Difference between pages "RAR" and "Windows"

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RAR Archives ('''R'''oshal '''AR'''chive file format) is a proprietary format for storing information created by Eugene Roshal. The format is currently handled by Alexander Roshal, Eugene's brother.
+
{{Expand}}
  
==Format==
+
'''Windows''' is a widely-spread [[operating system]] from [[Microsoft]].
The file has the magic number of:
+
<pre>0x 52 61 72 21 1A 07 00</pre>
+
which is a break down of the following to describe an Archive Header:
+
:* 0x6152 - HEAD_CRC
+
:* 0x72 - HEAD_TYPE
+
:* 0x1a21 - HEAD_FLAGS
+
:* 0x0007 - HEAD_SIZE
+
  
 +
There are 2 main branches of Windows:
 +
* the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
 +
* the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista
  
===RAR File Format===
+
== Features ==
 +
* Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa363785(v=vs.85).aspx]
  
Each Block has the following fields
+
=== Introduced in Windows NT ===
{| class="wikitable"
+
* [[NTFS]]
|+ Block Fields
+
! Name
+
! Size (bytes)
+
! Description
+
|-
+
| HEAD_CRC
+
| 2
+
| CRC of total block or block part
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE
+
| 1
+
| Block type
+
|-
+
| HEAD_FLAGS
+
| 2
+
| Block flags
+
|-
+
| HEAD_SIZE
+
| 2
+
| Block size
+
|-
+
| ADD_SIZE
+
| 4
+
| Optional field - added block size
+
|}
+
  
----
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2000 ===
There are certain block types
+
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
=== Introduced in Windows XP ===
|+ Block Types
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* [[Prefetch]]
! Head Type Signifier
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* System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME
! Description
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x72
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| marker block
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|-
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| HEAD_TYPE=0x73
+
| archive header
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x74
+
| file header
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x75
+
| old style comment header
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x76
+
| old style authenticity information
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x77
+
| old style subblock
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x78
+
| old style recovery record
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x79
+
| old style authenticity information
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE=0x7a
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| subblock
+
|}
+
----
+
  
 +
==== SP2 ====
 +
* Windows Firewall
  
===Block Formats===
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server) ===
 +
* Volume Shadow Copies
  
Marker Block (MARK_HEAD)
+
=== Introduced in Windows Vista ===
 +
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker]]
 +
* [[Windows Desktop Search | Search]] integrated in operating system
 +
* [[SuperFetch]]
 +
* [[NTFS|Transactional NTFS (TxF)]]
 +
* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)|Transactional Registry (TxR)]]
 +
* [[Windows Shadow Volumes|Shadow Volumes]]; the volume-based storage of the Volume Shadow Copy data
 +
* $Recycle.Bin
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
* [[User Account Control (UAC)]]
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server) ===
|+ MARK_HEAD
+
! Field Name
+
! Size (bytes)
+
! Possibilities
+
|-
+
| HEAD_CRC
+
| 2
+
| Always 0x6152
+
|-
+
| HEAD_TYPE
+
| 1
+
| Header type: 0x72
+
|-
+
| HEAD_FLAGS
+
| 2
+
| Always 0x1a21
+
|-
+
| HEAD_SIZE
+
| 2
+
| Block size = 0x0007
+
|}
+
  
* Note: the marker block is considered a fixed byte sequence (AKA, magic number) of: 0x52 0x61 0x72 0x21 0x1a 0x07 0x00 (which is seen as 'Rar!')
+
=== Introduced in Windows 7 ===
 +
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker To Go]]
 +
* [[Jump Lists]]
 +
* [[Sticky Notes]]
  
 +
=== Introduced in Windows 8 ===
 +
* [[Windows Shadow Volumes | File History]]
 +
* [[Windows Storage Spaces | Storage Spaces]]
 +
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]; server edition will likely be available in Windows Server 2012
  
==Metadata==
+
== Forensics ==
  
 +
=== Partition layout ===
 +
Default partition layout, first partition starts:
 +
* at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
 +
* at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7
  
 +
=== Filesystems ===
 +
* [[FAT]], [[FAT|exFAT]]
 +
* [[NTFS]]
 +
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS) | ReFS]]
  
==Sub-formats==
+
=== Recycle Bin ===
  
The RAR format is comprised of many sub-formats that have changed over the years. The different formats and their descriptions are as follows:
+
==== RECYCLER ====
:* 1.3 (Does not have the RAR! signature)
+
Used by Windows 2000, XP.
:** There is difficulty finding information regarding this sub-format. Please update if you know something.
+
Uses INFO2 file.
:* 1.5
+
:** Utilizes a proprietary compression method that is not available to the public.
+
:** Considered the root model of subsequent formats.
+
:** A detailed list of information can be found [http://www.win-rar.com/index.php?id=24&kb_article_id=162 here].
+
:* 2.0
+
:** Utilizes a proprietary compression method that is not available to the public.
+
:** Based off of version 1.5 of the RAR file format.
+
:* 3.0
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:** Utilizes the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prediction_by_Partial_Matching PPMII] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LZ77_and_LZ78 Lempel-Ziv (LZSS)]] algorithms.
+
:** Encryption now uses cipher block chaining (CBC) instead of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
+
:** Based off of version 1.5 of the RAR file format.
+
  
 +
See: [http://www.cybersecurityinstitute.biz/downloads/INFO2.pdf]
  
 +
==== $RECYCLE.BIN ====
 +
Used by Windows Vista.
 +
Uses $I and $R files.
  
==Software==
+
See: [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf]
  
This only way to create a RAR file is using the [http://www.rarlab.com/ Winrar software]. There are several implementations of the process to open a RAR file (commonly known as the "unrar" process). Some of them are:
+
=== Registry ===
  
;unrarLib
+
The [[Windows Registry]] is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic [[investigator]]s.
  
:* RAR file unarchiver written in C
+
=== Thumbs.db Files ===
:* Easy implementation with a header file and the source code file
+
:* [http://www.unrarlib.org/ Information Link]
+
  
;WinRAR
+
[[Thumbs.db]] files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the [[investigator]].
  
:* Only software that can create and open a RAR file
+
See also: [[Vista thumbcache]].
:* Distributed by a proprietary license
+
:* [http://www.rarlab.com/download.htm WinRAR executable for Windows]
+
  
;UnRAR
+
=== Browser Cache ===
  
:* Created by Eugene Roshal for opening up RAR files only
+
=== Browser History ===
:* May not be used to reverse engineer the RAR file format and create RAR files
+
:* Source code provided for people to implement/integrate methods of opening RAR files
+
:* Additionally, implementations of UnRAR are available for a plethora of operating systems
+
:* [http://www.rarlab.com/rar_add.htm Download Link]
+
  
;The Unarchiver
+
The [[Web Browser History]] files can contain significant information. The default [[Web browser|web browser]] that comes with Windows is [[Internet Explorer|Microsoft Internet Explorer]] but other common browsers on Windows are [[Apple Safari]], [[Google Chrome]], [[Mozilla Firefox]] and [[Opera]].
  
:* Utility made for Mac OSX to open a multitude of files, including RAR files
+
=== Search ===
:* Very handy for dealing with multiple file types
+
See [[Windows Desktop Search]]
:* [http://code.google.com/p/theunarchiver/downloads/list Source Code Download]
+
:* [http://unarchiver.c3.cx/ Information Website]
+
  
;7-Zip
+
=== Setup log files (setupapi.log) ===
 +
Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521].
  
:* Utility made for Windows applications to open a multitude of files, including RAR files
+
=== Sleep/Hibernation ===
:* [http://www.7-zip.org/download.html Download Link]
+
  
 +
After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.
  
There is a lot more software to open RAR files, but have been omitted due to redundancy.
+
=== Users ===
==See Also==
+
Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAR Wikipedia: RAR]
+
<pre>
* [http://acritum.com/winrar/rar-format RAR File Format Information]
+
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList
* RAR File Format Technical Information for Version 4.11 [[File:RARFileStructure.txt]]
+
</pre>
  
[[Category:File Formats]]
+
The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.
 +
 
 +
== Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives ==
 +
Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see [[Advanced Format]].
 +
 
 +
== %SystemRoot% ==
 +
The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:
 +
<pre>
 +
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
 +
Value: SystemRoot
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== See Also ==
 +
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
 
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windows Wikipedia: Microsoft Windows]
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521 Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Vista setup log file locations]
 +
* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf The Forensic Analysis of the Microsoft Windows Vista Recycle Bin], by [[Mitchell Machor]], 2008
 +
* [http://www.ericjhuber.com/2013/02/microsoft-file-system-tunneling.html?m=1 Microsoft Windows File System Tunneling], by [[Eric Huber]], February 24, 2013
 +
 
 +
=== Under the hood ===
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366533(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Comparing Memory Allocation Methods], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ntdebugging/archive/2007/06/28/how-windows-starts-up-part-the-second.aspx How Windows Starts Up (Part the second)]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa375142.aspx DLL/COM Redirection]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms682586(v=vs.85).aspx Dynamic-Link Library Search Order]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2004/04/28/121871.aspx Image File Execution Options]
 +
 
 +
=== Side-by-side (WinSxS) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-by-side_assembly Wikipedia: Side-by-side assembly]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa374224.aspx Assembly Searching Sequence]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2007/06/26/rt-manifest-resource-and-isolation-aware-enabled.aspx RT_MANIFEST resource, and ISOLATION_AWARE_ENABLED]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd408052(v=vs.85).aspx Isolated Applications and Side-by-side Assemblies]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/01/24/517221.aspx#531208 DotLocal (.local) Dll Redirection], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], January 24, 2006
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/04/14/576314.aspx Diagnosing SideBySide failures], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], April 14, 2006
 +
* [http://omnicognate.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/winsxs/ EVERYTHING YOU NEVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT WINSXS]
 +
 
 +
=== Application Compatibility Database ===
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd837644(v=ws.10).aspx Technet: Understanding Shims], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb432182(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Application Compatibility Database], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=39 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 1], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 20, 2007
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=40 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 2], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 21, 2007
 +
* [http://fred.mandiant.com/Whitepaper_ShimCacheParser.pdf Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in Forensic Investigations], by [[Andrew Davis]], May 4, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== System Restore (Restore Points) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Restore Wikipedia: System Restore]
 +
* [http://www.stevebunting.org/udpd4n6/forensics/restorepoints.htm Restore Point Forensics], by [[Steve Bunting]]
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2007/06/restore-point-analysis.html Restore Point Analysis], by [[Harlan Carvey]],  June 16, 2007
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2006/10/restore-point-forensics.html Restore Point Forensics], by [[Harlan Carvey]], October 20, 2006
 +
* [http://www.ediscovery.co.nz/wip/srp.html System Restore Point Log Decoding]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows Firewall ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Firewall Wikipedia: Windows Firewall]
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc737845(v=ws.10).aspx#BKMK_log Windows Firewall Tools and Settings]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WoW64 Wikipedia: WoW64]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa384253(v=vs.85).aspx Registry Keys Affected by WOW64], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa384232(VS.85).aspx Registry Redirector], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows XP ===
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q308549 Description of Windows XP System Information (Msinfo32.exe) Tool]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows 8 ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Features_new_to_Windows_8 Features new to Windows 8], Wikipedia
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics Windows 8 Forensics - part 1]
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-2 Windows 8 Forensics - part 2]
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-3 Windows 8 Forensics - part 3]
 +
* [http://propellerheadforensics.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/thomson_windows-8-forensic-guide2.pdf Windows 8 Forensic Guide], by [[Amanda Thomson|Amanda C. F. Thomson]], 2012
 +
* [http://forensicfocus.com/Forums/viewtopic/t=9604/ Forensic Focus: Windows 8 Forensics - A First Look], [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCooEz9FQs&feature=youtu.be Presentation], [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/windows-8-forensics-josh-brunty.pdf Slides], by [[Josh Brunty]], August 2012
 +
* [http://dfstream.blogspot.ch/2013/03/windows-8-tracking-opened-photos.html Windows 8: Tracking Opened Photos], by [[Jason Hale]], March 8, 2013
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 02:03, 29 April 2013

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Windows is a widely-spread operating system from Microsoft.

There are 2 main branches of Windows:

  • the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
  • the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista

Features

  • Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [1]

Introduced in Windows NT

Introduced in Windows 2000

Introduced in Windows XP

  • Prefetch
  • System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME

SP2

  • Windows Firewall

Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server)

  • Volume Shadow Copies

Introduced in Windows Vista

Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server)

Introduced in Windows 7

Introduced in Windows 8

Forensics

Partition layout

Default partition layout, first partition starts:

  • at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
  • at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7

Filesystems

Recycle Bin

RECYCLER

Used by Windows 2000, XP. Uses INFO2 file.

See: [2]

$RECYCLE.BIN

Used by Windows Vista. Uses $I and $R files.

See: [3]

Registry

The Windows Registry is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic investigators.

Thumbs.db Files

Thumbs.db files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the investigator.

See also: Vista thumbcache.

Browser Cache

Browser History

The Web Browser History files can contain significant information. The default web browser that comes with Windows is Microsoft Internet Explorer but other common browsers on Windows are Apple Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Search

See Windows Desktop Search

Setup log files (setupapi.log)

Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [4].

Sleep/Hibernation

After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.

Users

Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList

The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.

Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives

Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see Advanced Format.

%SystemRoot%

The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:

Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
Value: SystemRoot

See Also

External Links

Under the hood

Side-by-side (WinSxS)

Application Compatibility Database

System Restore (Restore Points)

Windows Firewall

Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64)

Windows XP

Windows 8