Difference between pages "Prefetch" and "Mac OS X"

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Windows Prefetch files, introduced in [[Windows|Windows XP]], are designed to speed up the application startup process. Prefetch files contain the name of the executable, a Unicode list of DLLs used by that executable, a count of how many times the executable has been run, and a timestamp indicating the last time the program was run. Although Prefetch is present in Windows 2003, by default it is only enabled for boot prefetching. The feature is also found in [[Windows|Windows Vista]], where it has been augmented with [[SuperFetch]], [[ReadyBoot]], and [[ReadyBoost]]. For SSD drives Prefetch is disabled by default [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/e7/archive/2009/05/05/support-and-q-a-for-solid-state-drives-and.aspx].
 
  
The Prefetch files are stored in the directory:
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].
 +
 
 +
== EFI boot ==
 +
* Configuration in nvram
 +
 
 +
The firmware looks for the boot partition in nvram.
 +
 
 +
Mac OS X EFI boot process supports both MZ-PE/COFF and EFI fat binary type [[Executable executables]].
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
%SystemRoot%\Prefetch
+
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
 +
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
 +
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The following files can be found in the Prefetch directory:
+
== Disk image types ==
* <tt>*.pf</tt>, which are Prefetch files;
+
* <tt>Ag*.db</tt> and <tt>Ag*.db.trx</tt>, which are [[SuperFetch]] files;
+
* <tt>Layout.ini</tt>;
+
* <tt>PfPre_*.db</tt>;
+
* <tt>PfSvPerfStats.bin</tt>
+
  
From [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/hardware/dn653317(v=vs.85).aspx]:
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
* [[SuperFetch]]; analyzes per-machine usage patterns over time and optimizes the data that is kept in memory.
+
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
* [[ReadyBoot]]; decreases boot time (the time from turning power on to reaching the log-on screen) by preloading the files and startup programs needed per-machine into a cache.
+
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
* [[ReadyBoost]]; supports the use of flash storage devices like Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drives and Secure Digital (SD) flash cards to boost PC performance.
+
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
* [[ReadyDrive]]; supports hybrid hard disk drives.
+
  
A Prefetch file contains the name of the application, a dash, and then an eight character hash of the location from which that application was run, and a <tt>.pf</tt> extension. The filenames should be all uppercase except for the extension. E.g. a filename for [[md5deep]] would look like: <tt>MD5DEEP.EXE-4F89AB0C.pf</tt>. If an application is run from two different locations on the drive (i.e. the user runs <tt>C:\md5deep.exe</tt> and then <tt>C:\Apps\Hashing\md5deep.exe</tt>), there will be two different prefetch files in the Prefetch folder. According to MSDN up to 128 Prefetch files can be stored in the Prefetch directory [http://blogs.msdn.com/ryanmy/archive/2005/05/25/421882.aspx].
+
== Burn Folder ==
  
== File format ==
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
Each Prefetch file has a 4-byte signature (at offset 4) "SCCA" (or in hexadecimal notation 0x53 0x43 0x43 0x41). The signature is assumed to be preceded by a 4-byte format version indicator:
+
<pre>
* 17 (0x00000011) for [[Windows XP]] and [[Windows 2003]]
+
$NAME.fpbf
* 23 (0x00000017) for [[Windows Vista]], [[Windows 2008]], [[Windows 7]] and [[Windows 2012]] (note Windows 2012 has not been confirmed)
+
</pre>
* 26 (0x0000001a) for [[Windows 8|Windows 8.1]] (note this could be Windows 8 as well but has not been confirmed)
+
  
For more information about the file format see: [[Windows Prefetch File Format]]
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 +
<pre>
 +
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 +
</pre>
  
== Metadata ==
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
The Prefetch file contains various metadata.
+
* The executable's name, up to 29 characters.
+
* The run count, or number of times the application has been run.
+
* Volume related information, like volume path and volume serial number.
+
* The size of the Prefetch file (sometimes referred to as end of file (EOF)).
+
* The files and directories that were used doing the application's start-up.
+
  
=== Timestamps ===
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
The Prefetch file contains 2 types of timestamps
+
<pre>
* The time when the application was last ran (executed). Version 26 of the Prefetch format maintains 7 previous last run times.
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
* The volume creation time (part of the volume information) of the volume the Prefetch file was created on.
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 +
</pre>
  
The file system creation time of the Prefetch file indicates the first time the application was executed. Both the file system modification time of the Prefetch file and the embedded last run time indicate the last time the application was executed.
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 +
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
  
== Prefetch hash ==
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
There are multiple known hashing functions to be used for prefetch file filename hashing, namely:
+
* SCCA XP hash function; used on Windows XP and Windows 2003
+
* SCCA Vista hash function; used on Windows Vista
+
* SCCA 2008 hash function; used on Windows 2008, Windows 7, (possibly: Windows 2012) and Windows 8 (including 8.1)
+
  
=== SCCA XP hash function ===
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
A Python implementation of the SCCA XP hash function:
+
  
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
def ssca_xp_hash_function(filename):
+
import datetime
    hash_value = 0
+
    for character in filename:
+
        hash_value = ((hash_value * 37) + ord(character)) % 0x100000000
+
        hash_value = (hash_value * 314159269) % 0x100000000
+
        if hash_value > 0x80000000:
+
            hash_value = 0x100000000 - hash_value
+
  
    return (abs(hash_value) % 1000000007) % 0x100000000
+
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== SCCA Vista hash function ===
+
== Launch Agents ==
A Python implementation of the SCCA Vista hash function:
+
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
  
 +
Per user:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
def ssca_vista_hash_function(filename):
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
    hash_value = 314159
+
    for character in filename:
+
        hash_value = ((hash_value * 37) + ord(character)) % 0x100000000
+
    return hash_value
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== SCCA 2008 hash function ===
+
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
A Python implementation of the SCCA 2008 hash function:
+
  
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
def ssca_2008_hash_function(filename):
+
/Library/LaunchDaemons
    hash_value = 314159
+
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
    filename_index = 0
+
</pre>
    filename_length = len(filename)
+
    while filename_index + 8 < filename_length:
+
        character_value = ord(filename[filename_index + 1]) * 37
+
        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 2])
+
        character_value *= 37
+
        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 3])
+
        character_value *= 37
+
        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 4])
+
        character_value *= 37
+
        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 5])
+
        character_value *= 37
+
        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 6])
+
        character_value *= 37
+
        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index]) * 442596621
+
        character_value += ord(filename[filename_index + 7])
+
        hash_value = ((character_value - (hash_value * 803794207)) % 0x100000000)
+
        filename_index += 8
+
  
    while filename_index < filename_length:
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
      hash_value = (((37 * hash_value) + ord(filename[filename_index])) % 0x100000000)
+
      filename_index += 1
+
  
    return hash_value
+
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Registry Keys ==
+
== Crash Reporter ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\PrefetchParameters
+
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The EnablePrefetcher Registry value can be used to disable prefetch.
+
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
  
== See Also ==
+
== Diagnostic Reports ==
* [[Prefetch XML]]
+
<pre>
* [[ReadyBoot]]
+
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
* [[SuperFetch]]
+
</pre>
* [[Windows]]
+
* [[Windows Prefetch File Format]]
+
  
== External Links ==
+
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/01/12/XPKernel/default.aspx More detail from Microsoft]
+
System-wide:
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefetcher Wikipedia Prefetcher]
+
<pre>
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms940847(v=winembedded.5).aspx MSDN: Disabling Prefetch]
+
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
* [http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/driver/kernel/XP_kernel.mspx Kernel Enhancements for Windows XP], by [[Microsoft]], January 13, 2003 (Microsoft's description of Prefetch when Windows XP was introduced)
+
</pre>
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ryanmy/archive/2005/05/25/421882.aspx Misinformation and the The Prefetch Flag], MSDN Blogs, May 25, 2005
+
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2005/07/prefetch-file-metadata.html Prefetch file metadata], by [[Harlan Carvey]], July 13, 2005
+
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2006/04/prefetch-files-revisited.html Prefetch files, revisited], by [[Harlan Carvey]], April 13, 2006
+
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/e7/archive/2009/05/05/support-and-q-a-for-solid-state-drives-and.aspx Support and Q&A for Solid-State Drives], by Steven Sinofsky, May 5, 2009
+
* [http://computer-forensics.sans.org/blog/2009/08/05/de-mystifying-defrag-identifying-when-defrag-has-been-used-for-anti-forensics-part-1-windows-xp/ De-mystifying Defrag: Identifying When Defrag Has Been Used for Anti-Forensics (Part 1 - Windows XP)], by [[Chad Tilbury]], August 5, 2009
+
* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2010/04/the-windows-prefetchfile.html Windows Prefetch File (old blog entry from 42 LLC)], by [[Yogesh Khatri]], April 14, 2010
+
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/hardware/dn653317(v=vs.85).aspx Windows PC Accelerators], by Microsoft, October 8, 2010
+
* [http://www.dfinews.com/articles/2010/12/decoding-prefetch-files-forensic-purposes-part-1 Decoding Prefetch Files for Forensic Purposes: Part 1], by [[Mark Wade]], December 8, 2010
+
* [http://crucialsecurityblog.harris.com/2011/04/11/prefetch-files-at-face-value/ Prefetch Files at Face Value], by [[Mark Wade]], April 11, 2011
+
* [http://kitrap08.blogspot.hk/2011/07/windows-logical-prefetcher.html Windows Logical Prefetcher], TTS blog, July 30, 2011 (article is in Russian)
+
* [http://labit.in/pliki-prefetch-w-windows/ Prefetch i niedokładny licznik] by Paweł Hałdrzyński, August 20, 2011 (article in Polish; uncertain about the year of publication)
+
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2012/03/prefetch-analysis-revisited.html Prefetch Analysis, Revisited], by [[Harlan Carvey]], March 8, 2012
+
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2012/03/prefetch-analysis-revisitedagain.html Prefetch Analysis, Revisited...Again...], by [[Harlan Carvey]], March 15, 2012
+
* [http://www.hexacorn.com/blog/2012/06/13/prefetch-hash-calculator-a-hash-lookup-table-xpvistaw7w2k3w2k8/ Prefetch Hash Calculator + a hash lookup table xp/vista/w7/w2k3/w2k8], Hexacorn blog, June 13, 2012
+
* [http://www.hexacorn.com/blog/2012/10/29/prefetch-file-names-and-unc-paths/ Prefetch file names and UNC paths], Hexacorn blog, October 29, 2012
+
* [http://journeyintoir.blogspot.ch/2012/12/ntosboot-prefetch-file.html NTOSBOOT Prefetch File], by [[Corey Harrell]], December 5, 2012
+
* [http://www.invoke-ir.com/2013/09/whats-new-in-prefetch-for-windows-8.html What's New in the Prefetch for Windows 8??], by Jared Atkinson, September 21, 2013
+
* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2013/10/windows-prefetch-pf-files.html?m=1 Windows Prefetch (.PF) files], by [[Yogesh Khatri]], October 21, 2013
+
* [http://resources.infosecinstitute.com/windows-systems-artifacts-digital-forensics-part-iii-prefetch-files/ Windows Systems and Artifacts in Digital Forensics: Part III: Prefetch Files], by Ivan Dimov, November 21, 2013
+
* [http://i.imgur.com/riuljsK.jpg Prefetch 101 - a Windows 8 Prefetch file walkthrough], by Jared Atkinson, 2014
+
  
== Tools ==
+
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Last shutdown logs ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
  
=== Commercial ===
+
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
  
=== Free - Non Open Source ===
+
=== EFI ===
* [http://www.woanware.co.uk/forensics/prefetchforensics.html PrefetchForensics], PrefetchForensics is an application to extract information from Windows Prefetch files
+
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
* [http://redwolfcomputerforensics.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=42&Itemid=55 Prefetch-Parser], Parse the prefetch files and display information
+
* [http://www.mitec.cz/wfa.html Windows File Analyzer] - Parses Prefetch files, thumbnail databases, shortcuts, index.dat files, and the recycle bin
+
* [http://www.tzworks.net/prototype_page.php?proto_id=1 Windows Prefetch Parser (pf)], Free tool that can be run on Windows, Linux or Mac OS-X
+
  
=== Open Source ===
+
=== iCloud ===
* [https://code.google.com/p/prefetch-tool/ prefetch-tool], Script to extract information from windows prefetch folder
+
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
* [http://bitbucket.cassidiancybersecurity.com/prefetch-parser prefetch-parser], Standalone Python tools that parses Windows prefetch files and extracts all known and forensically relevant artefacts contained.
+
  
[[Category:Windows]]
+
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 05:03, 25 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

EFI boot

  • Configuration in nvram

The firmware looks for the boot partition in nvram.

Mac OS X EFI boot process supports both MZ-PE/COFF and EFI fat binary type Executable executables.

/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Internet Plug-Ins

System-wide:

/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Last shutdown logs

/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

EFI

iCloud