Difference between pages "Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS)" and "Windows Prefetch File Format"

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Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is commonly used by Linux to encrypt storage media volumes. LUKS is implemented in the Linux kernel in dm-crypt (dm = Device Mapper) and the user-space component cryptsetup.
+
A Windows Prefetch file consists of one file header and multiple file sections with different content. Not all content has an obvious forensic value.
  
LUKS supports various encryption methods, like:
+
As far as have been possible to ascertain, there is no public description of the format. The description below has been synthesised from examination
* ARC4
+
of multiple prefetch files.
* [[AES]]
+
* [[Anubis]]
+
* [[Blowfish|BlowFish]]
+
* [[Cast5]]
+
* [[Cast6]]
+
* [[Serpent]]
+
* Tnepres a reversed variant of [[Serpent]]
+
* [[Twofish|TwoFish]]
+
  
These encryption methods can be used in various chaining modes and with various initialization vector modes.
+
== Characteristics ==
 +
Integer values are stored in little-endian.
  
== How to detect ==
+
Strings are stored as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTF-16/UCS-2 UTF-16 little-endian] without a byte-order-mark (BOM).
A LUKS encrypted volume starts with the "LUKS\xba\xbe" signature.
+
  
A hexdump of the start of the volume should look similar to:
+
Timestamps are stored as [http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms724284.aspx Windows FILETIME] in UTC.
<pre>
+
00000000  4c 55 4b 53 ba be 00 01  61 65 73 00 00 00 00 00  |LUKS....aes.....|
+
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
+
00000020  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  63 62 63 2d 65 73 73 69  |........cbc-essi|
+
00000030  76 3a 73 68 61 32 35 36  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |v:sha256........|
+
00000040  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  72 69 70 65 6d 64 31 36  |........ripemd16|
+
00000050  30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |0...............|
+
</pre>
+
  
The encryption method in the example is:
+
== File header ==
<pre>
+
aes
+
</pre>
+
  
The encryption mode is in the format:
+
{| class="wikitable"
<pre>
+
|-
chaining_mode[-initialization_vector_mode[:initialization_vector_options]]
+
! Field
</pre>
+
! Offset
 +
! Length
 +
! Type
 +
! Notes
 +
|-
 +
| H1
 +
| 0x0000
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Format version (see format version section below)
 +
|-
 +
| H2
 +
| 0x0004
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Signature 'SCCA' (or in hexadecimal representation 0x53 0x43 0x43 0x4)
 +
|-
 +
| H3
 +
| 0x0008
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD?
 +
| Unknown - Values observed: 0x0F - Windows XP, 0x11 - Windows 7, Windows 8.1
 +
|-
 +
| H4
 +
| 0x000C
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Prefetch file size (or length) (sometimes referred to as End of File (EOF)).
 +
|-
 +
| H5
 +
|0x0010
 +
| 60
 +
| USTR
 +
| The name of the (original) executable as a Unicode (UTF-16 litte-endian string), up to 29 characters and terminated by an end-of-string character (U+0000). This name should correspond with the one in the prefetch file filename.
 +
|-
 +
| H6
 +
|0x004C
 +
|4
 +
|DWORD
 +
|The prefetch hash. This hash value should correspond with the one in the prefetch file filename.
 +
|-
 +
| H7
 +
|0x0050
 +
|4
 +
|?
 +
| Unknown (flags)? Values observed: 0 for almost all prefetch files (XP); 1 for NTOSBOOT-B00DFAAD.pf (XP)
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
Which in the example is:
+
=== Format version ===
<pre>
+
cbc-essiv:sha256
+
</pre>
+
  
And the password hashing method in the example is:
+
{| class="wikitable"
<pre>
+
|-
ripemd160
+
! Value
</pre>
+
! Windows version
 +
|-
 +
| 17 (0x11)
 +
| Windows XP, Windows 2003
 +
|-
 +
| 23 (0x17)
 +
| Windows Vista, Windows 7
 +
|-
 +
| 26 (0x1a)
 +
| Windows 8.1 (note this could be Windows 8 as well but has not been confirmed)
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
== External Links ==
+
=== File information - version 17 ===
* [http://clemens.endorphin.org/nmihde/nmihde-A4-ds.pdf New Methods in Hard Disk Encryption], by Clemens Fruhwirth, July 18, 2005
+
* [http://wiki.cryptsetup.googlecode.com/git/LUKS-standard/on-disk-format.pdf LUKS On-Disk Format Specification - Version 1.2.1], by Clemens Fruhwirth, October 16, 2011
+
* [https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Security_Guide/sect-Security_Guide-LUKS_Disk_Encryption.html LUKS Disk Encryption], by [[RedHat]]
+
* [https://googledrive.com/host/0B3fBvzttpiiSNUVYSFF1TmRONmc/Linux%20Unified%20Key%20Setup%20(LUKS)%20Disk%20Encryption%20format.pdf LUKS Disk Encryption format specification], by the [[libluksde|libluksde project]], July 2013
+
* [http://www.jakoblell.com/blog/2013/12/22/practical-malleability-attack-against-cbc-encrypted-luks-partitions/ Practical malleability attack against CBC-Encrypted LUKS partitions], by Jakob Lell, December 22, 2013
+
  
 +
The following part of the file header is version dependent. It is sometime considered part of the file header. Below the structure for format version 17.
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Field
 +
! Offset
 +
! Length
 +
! Type
 +
! Notes
 +
|-
 +
| H8
 +
| 0x0054
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| The offset to section A. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
 +
|-
 +
| H9
 +
| 0x0058
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| The number of entries in section A.
 +
|-
 +
| H10
 +
| 0x005C
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| The offset to section B. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
 +
|-
 +
| H11
 +
| 0x0060
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| The number of entries in section B.
 +
|-
 +
| H12
 +
| 0x0064
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| The offset to section C. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
 +
|-
 +
| H13
 +
| 0x0068
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Length of section C.
 +
|-
 +
| H14
 +
| 0x006C
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Offset to section D. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
 +
|-
 +
| H15
 +
| 0x0070
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| The number of entries in section D.
 +
|-
 +
| H16
 +
| 0x0074
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Unknown ? (Previously opted: Length of section D)
 +
|-
 +
| H17
 +
| 0x0078
 +
| 8
 +
| FTIME
 +
| Latest execution time (or run time) of executable (FILETIME)
 +
|-
 +
| H18
 +
| 0x0080
 +
| 16
 +
| ?
 +
| Unknown ? Possibly structured as 4 DWORD. Observed values: /0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000/, /0x47868c00 0x00000000 0x47860c00 0x00000000/ (don't exclude the possibility here that this is remnant data)
 +
|-
 +
| H19
 +
| 0x0090
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Execution counter (or run count)
 +
|-
 +
| H20
 +
| 0x0094
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD?
 +
| Unknown ? Observed values: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (XP)
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
It's worth noting that the name of a carved prefetch file can be restored using the information in field H5 and H6, and its size can be determined by field H4.
 +
 +
== Section A ==
 +
This section contains an array with 20 byte (version 17) or 32 byte (version 23 and 26) entry records.
 +
 +
The actual format and usage of these entry records is currently not known.
 +
 +
== Section B ==
 +
This section contains an array with 12 byte (version 17, 23 and 26) entry records.
 +
 +
The actual format and usage of these entry records is currently not known.
 +
 +
== Section C ==
 +
This section contains an array of UTF-16 little-endian formatted strings with end-of-string characters (U+0000).
 +
 +
At the end of the section there seems to be alignment padding that can contain remnant values.
 +
 +
== Section D - Volume information (block) ==
 +
 +
Section D contains one or more subsections. The number is (most likely) determined by the DWORD at file offset 0x0070. Each subsection refers to directories on an identified volume.
 +
 +
In this section, all offsets are assumed to be counted from the start of the D section.
 +
 +
=== Volume information - version 17 ===
 +
The following values are version dependent. Below the structure for format version 17.
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Field
 +
! Offset
 +
! Length
 +
! Type
 +
! Notes
 +
|-
 +
| DH1
 +
| +0x0000
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Offset to volume string (Unicode, terminated by U+0000)
 +
|-
 +
| DH2
 +
| +0x0004
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Length of volume string (nr of characters, including terminating U+0000)
 +
|-
 +
| DH3
 +
| +0x0008
 +
| 8
 +
| FILETIME
 +
| Volume creation time.
 +
|-
 +
| DH4
 +
| +0x0010
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| Volume serial number of volume indicated by volume string
 +
|-
 +
| DH5
 +
| +0x0014
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| ? Offset to section DHS1
 +
|-
 +
| DH6
 +
| +0x0018
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| ? Length of section DHS1 (in bytes)
 +
|-
 +
| DH7
 +
| +0x001C
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| ? Offset to section DHS2
 +
|-
 +
| DH8
 +
| +0x0020
 +
| 4
 +
| DWORD
 +
| ? Nr of strings in section DHS2
 +
|-
 +
| ?
 +
| +0x0024
 +
| ?
 +
| ?
 +
| ? additional 28 bytes (includes one timestamp?)
 +
|}
 +
 +
If all the executables and libraries referenced in the C section are from one single disk volume, there will be only one section in the D section. If multiple volumes are referenced by section C, section D will contain multiple sections.  (A simple way to force this situation is to copy, say, NOTEPAD.EXE to a USB drive, and start it from that volume. The corresponding prefetch file will have one D header referring to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISK1\DP(1)0-0+4 (the USB drive), and one to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISKVOLUME1\ (where the .DLLs and other support files were found).
 +
 +
== See Also ==
 +
* [[Prefetch]]
 +
 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [https://googledrive.com/host/0B3fBvzttpiiSbl9XZGZzQ05hZkU/Windows%20Prefetch%20File%20(PF)%20format.pdf Windows Prefetch File (PF) format], by the [[libssca|libssca project]]
  
[[Category:Disk encryption]]
+
[[Category:File Formats]]
[[Category:Linux]]
+

Revision as of 02:21, 11 April 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

A Windows Prefetch file consists of one file header and multiple file sections with different content. Not all content has an obvious forensic value.

As far as have been possible to ascertain, there is no public description of the format. The description below has been synthesised from examination of multiple prefetch files.

Characteristics

Integer values are stored in little-endian.

Strings are stored as UTF-16 little-endian without a byte-order-mark (BOM).

Timestamps are stored as Windows FILETIME in UTC.

File header

Field Offset Length Type Notes
H1 0x0000 4 DWORD Format version (see format version section below)
H2 0x0004 4 DWORD Signature 'SCCA' (or in hexadecimal representation 0x53 0x43 0x43 0x4)
H3 0x0008 4 DWORD? Unknown - Values observed: 0x0F - Windows XP, 0x11 - Windows 7, Windows 8.1
H4 0x000C 4 DWORD Prefetch file size (or length) (sometimes referred to as End of File (EOF)).
H5 0x0010 60 USTR The name of the (original) executable as a Unicode (UTF-16 litte-endian string), up to 29 characters and terminated by an end-of-string character (U+0000). This name should correspond with the one in the prefetch file filename.
H6 0x004C 4 DWORD The prefetch hash. This hash value should correspond with the one in the prefetch file filename.
H7 0x0050 4 ? Unknown (flags)? Values observed: 0 for almost all prefetch files (XP); 1 for NTOSBOOT-B00DFAAD.pf (XP)

Format version

Value Windows version
17 (0x11) Windows XP, Windows 2003
23 (0x17) Windows Vista, Windows 7
26 (0x1a) Windows 8.1 (note this could be Windows 8 as well but has not been confirmed)

File information - version 17

The following part of the file header is version dependent. It is sometime considered part of the file header. Below the structure for format version 17.

Field Offset Length Type Notes
H8 0x0054 4 DWORD The offset to section A. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
H9 0x0058 4 DWORD The number of entries in section A.
H10 0x005C 4 DWORD The offset to section B. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
H11 0x0060 4 DWORD The number of entries in section B.
H12 0x0064 4 DWORD The offset to section C. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
H13 0x0068 4 DWORD Length of section C.
H14 0x006C 4 DWORD Offset to section D. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
H15 0x0070 4 DWORD The number of entries in section D.
H16 0x0074 4 DWORD Unknown ? (Previously opted: Length of section D)
H17 0x0078 8 FTIME Latest execution time (or run time) of executable (FILETIME)
H18 0x0080 16  ? Unknown ? Possibly structured as 4 DWORD. Observed values: /0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000/, /0x47868c00 0x00000000 0x47860c00 0x00000000/ (don't exclude the possibility here that this is remnant data)
H19 0x0090 4 DWORD Execution counter (or run count)
H20 0x0094 4 DWORD? Unknown ? Observed values: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (XP)

It's worth noting that the name of a carved prefetch file can be restored using the information in field H5 and H6, and its size can be determined by field H4.

Section A

This section contains an array with 20 byte (version 17) or 32 byte (version 23 and 26) entry records.

The actual format and usage of these entry records is currently not known.

Section B

This section contains an array with 12 byte (version 17, 23 and 26) entry records.

The actual format and usage of these entry records is currently not known.

Section C

This section contains an array of UTF-16 little-endian formatted strings with end-of-string characters (U+0000).

At the end of the section there seems to be alignment padding that can contain remnant values.

Section D - Volume information (block)

Section D contains one or more subsections. The number is (most likely) determined by the DWORD at file offset 0x0070. Each subsection refers to directories on an identified volume.

In this section, all offsets are assumed to be counted from the start of the D section.

Volume information - version 17

The following values are version dependent. Below the structure for format version 17.

Field Offset Length Type Notes
DH1 +0x0000 4 DWORD Offset to volume string (Unicode, terminated by U+0000)
DH2 +0x0004 4 DWORD Length of volume string (nr of characters, including terminating U+0000)
DH3 +0x0008 8 FILETIME Volume creation time.
DH4 +0x0010 4 DWORD Volume serial number of volume indicated by volume string
DH5 +0x0014 4 DWORD  ? Offset to section DHS1
DH6 +0x0018 4 DWORD  ? Length of section DHS1 (in bytes)
DH7 +0x001C 4 DWORD  ? Offset to section DHS2
DH8 +0x0020 4 DWORD  ? Nr of strings in section DHS2
 ? +0x0024  ?  ?  ? additional 28 bytes (includes one timestamp?)

If all the executables and libraries referenced in the C section are from one single disk volume, there will be only one section in the D section. If multiple volumes are referenced by section C, section D will contain multiple sections. (A simple way to force this situation is to copy, say, NOTEPAD.EXE to a USB drive, and start it from that volume. The corresponding prefetch file will have one D header referring to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISK1\DP(1)0-0+4 (the USB drive), and one to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISKVOLUME1\ (where the .DLLs and other support files were found).

See Also

External Links