Difference between pages "Encase image file format" and "CAINE Live CD"

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The Encase image file format is used by [[EnCase]] used to store various types of digital evidence e.g.
+
{{Infobox_Software |
* disk image (physical bitstream of an acquired disk)
+
  name = CAINE LiveCD/DVD |
* volume image
+
  maintainer = [[Nanni Bassetti]] |
* memory
+
  os = {{Linux}} |
* logical files
+
  genre = {{Live CD}} |
 +
  license = {{GPL}}, others |
 +
  website = [http://www.caine-live.net Caine Live] |
 +
}}
 +
'' ''' Caine' (an acronym for Computer Aided Investigative Environment'''') is a [[distribution Linux | distribution]] [[Live CD | live]] oriented to Computer Forensics ([[computer forensics]]) historically conceived by Giancarlo Giustini, within a project of Digital Forensics '' Interdepartmental Research Center for Security'' (CRIS) of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia  see [http://www.caine-live.net/page4/history.html Official Site].
 +
Currently the project is maintained by Nanni Bassetti.
  
 +
== Features ==
 +
The latest version of Caine is based on the [[Ubuntu Linux]] 12.04 LTS, MATE and LightDM. Compared to its original version, the current version has been modified to meet the standards forensic reliability and safety standards laid down by the [[NIST]] View [Http://www.cftt.nist.gov/Methodology_Overview.htm the methodologies of Nist].
  
The format is (reportedly) based on ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format [http://www.asrdata.com/SMART/whitepaper.html].
+
Caine includes:
Currently there are 2 version of the format; version 1 is a closed format and was succeeded by version 2 in EnCase 7, for which a format specification is available, but requires registration.
+
* Caine Interface - a user-friendly interface that brings together a number of well-known forensic tools, many of which are open source;
 +
* Updated and optimized environment to conduct a forensic analysis;
 +
* Report generator semi-automatic, by which the investigator has a document easily editable and exportable with a summary of the activities;
 +
* Adherence to the investigative procedure defined recently by Italian Law 48/2008, [Http://www.parlamento.it/parlam/leggi/08048l.htm Law 48/2008,].
  
 +
In addition, Caine is the first distribution to include forensic Forensics inside the Caja/Nautilus Scripts and all the patches of security for not to alter the devices in analysis.
  
The media data can be stored in multiple evidence files, which are called segment files.
+
The distro uses several patches specifically constructed to make the system "forensic", ie not alter the original device to be tested and / or duplicate:
Each segment file consist of multiple sections, which has a distinct section start definition containing a section type.
+
* Root file system spoofing: patch that prevents tampering with the source device;
Up to EnCase 5 the segment file were limited to 2 GiB, due to the internal 31-bit file offset representation. This limitation was lifted by adding a base offset value in EnCase 6.
+
* No automatic recovery corrupted Journal patch: patch that prevents tampering with the device source, through the recovery of the [[Journal]];
 +
* Mounter and RBFstab: mounting devices in a simple and via graphical interface.
  
 +
[[RBFstab]] is set to treat [[EXT3]] as a [[EXT4]]'' noload with the option'' to avoid automatic recovery of any corrupt Journal of '[[EXT3]];
 +
* Swap file off: patch that avoids modifying the file [[swap]] in systems with limited memory [[RAM]], avoiding the alteration of the original artifact computer and overwrite data useful for the purposes of investigation.
  
EnCase allows to store the data compressed either using a fast or best level of the deflate compression method.
+
Caine and Open Source == ==
EnCase 7 no longer distinguishes between fast or best compression and just provides for either uncompressed or compressed.
+
Patches and technical solutions are and have been all made in collaboration with people (Professionals, hobbyists, experts,
 +
etc..) from all over the world. <br />
  
 +
CAINE represents fully the spirit of the Open Source philosophy, because the project is completely open, anyone could
 +
take the legacy of the previous developer or project manager. <br />
  
Besides digital evidence the evidence files, or segment files, contain a header containing case information.
+
The distro is open source, the Windows side (Nirlauncher/Wintaylor) is open source and, last one but not least important, the distro is installable, so as to give the possibility to rebuild in a new version, in order to give a long life to this project.
The case information which entails date and time of acquisition, an examiner's name, notes on the acquisition, and an optional password.
+
* In EnCase 3 the case information header is stored in the "header" section, which is defined twice within the file and contain the same information.
+
* As of EnCase 4 an additional "header2" section was added. The "header" section now appears only once, but the new "header2" section twice.
+
  
 +
== Caine Interface ==
 +
Caine Interface - a user-friendly interface that brings together a number of well-known forensic tools. <Br/>
  
The format adds error detection by storing the data with checksums (Adler32), for both the metadata as the data blocks, which are by default 64 x 512 byte sectors (32 KiB).
+
Environment updated and optimized for digital investigations. <br />
As of EnCase 5 the number of sectors per block (chunk) can vary.
+
EnCase 3F introduced an "error2" section that it uses to record the location and number of bad sector chunks. The way it handles the sections it can't read is that those areas are filled with zero.
+
Then EnCase displays to the user the areas that could not be read when the image was acquired. The granularity of unreadable chunks appears to be 32K.
+
As of EnCase 5 the granularity of unreadable chunks can vary.
+
  
 +
Report Semi-automatic - the final production of a complete document and easily editable exported by the investigator.
 +
Maximum adherence to the Italian investigative procedure. <br />
  
EnCase 3 can store a one-way hash of the data. For a bitstream it does so by calculating e.g. a MD5 hash of the original media data and adds a hash section to the last of the segment file.
+
The first distribution to include forensic inside the Caja Forensics / Nautilus/Caja Scripts and all security patches, not to alter the devices in the analysis. <br />
As of EnCase 6 the option to store a SHA1 hash was added.
+
  
 +
The basic interface of the distribution called Caine Interface, was performed using the known GTK2-Perl wrapper that implements the Perl language instruction set and commands made available from the Gtk + toolkit.
  
EnCase 5 and later have the option to store '''single files''' into the EnCase Logical Evidence File (LEF) or EWF-L01.
+
Caine Interface allows you not only to select the various forensic software, it automatically generates the final report, due to the modules offered by Perl Template Toolkit, and DocBook.
This format changed slightly in EnCase 6 and 7.
+
  
 +
Inside contains the following software.
  
In EnCase 7 the EWF format was succeeded by the EnCase Evidence File Format Version 2 (EWF2-EX01 and EWF2-LX01).
+
, Acquisition
EWF2-EX01 is at it's lower levels a different format then EWF-E01 and provides support for:
+
* Grissom Analyzer (mmls, img_stat, fsstat)
* bzip2 compression
+
* LRRP
* direct encryption (AES-256) of the section data
+
* AIR
 +
* Guymager
 +
* Terminal with saving the output
 +
* DC3DD
  
The same features are added to the new logical evidence file format (EWF2-LX01) with the exception of encryption.
+
; Analysis
EWF2-EX01, EWF2-LX01 are not backwards compatible with previous EnCase products.
+
* Autopsy
 +
* [[The SleuthKit]]
 +
* [[Selective file dumper | Sfdumper 2.2]]
 +
* Fundl 2.0
 +
* Scalpel
 +
* Foremost
 +
* Stegdetect
 +
* Ophcrack
 +
* Nautilus scripts
 +
* And many others
  
== See Also ==
+
Reporting semiautomatic == ==
  
[[EnCase]]
+
Every contribution in the form of output and local report for each program involved in an investigation is saved in a report file, easily manageable by the investigator. The generation of the final report is done through the creation of temporary log file, that is to contain the output products for implementing the programs used by the investigator. <br />
 +
The generation process is achieved through the use of Perl, bash scripts, variables Perl Template Toolkit and the DocBook file that acts as a container to the final report. <br />
  
== External Links ==
+
All set within the Perl program.
  
* [http://www.asrdata.com/SMART/whitepaper.html ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format], no longer available
+
The Project Caine == ==
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20100905235827/http://www.asrdata.com/SMART/whitepaper.html Internet archive copy of: ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format]
+
* [http://www.guidancesoftware.com/DocumentRegistration.aspx?did=1000018246 EnCase Evidence File Format Version 2], requires registration
+
* [http://code.google.com/p/libewf/downloads/detail?name=Expert%20Witness%20Compression%20Format%20%28EWF%29.pdf Expert Witness Compression Format (EWF)].
+
* [http://code.google.com/p/libewf/downloads/detail?name=Expert%20Witness%20Compression%20Format%202%20%28EWF2%29.pdf Expert Witness Compression Format (EWF) version 2].
+
* [http://www.cfreds.nist.gov/v2/Basic_Mac_Image.html Sample image in EnCase, iLook, and dd format] - From the [[Computer Forensic Reference Data Sets]] Project
+
  
[[Category:Forensics File Formats]]
+
The project was initially inserted into the priorities of the CRIS (Centre for Research Interdepartmental Security) Research Centre Interpardimentale Security - University of Modena [http://cris.unimore.it/cris/node/54 site], in this way the distribution has benefited from essential contributions on the technical computing, together to the latest "best practices" legal investigation digital  see [http://www.dia.unisa.it/~ads/ads/Sicurezza_files/Tesina%20Live%20Forensics.pdf Security University of Salerno] see [http://www.forwardedge2.com/pdf/bestpractices.pdf U.S. Secret Service document] see [http://ncfs.org/craiger.forensics.methods.procedures.final.pdf CraigeR's Draft].
 +
 
 +
The project Caine was also the subject of a scientific paper accepted and published inside the first Workshop on Computer & Network Forensics held in Milan September 10th 2008 - [http://conferenze.dei.polimi.it/ossconf/schedule.php OSSCoNF].
 +
 
 +
In followed all close collaboration with Denis Frati (spilled by the project at end 2009) and Nanni Bassetti, prominent figures in the panorama of Italian Digital Forensics, allowed a constant improvement of investigative standards proposed. The work carried out together with the staff ConoscereLinux allowed to enter Caine within the Italian community of programmers of open-source software.
 +
 
 +
Caine is very much the spirit of Open Source OSSConf 2008 Open Source Day 2012, precisely because the various inputs planning and operational were provided by so many employees scattered across the globe, using only the network to communicate and many have our utmost to provide hosting, mirror and suggestions, scripts and everything that can serve to improve the project, then a full and free.
 +
 
 +
Currently the project manager and a team of international figures treat the project Caine since the 1.0 release to date that has arrived at version 4.0 (18-March-2013) and achieving praise from law enforcements of several foreign nations.
 +
 
 +
24/11/2012 The Caine 3.0 was presented at '[http://www.opensourceday.org/2012/?mid=20 Opens Source Day 2012]' at the University of Udine.
 +
 
 +
== Notes ==
 +
<references />
 +
 
 +
== Bibliography ==
 +
* Andrea Ghirardini, Gabriele Faggioli, ''Computer Forensics'', Apogeo, 2009, ISBN 9788850328161
 +
* E. Huebner, S. Zanero, ''Open Source Software for Digital Forensics'', Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4419-5802-0
 +
* Diane Barrett, Greg Kipper, ''Virtualization and Forensics: A Digital Forensic Investigator's Guide to Virtual Environment'', Syngress, 2010, ISBN 978-1-59749-557-8
 +
* Sean Philip Oriyano and Michael Gregg, ''Hacker Techniques, Tools, And Incident Handling'', Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011, ISBN 978-0-7637-9183-4
 +
* Michael Jang, ''Security Strategies in Linux Platforms and Applications'', Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011, ISBN 978-0-7637-9189-6
 +
 
 +
== Collegamenti esterni ==
 +
*[http://www.careeracademy.com/browseproducts/CHFI-Training-CBT-Boot-Camp--EC-Council-Computer-Hacking-Forensic-Investigator.HTML Presente nel training CHFI Ec-Council] International certificatione
 +
*[http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-5803-7_5 Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics- by Springer]<br />
 +
*[http://conferenze.dei.polimi.it/ossconf/schedule.php OSSConf 2008]<br />
 +
*[http://books.google.it/books?id=jQVgWaF3pJwC&pg=PT304&lpg=PT304&dq=Andrea+Ghirardini;+Gabriele+Faggioli,+Computer+Forensics+caine&source=bl&ots=mf8-Def6uF&sig=88ydFgTv05M2Q45B4FSvwqhBXKk&hl=it&sa=X&ei=W2voUOD3Lcrk4QSVlIDoDQ&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAQ Google books]<br />
 +
*[http://www.amazon.com/Virtualization-Forensics-Forensic-Investigators-Environments/dp/1597495573Virtualization and Forensics: A Digital Forensic Investigator's Guide to Virtual Environment]<br />
 +
*[http://www.linux-magazin.de/Ausgaben/2010/12/Italienische-Aufklaerung Linux-Mazin.de]<br />
 +
*[http://www.linux-magazine.com/Issues/2011/122/Caine Linux-Magazine.com]<br />
 +
*[http://www.opensourceday.org/2012/?mid=20 Opens Source Day 2012]<br />
 +
*[http://searchsecurity.techtarget.it/articoli/0,1254,18_ART_103282,00.html TechTarget.it]<br />
 +
*[http://programmazione.it/index.php?entity=eitem&idItem=41687 Programmazione.it]<br />
 +
*[http://www.linuxtoday.com/upload/caine-3.0-review-121009195504.html Linuxtoday.com]<br />
 +
*[http://www.linuxtoday.com/infrastructure/2010122801535SCSW Linuxtoday.com 2]<br />
 +
*[http://news.softpedia.com/news/CAINE-3-0-a-Tool-for-Digital-Forensics-297461.shtml Softpedia]<br />
 +
*[http://hackingzones.in/?p=2726 hackingzone.in]<br />
 +
*[http://www.gustavopimentel.com.ar/ gustavopimental.com.ar]<br />
 +
*[http://www.concise-courses.com/security/top-ten-distros/# concise-courses.com]<br />
 +
*[http://www.e-linux.it/news_detail/caine-15 e-linux.it]<br />
 +
*[http://www.ilsoftware.it/articoli.asp?tag=CAINE-progetto-italiano-per-la-computer-forensics_5656 ilsoftware.it]<br />
 +
*[http://www.dragonjar.org/distribucion-live-cd-analisis-forense.xhtml dragonjar.org]<br />
 +
*[http://www.nannibassetti.com/dblog/articolo.asp?articolo=156 Attestato Marenostrum V.F.F.]<br />
 +
*[http://www.linuxformat.com/archives?issue=151 LinuxFormat] <br />
 +
*[http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10things/10-obscure-linux-distributions-and-why-you-should-know-about-them/2334 TechRepublic]<br />
 +
*[http://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/CAINE_Live_CD ForensicsWiki]<br />
 +
* [http://www.caine-live.net Sito ufficiale]
 +
* [http://cris.unimore.it/cris/node/54 Sito del CRIS] dedicato a Caine
 +
 
 +
{{Linux}}

Revision as of 06:12, 3 May 2013

CAINE LiveCD/DVD
Maintainer: Nanni Bassetti
OS: Linux
Genre: Live CD
License: GPL, others
Website: Caine Live

Caine' (an acronym for Computer Aided Investigative Environment') is a distribution live oriented to Computer Forensics (computer forensics) historically conceived by Giancarlo Giustini, within a project of Digital Forensics Interdepartmental Research Center for Security (CRIS) of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia see Official Site. Currently the project is maintained by Nanni Bassetti.

Contents

Features

The latest version of Caine is based on the Ubuntu Linux 12.04 LTS, MATE and LightDM. Compared to its original version, the current version has been modified to meet the standards forensic reliability and safety standards laid down by the NIST View the methodologies of Nist.

Caine includes:

  • Caine Interface - a user-friendly interface that brings together a number of well-known forensic tools, many of which are open source;
  • Updated and optimized environment to conduct a forensic analysis;
  • Report generator semi-automatic, by which the investigator has a document easily editable and exportable with a summary of the activities;
  • Adherence to the investigative procedure defined recently by Italian Law 48/2008, Law 48/2008,.

In addition, Caine is the first distribution to include forensic Forensics inside the Caja/Nautilus Scripts and all the patches of security for not to alter the devices in analysis.

The distro uses several patches specifically constructed to make the system "forensic", ie not alter the original device to be tested and / or duplicate:

  • Root file system spoofing: patch that prevents tampering with the source device;
  • No automatic recovery corrupted Journal patch: patch that prevents tampering with the device source, through the recovery of the Journal;
  • Mounter and RBFstab: mounting devices in a simple and via graphical interface.

RBFstab is set to treat EXT3 as a EXT4 noload with the option to avoid automatic recovery of any corrupt Journal of 'EXT3;

  • Swap file off: patch that avoids modifying the file swap in systems with limited memory RAM, avoiding the alteration of the original artifact computer and overwrite data useful for the purposes of investigation.

Caine and Open Source == == Patches and technical solutions are and have been all made in collaboration with people (Professionals, hobbyists, experts, etc..) from all over the world.

CAINE represents fully the spirit of the Open Source philosophy, because the project is completely open, anyone could take the legacy of the previous developer or project manager.

The distro is open source, the Windows side (Nirlauncher/Wintaylor) is open source and, last one but not least important, the distro is installable, so as to give the possibility to rebuild in a new version, in order to give a long life to this project.

Caine Interface

Caine Interface - a user-friendly interface that brings together a number of well-known forensic tools.

Environment updated and optimized for digital investigations.

Report Semi-automatic - the final production of a complete document and easily editable exported by the investigator. Maximum adherence to the Italian investigative procedure.

The first distribution to include forensic inside the Caja Forensics / Nautilus/Caja Scripts and all security patches, not to alter the devices in the analysis.

The basic interface of the distribution called Caine Interface, was performed using the known GTK2-Perl wrapper that implements the Perl language instruction set and commands made available from the Gtk + toolkit.

Caine Interface allows you not only to select the various forensic software, it automatically generates the final report, due to the modules offered by Perl Template Toolkit, and DocBook.

Inside contains the following software.

, Acquisition

  • Grissom Analyzer (mmls, img_stat, fsstat)
  • LRRP
  • AIR
  • Guymager
  • Terminal with saving the output
  • DC3DD
Analysis

Reporting semiautomatic == ==

Every contribution in the form of output and local report for each program involved in an investigation is saved in a report file, easily manageable by the investigator. The generation of the final report is done through the creation of temporary log file, that is to contain the output products for implementing the programs used by the investigator.
The generation process is achieved through the use of Perl, bash scripts, variables Perl Template Toolkit and the DocBook file that acts as a container to the final report.

All set within the Perl program.

The Project Caine == ==

The project was initially inserted into the priorities of the CRIS (Centre for Research Interdepartmental Security) Research Centre Interpardimentale Security - University of Modena site, in this way the distribution has benefited from essential contributions on the technical computing, together to the latest "best practices" legal investigation digital see Security University of Salerno see U.S. Secret Service document see CraigeR's Draft.

The project Caine was also the subject of a scientific paper accepted and published inside the first Workshop on Computer & Network Forensics held in Milan September 10th 2008 - OSSCoNF.

In followed all close collaboration with Denis Frati (spilled by the project at end 2009) and Nanni Bassetti, prominent figures in the panorama of Italian Digital Forensics, allowed a constant improvement of investigative standards proposed. The work carried out together with the staff ConoscereLinux allowed to enter Caine within the Italian community of programmers of open-source software.

Caine is very much the spirit of Open Source OSSConf 2008 Open Source Day 2012, precisely because the various inputs planning and operational were provided by so many employees scattered across the globe, using only the network to communicate and many have our utmost to provide hosting, mirror and suggestions, scripts and everything that can serve to improve the project, then a full and free.

Currently the project manager and a team of international figures treat the project Caine since the 1.0 release to date that has arrived at version 4.0 (18-March-2013) and achieving praise from law enforcements of several foreign nations.

24/11/2012 The Caine 3.0 was presented at 'Opens Source Day 2012' at the University of Udine.

Notes


Bibliography

  • Andrea Ghirardini, Gabriele Faggioli, Computer Forensics, Apogeo, 2009, ISBN 9788850328161
  • E. Huebner, S. Zanero, Open Source Software for Digital Forensics, Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4419-5802-0
  • Diane Barrett, Greg Kipper, Virtualization and Forensics: A Digital Forensic Investigator's Guide to Virtual Environment, Syngress, 2010, ISBN 978-1-59749-557-8
  • Sean Philip Oriyano and Michael Gregg, Hacker Techniques, Tools, And Incident Handling, Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011, ISBN 978-0-7637-9183-4
  • Michael Jang, Security Strategies in Linux Platforms and Applications, Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011, ISBN 978-0-7637-9189-6

Collegamenti esterni