Difference between pages "Ntop" and "Mac OS X"

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{{Infobox_Software |
+
{{Expand}}
  name = ntop |
+
  maintainer = Luca Deri and others |
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  os = {{Linux}}, {{Windows}} |
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  genre = Network forensics |
+
  license = {{GPL}} |
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  website = [http://www.ntop.org/ www.ntop.org] |
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}}
+
  
== Overview ==
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].
  
'''ntop''' is a network traffic probe that shows the network usage, similar to what the popular [[top]] [[Unix]] command does. ntop is based on libpcap and it has been written in a portable way in order to virtually run on every [[Unix]] platform and on [[Windows | Win32]] as well.
+
== Disk image types ==
  
ntop users can use a a web browser to navigate through ntop (that acts as a web server) traffic information and get a dump of the network status.[http://www.ntop.org/products/ntop/]
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
 +
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
== What ntop can do for me? ==
+
== Burn Folder ==
* Sort network traffic according to many protocols
+
* Show network traffic sorted according to various criteria
+
* Display traffic statistics
+
* Store on disk persistent traffic statistics in RRD format
+
* Identify the indentity (e.g. email address) of computer users
+
* Passively (i.e. without sending probe packets) identify the host OS
+
* Show IP traffic distribution among the various protocols
+
* Analyse IP traffic and sort it according to the source/destination
+
* Display IP Traffic Subnet matrix (who’s talking to who?)
+
* Report IP protocol usage sorted by protocol type
+
* Act as a NetFlow/sFlowcollector for flows generated by routers (e.g. Cisco and Juniper) or switches (e.g. Foundry Networks)
+
* Produce RMON-like network traffic statistics
+
  
 +
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 +
<pre>
 +
$NAME.fpbf
 +
</pre>
  
== Platforms ==
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
* Unix (including Linux, *BSD, Solaris, and MacOSX)
+
<pre>
* Win32 (Win95 and above including Vista
+
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 +
</pre>
  
 +
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
  
== Media ==
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
* Loopback
+
<pre>
* Ethernet (including 802.11Q)
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
* Token Ring
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
* PPP/PPPoE
+
</pre>
* Raw IP
+
* FDDI
+
* FibreChannel
+
* ...and many more
+
  
 +
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 +
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
  
== Requirements ==
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
  
=== Memory Usage ===
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
* It depends on the ntop configuration, number of hosts, and number of active TCP sessions. In general it ranges from a few MB (little LAN) to 100 MB for a WAN.
+
  
=== CPU Usage ===
+
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
* It depends on the ntop configuration, and traffic conditions. On a modern PC and large LAN, it is less than 10% of overall CPU load.
+
<pre>
 +
import datetime
  
== Protocols ==
+
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
* IPv4/IPv6
+
</pre>
* IPX
+
* DecNet
+
* AppleTalk
+
* Netbios
+
* OSI
+
* DLC
+
* …and many more
+
  
== IP Protocols ==
+
== Launch Agents ==
* Fully User Configurable
+
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
  
== Additional Features ==
+
Per user:
* VoIP support (SIP, Cisco SCCP and Asterisk IAX)
+
<pre>
* NetFlow (including v5 and v9) and IPFIX support
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
* Network Flows
+
</pre>
* Local Traffic Analysis
+
* Multithread and MP (MultiProcessor) support on both Unix and Win32
+
* Python lightweight API for extending ntop via scripts
+
* Support of both NetFlow andsFlowas flow collector. ntop can collect simultaneously from multiple probes.
+
* Traffic statistics are saved into RRDdatabases for long-run traffic analysis.
+
* Internet Domain, AS (Autonomous Systems), VLAN (Virtual LAN) Statistics
+
* Network assets discovery and categorization according to their OS and users
+
* Protocol decoders for many internet protocols
+
* Advanced ‘per user’ HTTP password protection with encrypted passwords
+
* RRDsupport for persistently storing per-host traffic information
+
* Passive remote host fingerprint (Courtesy of ettercap)
+
* HTTPS (Secure HTTP via OpenSSL)
+
* Virtual/multiple network interfaces support
+
* Graphical ntop launcher (Win32 only)
+
  
== External Links ==
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
  
* [http://www.ntop.org/get-started/download/ get ntop]
+
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
</pre>
  
[[Category:Network Forensics]]
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 14:08, 12 June 2014

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

iCloud