Difference between pages "AFF Development Task List" and "Mac OS X"

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AFFLIB has been depreciated. As a result, this page is now obsolete.
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{{Expand}}
  
== High Priority ==
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].
  
* When afinfo -a is run on a non-AFF file, it notes it is a "Raw" file, but continues to attempt to process segments. It should exit if it does not find valid AFF segments. For example, running it against a raw image of a 40GB disk created with aimage, afinfo -a reported 2,386 segments then finished with the error message "Cannot calculate missing pages."
+
== EFI boot ==
 +
* Configuration in nvram
  
* The library does not compile on 64-bit versions of Fedora Core 7 Linux.
+
The firmware looks for the boot partition in nvram.
  
* Create man pages and/or documentation for AFF toolkit. To wit:
+
Mac OS X EFI boot process supports both MZ-PE/COFF and EFI fat binary type [[Executable executables]].
 +
<pre>
 +
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
 +
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
 +
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
 +
</pre>
  
* [[aimage]]
+
== Disk image types ==
* [[ident]]
+
* [[afcat]]
+
* [[afcompare]]
+
* [[afconvert]]
+
* [[affix]]
+
* [[affuse]]
+
* [[afinfo]]
+
* [[afstats]]
+
* [[afxml]]
+
* [[afsegment]]
+
  
* Add a usage description to [[afcat]]. When run with no arguments the output should say what the program does.
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
 +
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
* Create man pages and/or documentation for AFF library functions (e.g. ,<tt>af_open</tt>, <tt>af_get_imagesize</tt>)
+
== Burn Folder ==
  
* Build library as a shared library using libtool. This will allow developers using the library to just link to the AFF. Without it, developers must link to the static library and the individual libraries necessary <em>on that machine</em>. There is no good way to determine those extra libraries.
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 +
<pre>
 +
$NAME.fpbf
 +
</pre>
  
* Document that <tt>af_write</tt> may not be called without first setting the <tt>image_pagesize</tt> value inside of the <tt>AFFILE</tt> structure. Not doing so causes a divide by zero error. Perhaps we should 1. Check that <tt>image_pagesize</tt> is not zero and 2. Set <tt>image_pagesize</tt> to a known good default value when opening a new AFF file for writing.
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 +
<pre>
 +
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 +
</pre>
  
* Check aimage ability to write a file of 1,073,741,825 bytes ((2**30)+1). Correctly reported reading/writing a file that was a 1,073,741,824 random byte stream, but did not pick up the extra byte when it was added to the file. ls -la correctly shows the size with the extra byte. Also, added 42 additional bytes which were not apparently read or written.  UPDATE - With 511 bytes added, still didn't read/write full file, however, adding 512 bytes did cause the whole file (1,073,742,336 bytes) to be read/written.
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
  
== Medium Priority ==
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 +
</pre>
  
* How about renaming the library to libaff? That would allow developers to link with <tt>-laff</tt> instead of <tt>-lafflib</tt>. To my knowledge, there is no existing library named AFF already.
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
:: Response: The problem with doing this is that we have AFFLIB.ORG; AFF.ORG is the Arab Film Festival.  
+
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
  
* Is there a set of segment names that must be defined to have a ''valid'' AFF file?
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
  
* Document that <tt>af_open</tt> (when writing a file) does more than a standard <tt>fopen</tt> command. The command writes an AFF stub of some kind to the output file. Users should be cautioned not to use this function as a test, lest they overwrite data.
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
  
* Does <tt>af_open</tt> refuse to open a file for writing if it already exists? If so, what kind of error does it return?
+
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 +
<pre>
 +
import datetime
  
* Document how to programmatically enumerate all segments and values in a file. That is, explain how to get the output of <tt>$ afinfo -a</tt>.
+
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 +
</pre>
  
== Low Priority ==
+
== Launch Agents ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
  
* Add library function to open standard input. Perhaps:
+
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
  
<pre>AFFILE * af_open_stdin(void);</pre>
+
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Last shutdown logs ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== EFI ===
 +
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 05:03, 25 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

EFI boot

  • Configuration in nvram

The firmware looks for the boot partition in nvram.

Mac OS X EFI boot process supports both MZ-PE/COFF and EFI fat binary type Executable executables.

/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Internet Plug-Ins

System-wide:

/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Last shutdown logs

/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

EFI

iCloud