Difference between pages "Vista thumbcache" and "Mac OS X"

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== Overview ==
+
{{Expand}}
  
[[Windows]] Vista stores [[Thumbnails | thumbnails]] in the following directory: ''\Users\\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Explorer''
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].
  
This directory contains following files:
+
== Disk image types ==
  
* thumbcache_idx.db
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
* thumbcache_32.db, thumbcache_96.db, thumbcache_256.db, and thumbcache_1024.db
+
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
* thumbcache_sr.db
+
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
Thumbnails are stored in ''thumbcache_NN.db'' files in different formats (e.g. [[BMP]]) and can be extracted using [[File Carving | file carving]]. There are several tools that can work with Vista Thumbcache: [http://www.dmthumbs.com/ dmThumbs], [http://www.janusware.com/fetch.php?page=412,2 Thumbs.db Viewer], [http://www.simplecarver.com/tool.php?toolname=WinThumbs%20Extractor WinThumbs] and [[FTK]]. Unfortunately, there is no information in the thumbcache that can easily link thumbnails with original files in all cases. One of the ways to link thumbnails with original files is to use Windows Indexer (Windows.edb) database.
+
== Burn Folder ==
  
== Thumbcache Format ==
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 +
<pre>
 +
$NAME.fpbf
 +
</pre>
  
''Thumbcache format is described [http://www.noxa.org/blog/?p=5 here].''
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 +
<pre>
 +
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 +
</pre>
  
In general, every thumbnail in cache is associated with two 64-bit variables. First variable (sometimes called ''Unique ID'', ''Secret'', ''File ID'') associates data in file ''thumbcache_idx.db'' with thumbnail data in ''thumbcache_NN.db'' files; the purpose of this variable is unclear. Another variable is ''Thumbnail Cache ID'' (sometimes called ''Thumbnail filename'' (in [[FTK]]), ''File Ref'') is used to link thumbnails with original files. Actually, ''Thumbnail Cache ID'' is represented as Unicode string of HEX encoding.
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
  
== Thumbnail Creation Process ==
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 +
</pre>
  
[[Windows]] Vista creates thumbnails for files on different media types, including:
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 +
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
  
* Removable devices
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
* Network drives
+
* Encrypted containers (e.g. [[PGP]] Desktop, [[TrueCrypt]], [[BestCrypt]])
+
  
[[Windows]] Vista doesn't create thumbnails for files encrypted using [[EFS]] unless thumbcache directory is encrypted too; [[Windows]] Vista doesn't delete thumbnails for files after they were encrypted using [[EFS]].
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
  
Some programs may generate thumbnails for some file types which are displayed in Windows Explorer, but not stored in the thumbcache (e.g. Ascon Kompas).
+
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 +
<pre>
 +
import datetime
  
== Linking thumbnails with original files ==
+
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 +
</pre>
  
=== Using Windows Indexer ===
+
== Launch Agents ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
  
[[Image:WindowsPowerShellThumbnails.jpg|thumb|right|Windows PowerShell displays association between files and ThumbnailCacheIDs]]
+
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
  
One way to link thumbnails with original files is to use Windows Indexer database, which stores association between '''indexed''' files and ''ThumbnailCacheIDs'' with some metadata. The windows.edb database file contents can be extracted using [http://www.simplecarver.com/tool.php?toolname=Windows%20Search%20Index%20Extractor Windows Search Index Extractor]
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
  
==== Using Windows PowerShell ====
+
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
</pre>
  
Windows PowerShell provides easy way to access this database using SQL queries. Note that most forensic tools (like [[FTK]]) display ''ThumbnailCacheID'' ([[FTK]] calls it ''Thumbnail filename'') in hexademical, but Windows PowerShell returns the result in decimal.
+
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
  
==== Vista Photo Gallery ====
+
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
  
Windows Vista includes a builtin picture previewing tool called Windows Photo Gallery (the LIVE edition may also be installed by the user).  Both of these programs create the files ''pictures.pd4'' and ''pictures.pd5'' respectively containing the ''ThumbnailCacheID'' and file path information of previewed pictures and videos. The contents of the pictures.pd4 and pictures.pd5 can be extracted using [http://www.simplecarver.com/tool.php?toolname=WPG%20Viewer WPG Viewer]
+
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
  
==== Using HEX editor ====
+
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
  
You can also search for ''ThumbnailCacheID'' value in ''Windows.edb'' file using your favorite HEX editor.
+
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
  
* [http://www.whereisyourdata.co.uk/data/modules/wfdownloads/visit.php?cid=4&lid=9 Forensic Implications of Windows Vista, Barrie Stewart, 2007]
+
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
  
=== Non-English ===
+
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
  
* [http://itdefence.ru/content/articles/Thumbnails.Suhanov/ Использование централизованных баз данных эскизов для исследования графических файлов на зашифрованных разделах], ITDefence, 2009 ([http://www.securitylab.ru/analytics/370474.php extended version])
+
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 13:08, 12 June 2014

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

iCloud