Difference between pages "Linux Repositories" and "Windows"

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{{Expand}}
  
There are a number of linux distributions.
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'''Windows''' is a widely-spread [[operating system]] from [[Microsoft]].
  
In general they have primary repositories which are setup for every installation of the operating system and they have special purpose repositories which require specific setup.
+
There are 2 main branches of Windows:
 +
* the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
 +
* the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista
  
=Repository Setup=
+
== Features ==
==openSUSE==
+
* Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa363785(v=vs.85).aspx]
For current openSUSE 11.4 and 12.1 users it is necessary to have the following repositories configured:
+
  
*security
+
=== Introduced in Windows NT ===
*devel:languages:perl
+
* [[NTFS]]
*devel:languages:python
+
  
This is most easily done from the command line via (assumes openSUSE 12.1):
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2000 ===
  
sudo zypper ar -f <nowiki>http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/security/openSUSE_12.1</nowiki> security
+
=== Introduced in Windows XP ===
sudo zypper ar -f <nowiki>http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/devel:/languages:/perl</nowiki>/openSUSE_12.1 perl
+
* [[Prefetch]]
sudo zypper ar -f <nowiki>http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/devel:/languages:/python/openSUSE_12.1</nowiki> python
+
* System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME
+
zypper lr  <nowiki>          </nowiki>  # used to verify you have the repos installed
+
  
==fedora==
+
==== SP2 ====
 +
* Windows Firewall
  
[http://www.cert.org/forensics/tools/ CERT] maintains a fedora security repository with a large number of DFIR applicaitons.
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server) ===
 +
* Volume Shadow Copies
  
==debian==
+
=== Introduced in Windows Vista ===
 +
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker]]
 +
* [[Windows Desktop Search | Search]] integrated in operating system
 +
* [[SuperFetch]]
 +
* [[NTFS|Transactional NTFS (TxF)]]
 +
* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)|Transactional Registry (TxR)]]
 +
* [[Windows Shadow Volumes|Shadow Volumes]]; the volume-based storage of the Volume Shadow Copy data
 +
* $Recycle.Bin
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
* [[User Account Control (UAC)]]
  
You can search for debian packages at [http://packages.debian.org/search debian's search page]
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server) ===
  
==ubuntu==
+
=== Introduced in Windows 7 ===
 +
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker To Go]]
 +
* [[Jump Lists]]
 +
* [[Sticky Notes]]
  
=Computer Forensic Tools=
+
=== Introduced in Windows 8 ===
Below is a list of computer forensic tools.  For each tool the repository it can be found in and the version in the repository is shown.
+
* [[Windows Shadow Volumes | File History]]
 +
* [[Windows Storage Spaces | Storage Spaces]]
 +
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]; server edition will likely be available in Windows Server 2012
  
As an example, aimage is in the openSUSE security repository and it is version 3.2.5
+
== Forensics ==
  
==Imaging Tools==
+
=== Partition layout ===
 +
Default partition layout, first partition starts:
 +
* at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
 +
* at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7
  
{|border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" {{repository table}}
+
=== Filesystems ===
|-
+
* [[FAT]], [[FAT|exFAT]]
|rowspan=1| '''Tool'''
+
* [[NTFS]]
|'''openSUSE'''
+
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS) | ReFS]]
|'''fedora'''
+
|'''debian'''
+
|'''ubuntu'''
+
|'''comment'''
+
|'''General Remarks'''
+
  
|-
+
=== Recycle Bin ===
|rowspan=1| [http://www.e-fense.com/helix/ adepto]
+
|N/A <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|N/A              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|  <!-- comment -->
+
|adepto is included in the helix boot cd<!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
==== RECYCLER ====
|rowspan=1| [[aimage]]
+
Used by Windows 2000, XP.
|security/3.2.5 <!-- opensuse -->
+
Uses INFO2 file.
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|squeeze/3.2.4  <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|a imaging tool to create aff format images  <!-- comment -->
+
|aimage has been EOL'ed.  guymager or ftkimager (windows/mac) are recommended for creating aff images. <!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
See: [http://www.cybersecurityinstitute.biz/downloads/INFO2.pdf]
|rowspan=1| [[AIR]]
+
|N/A <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|?              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|Automated Image and Restore  <!-- comment -->
+
|a GUI front-end to dd and dc3dd designed for easily creating forensic bit images <!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
==== $RECYCLE.BIN ====
|rowspan=1| [[dc3dd]]
+
Used by Windows Vista.
|security*/7.1.614 <!-- opensuse -->
+
Uses $I and $R files.
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|sid/7.1.614    <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|DoD Cyber Crime Center DD  <!-- comment -->
+
|This tool was formerly known as dcfldd.  When released as dc3dd it was totally rewritten. <!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
See: [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf]
|rowspan=1| [[ddrescue]]
+
|Base/1.14 <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|squeeze/1.14 sid/1.23 <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|Also known as GNU ddrescue<!-- comment -->
+
|This tool is different than dd_rescue.
+
  
|-
+
=== Registry ===
|rowspan=1| [[dd_rescue]]
+
|N/A <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|?              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|<!-- comment -->
+
|This tool is different than GNU ddrescue.
+
  
|-
+
The [[Windows Registry]] is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic [[investigator]]s.
|rowspan=1| [[libewf|ewfacquire]]
+
|security*/20100226 <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|squeeze/20100226              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|a imaging tool to create ewf format images  <!-- comment -->
+
|ewfacquire is part of ewftools in some distributions.<!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
=== Thumbs.db Files ===
|rowspan=1| [[IXimager]]
+
|N/A <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|?              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|A law enforcement only imager<!-- comment -->
+
|used in conjunction with ILook Investigator
+
  
|-
+
[[Thumbs.db]] files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the [[investigator]].
|rowspan=1| [[LinEn]]
+
|N/A <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|?              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|a proprietary imaging tool to create ewf format images  <!-- comment -->
+
|included on the Helix boot CD<!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
See also: [[Vista thumbcache]].
|rowspan=1| [[guymager]]
+
|N/A<!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|Squeeze/0.4.2 Sid/0.5.9-3              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|a imaging tool to create aff format images  <!-- comment -->
+
|Guymager is an open source forensic imager. It focuses on user friendliness and high speed.  <!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
=== Browser Cache ===
|rowspan=1| [http://sourceforge.net/projects/rdd rdd]
+
|N/A <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|?              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|a dd-like tool, with forensic imaging features  <!-- comment -->
+
|Rdd is robust with respect to read errors<!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|-
+
=== Browser History ===
|rowspan=1| [ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/sdd/ sdd]
+
|Archiving:Backup/1.52 <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|?              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|a dd-like tool<!-- comment -->
+
|Designed to work well when IBS != OBS.  Working with tape is an example.<!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
|}
+
The [[Web Browser History]] files can contain significant information. The default [[Web browser|web browser]] that comes with Windows is [[Internet Explorer|Microsoft Internet Explorer]] but other common browsers on Windows are [[Apple Safari]], [[Google Chrome]], [[Mozilla Firefox]] and [[Opera]].
  
*package will appear in the base release with the next full distribution release.
+
=== Search ===
 +
See [[Windows Desktop Search]]
  
==File Inventory Tools==
+
=== Setup log files (setupapi.log) ===
 +
Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521].
  
{|border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" {{repository table}}
+
=== Sleep/Hibernation ===
|-
+
|rowspan=1| '''Tool'''
+
|'''openSUSE'''
+
|'''fedora'''
+
|'''debian'''
+
|'''ubuntu'''
+
|'''comment'''
+
|'''General Remarks'''
+
  
|-
+
After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.
|rowspan=1| [[exiftool]]
+
|base/v8.65 <!-- opensuse -->
+
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
|squeeze/v8.15 sid/v8.60              <!-- debian-->
+
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|  <!-- comment -->
+
|exiftool has superior metadata reporting capability -->
+
  
|-
+
=== Users ===
|rowspan=1| [[fiwalk]]
+
Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:
|security*/v0.6.15 <!-- opensuse -->
+
<pre>
|?              <!-- fedora-->
+
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList
|N/A              <!-- debian-->
+
</pre>
|?              <!-- ubuntu-->
+
|  <!-- comment -->
+
|fiwalk is a robust $MFT walker<!-- General Remarks -->
+
  
 +
The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.
  
|}
+
== Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives ==
 +
Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see [[Advanced Format]].
  
*package will appear in the base release with the next full distribution release.
+
== %SystemRoot% ==
 +
The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:
 +
<pre>
 +
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
 +
Value: SystemRoot
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== See Also ==
 +
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
 
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windows Wikipedia: Microsoft Windows]
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521 Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Vista setup log file locations]
 +
* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf The Forensic Analysis of the Microsoft Windows Vista Recycle Bin], by [[Mitchell Machor]], 2008
 +
* [http://www.ericjhuber.com/2013/02/microsoft-file-system-tunneling.html?m=1 Microsoft Windows File System Tunneling], by [[Eric Huber]], February 24, 2013
 +
 
 +
=== Under the hood ===
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366533(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Comparing Memory Allocation Methods], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ntdebugging/archive/2007/06/28/how-windows-starts-up-part-the-second.aspx How Windows Starts Up (Part the second)]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa375142.aspx DLL/COM Redirection]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms682586(v=vs.85).aspx Dynamic-Link Library Search Order]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2004/04/28/121871.aspx Image File Execution Options]
 +
 
 +
=== Side-by-side (WinSxS) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-by-side_assembly Wikipedia: Side-by-side assembly]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa374224.aspx Assembly Searching Sequence]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2007/06/26/rt-manifest-resource-and-isolation-aware-enabled.aspx RT_MANIFEST resource, and ISOLATION_AWARE_ENABLED]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd408052(v=vs.85).aspx Isolated Applications and Side-by-side Assemblies]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/01/24/517221.aspx#531208 DotLocal (.local) Dll Redirection], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], January 24, 2006
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/04/14/576314.aspx Diagnosing SideBySide failures], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], April 14, 2006
 +
* [http://omnicognate.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/winsxs/ EVERYTHING YOU NEVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT WINSXS]
 +
 
 +
=== Application Compatibility Database ===
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd837644(v=ws.10).aspx Technet: Understanding Shims], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb432182(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Application Compatibility Database], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=39 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 1], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 20, 2007
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=40 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 2], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 21, 2007
 +
* [http://fred.mandiant.com/Whitepaper_ShimCacheParser.pdf Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in Forensic Investigations], by [[Andrew Davis]], May 4, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== System Restore (Restore Points) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Restore Wikipedia: System Restore]
 +
* [http://www.stevebunting.org/udpd4n6/forensics/restorepoints.htm Restore Point Forensics], by [[Steve Bunting]]
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2007/06/restore-point-analysis.html Restore Point Analysis], by [[Harlan Carvey]],  June 16, 2007
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2006/10/restore-point-forensics.html Restore Point Forensics], by [[Harlan Carvey]], October 20, 2006
 +
* [http://www.ediscovery.co.nz/wip/srp.html System Restore Point Log Decoding]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows Firewall ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Firewall Wikipedia: Windows Firewall]
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc737845(v=ws.10).aspx#BKMK_log Windows Firewall Tools and Settings]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WoW64 Wikipedia: WoW64]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa384253(v=vs.85).aspx Registry Keys Affected by WOW64], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa384232(VS.85).aspx Registry Redirector], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows XP ===
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q308549 Description of Windows XP System Information (Msinfo32.exe) Tool]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows 8 ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Features_new_to_Windows_8 Features new to Windows 8], Wikipedia
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics Windows 8 Forensics - part 1]
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-2 Windows 8 Forensics - part 2]
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-3 Windows 8 Forensics - part 3]
 +
* [http://propellerheadforensics.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/thomson_windows-8-forensic-guide2.pdf Windows 8 Forensic Guide], by [[Amanda Thomson|Amanda C. F. Thomson]], 2012
 +
* [http://forensicfocus.com/Forums/viewtopic/t=9604/ Forensic Focus: Windows 8 Forensics - A First Look], [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCooEz9FQs&feature=youtu.be Presentation], [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/windows-8-forensics-josh-brunty.pdf Slides], by [[Josh Brunty]], August 2012
 +
* [http://dfstream.blogspot.ch/2013/03/windows-8-tracking-opened-photos.html Windows 8: Tracking Opened Photos], by [[Jason Hale]], March 8, 2013
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 01:03, 29 April 2013

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Windows is a widely-spread operating system from Microsoft.

There are 2 main branches of Windows:

  • the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
  • the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista

Features

  • Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [1]

Introduced in Windows NT

Introduced in Windows 2000

Introduced in Windows XP

  • Prefetch
  • System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME

SP2

  • Windows Firewall

Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server)

  • Volume Shadow Copies

Introduced in Windows Vista

Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server)

Introduced in Windows 7

Introduced in Windows 8

Forensics

Partition layout

Default partition layout, first partition starts:

  • at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
  • at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7

Filesystems

Recycle Bin

RECYCLER

Used by Windows 2000, XP. Uses INFO2 file.

See: [2]

$RECYCLE.BIN

Used by Windows Vista. Uses $I and $R files.

See: [3]

Registry

The Windows Registry is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic investigators.

Thumbs.db Files

Thumbs.db files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the investigator.

See also: Vista thumbcache.

Browser Cache

Browser History

The Web Browser History files can contain significant information. The default web browser that comes with Windows is Microsoft Internet Explorer but other common browsers on Windows are Apple Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Search

See Windows Desktop Search

Setup log files (setupapi.log)

Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [4].

Sleep/Hibernation

After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.

Users

Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList

The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.

Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives

Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see Advanced Format.

%SystemRoot%

The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:

Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
Value: SystemRoot

See Also

External Links

Under the hood

Side-by-side (WinSxS)

Application Compatibility Database

System Restore (Restore Points)

Windows Firewall

Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64)

Windows XP

Windows 8