012 [[Michael Cohen]] contributed both a Linux and a Windows Open Source memory (acquisition) driver to the volatility project.
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 
+
These drivers are currently available in the volatility scudette branch and soon to be released as a separate download. To obtain this branch run:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
svn checkout http://volatility.googlecode.com/svn/branches/scudette/ volatility
+
$NAME.fpbf
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
In the scudette branch the drivers can be found under:
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
volatility/tools/linux
+
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
volatility/tools/windows
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Linux ===
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
  
To build the kernel module for the current kernel version, make sure you have a working build environment and the kernel headers installed. Change into this directory and run make:
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
cd volatility/tools/linux/
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
make
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The acquisition driver is named pmem.ko.
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 
+
To load the driver:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo insmod pmem.ko
+
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To check if the driver is running:
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
<pre>
+
sudo lsmod
+
</pre>
+
  
The driver create a device file named:
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
 +
 
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/dev/pmem
+
import datetime
</pre>
+
  
To unload the driver:
+
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
<pre>
+
sudo rmmod pmem
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To read acquire the memory just read from the device file. e.g.
+
== Launch Agents ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
dd if=/dev/pmem of=image.raw
+
/System/Library/LaunchAgents/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
For more information see:
+
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
volatility/tools/linux/README
+
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Mac OS X ===
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
  
A Mac OS X driver is currently being worked on.
+
== Startup Items ==
 
+
=== Windows ===
+
Since recent versions of 64 bit Windows require a signed driver the volatility scudette branch comes with both pre-built (binary) and source versions of the driver. The prebuilt binary is signed.
+
 
+
Both the i386 and amd64 binary version of the driver can be found on the [http://code.google.com/p/volatility/downloads/list downloads] part of the Volatility code repository as winpmem or in the scudette branch under:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
volatility/tools/winpmem/binaries/
+
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
E.g.
+
== Crash Reporter ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
volatility/tools/winpmem/binaries/amd64/winpmem.sys
+
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
A standalone tool for imaging memory that uses an embedded copy of the pmem driver can be found as winpmem.exe in:
+
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
volatility/tools/winpmem/executables/Release/
+
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To load the driver:
+
== Quarantine event database ==
<pre>
+
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
winpmem.exe -l
+
</pre>
+
  
The device filename is (This can not be changed without recompiling):
+
Snow Leopard and earlier
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
\\.\pmem
+
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To read and acquire the physical memory and write it to image.raw:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe image.raw
+
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To unload the driver:
+
Lion and later
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
winpmem.exe -u
+
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
For more information see:
+
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
volatility/tools/windows/README
+
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== See Also ==
+
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
* [[List of Volatility Plugins]]
+
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [https://www.volatilesystems.com/default/volatility Official web site]
+
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
* [http://code.google.com/p/volatility/ Code repository], direct link to [http://code.google.com/p/volatility/source/browse/ source]
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
* [http://code.google.com/p/volatility/w/list Volatility Documentation]
+
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 13:08, 12 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

/System/Library/LaunchAgents/

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

iCloud