Difference between pages "Disk Imaging" and "Plaso"

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{{Infobox_Software |
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  name = plaso |
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  maintainer = [[Kristinn Gudjonsson]], [[Joachim Metz]] |
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  os = [[Linux]], [[Mac OS X]], [[Windows]] |
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  genre = {{Analysis}} |
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  license = {{APL}} |
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  website = [https://code.google.com/p/plaso/ code.google.com/p/plaso/] |
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}}
  
Disk imaging is the process of making a bit-by-bit copy of a disk. Imaging (in more general terms) can apply to anything that can be considered as a bit-stream, e.g. a physical or logical volumes, network streams, etc.
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Plaso (plaso langar að safna öllu) is the Python based back-end engine used by tools such as log2timeline for automatic creation of a super timelines. The goal of log2timeline (and thus plaso) is to provide a single tool that can parse various log files and forensic artifacts from computers and related systems, such as network equipment to produce a single correlated timeline. This timeline can then be easily analysed by forensic investigators/analysts, speeding up investigations by correlating the vast amount of information found on an average computer system. Plaso is intended to be applied for creating super timelines but also supports creating [http://blog.kiddaland.net/2013/02/targeted-timelines-part-i.html targeted timelines].
  
The most straight-forward disk imaging method is reading a disk from start to end and writing the data to a [[:Category:Forensics_File_Formats|Forensics image format]].
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The Plaso project site also provides [[4n6time]], formerly "l2t_Review", which is a cross-platform forensic tool for timeline creation and review by [[David Nides]].
This can be a time consuming process especially for disks with a large capacity.
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The process of disk imaging is also referred to as disk duplication.
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== Supported Formats ==
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The information below is based of version 1.1.0
  
== Disk Imaging Solutions ==
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=== Storage Media Image File Formats ===
See: [[:Category:Disk Imaging|Disk Imaging Solutions]]
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Storage Medis Image File Format support is provided by [[dfvfs]].
  
== Common practice ==
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=== Volume System Formats ===
It common practice to use a [[Write Blockers|Write Blocker]] when imaging a pyhical disk. The write blocker is an additional measure to prevent write access to the disk.
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Volume System Format support is provided by [[dfvfs]].
  
Also see: [[DCO and HPA|Device Configuration Overlay (DCO) and Host Protected Area (HPA)]]
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=== File System Formats ===
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File System Format support is provided by [[dfvfs]].
  
== Error tolerance and recovery ==
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=== File formats ===
...
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* Apple System Log (ASL)
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* Basic Security Module (BSM)
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* Bencode files
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* [[Google Chrome|Chrome cache files]]
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* CUPS IPP
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* [[Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) Database File (EDB) format]] using [[libesedb]]
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* Firefox Cache
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* Java IDX
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* MacOS-X Application firewall
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* MacOS-X Keychain
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* MacOS-X Securityd
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* MacOS-X Wifi
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* ([[SleuthKit]]) mactime logs
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* McAfee Anti-Virus Logs
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* Microsoft [[Internet Explorer History File Format]] (also known as MSIE 4 - 9 Cache Files or index.dat) using [[libmsiecf]]
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* [[OLE Compound File]] using [[libolecf]]
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* Opera Browser history
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* OpenXML
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* Pcap files
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* Popularity Contest log
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* [[Property list (plist)|Property list (plist) format]] using [[binplist]]
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* SELinux audit logs
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* SkyDrive log and error log files
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* [[SQLite database format]] using [[SQLite]]
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* Symantec AV Corporate Edition and Endpoint Protection log
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* Syslog
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* UTMP
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* UTMPX
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* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]] using [[libevt]]
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* Windows Firewall
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* Windows Job files (also known as "at jobs")
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* Windows Prefetch files
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* Windows Recycle bin (INFO2 and $I/$R)
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* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)]] using [[libregf]]
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* [[LNK|Windows Shortcut File (LNK) format]] using [[liblnk]]
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* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]] using [[libevtx]]
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* Xchat and Xchat scrollback files
  
Also see: [[Piecewise hashing]]
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=== Bencode file formats ===
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* Transmission
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* uTorrent
  
== Smart imaging ==
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=== ESE database file formats ===
Smart imaging is a combination of techniques to make the imaging process more intelligent.
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* Internet Explorer WebCache format
* Compressed storage
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* Deduplication
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* Selective imaging
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* Decryption while imaging
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=== Compressed storage ===
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=== OLE Compound File formats ===
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* Document summary information
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* Summary information (top-level only)
  
A common technique to reduce the size of an image file is to compress the data. Where the compression method should be [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lossless_data_compression lossless].
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=== Property list (plist) formats ===
On modern computers, with multiple cores, the compression can be done in parallel reducing the output without prolonging the imaging process.
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* Airport
Since the write speed of the target disk can be a bottleneck in imaging process, parallel compression can reduce the total time of the imaging process.
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* Apple Account
[[Guymager]] was one of the first imaging tools to implement the concept of multi-process compression for the [[Encase image file format]]. This technique is now used by various imaging tools including [http://www.tableau.com/index.php?pageid=products&model=TSW-TIM Tableau Imager (TIM)]
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* Bluetooth
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* Install History
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* iPod/iPhone
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* Mac User
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* Safari history
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* Software Update
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* Spotlight
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* Spotlight Volume Information
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* Timemachine
  
Other techniques like storing the data sparse, using '''empty-block compression''' or '''pattern fill''', can reduce the total time of the imaging process and the resulting size of new non-encrypted (0-byte filled) disks.
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=== SQLite database file formats ===
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* Android call logs
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* Android SMS
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* Chrome cookies
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* [[Google Chrome|Chrome browsing and downloads history]]
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* [[Mozilla Firefox|Firefox browsing and downloads history]]
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* Google Drive
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* Launch services quarantine events
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* MacKeeper cache
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* Mac OS X document versions
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* Skype text conversations
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* [[Zeitgeist|Zeitgeist activity database]]
  
=== Deduplication ===
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=== [[Windows Registry]] formats ===
Deduplication is the process of determining and storing data that occurs more than once on-disk, only once in the image.
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* [[Windows Application Compatibility|AppCompatCache]]
It is even possible to store the data once for a corpus of images using techniques like hash based imaging.
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* CCleaner
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* Less Frequently Used
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* MountPoints2
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* MRUList and MRUListEx (no shell item support)
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* [[Internet Explorer|MSIE Zones]]
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* Office MRU
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* Outlook Search
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* Run Keys
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* Services
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* Terminal Server MRU
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* Typed URLS
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* USBStor
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* UserAssist
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* WinRar
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* Windows version information
  
=== Selective imaging ===
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== History ==
Selective imaging is a technique to only make a copy of certain information on a disk like the $MFT on an [[NTFS]] volume with the necessary contextual information.
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Plaso is a Python-based rewrite of the Perl-based [[log2timeline]] initially created by [[Kristinn Gudjonsson]]. Plaso builds upon the [[SleuthKit]], [[libyal]], [[dfvfs]] and various other projects.
  
[[EnCase]] Logical Evidence Format (LEF) is an example of a selective image; although only file related contextual information is stored in the format by [[EnCase]].
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== See Also ==
 
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* [[dfvfs]]
=== Decryption while imaging ===
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* [[log2timeline]]
Encrypted data is worst-case scenario for compression. Because the encryption process should be deterministic a solution to reduce the size of an encrypted image is to store it non-encrypted and compressed and encrypt it on-the-fly if required. Although this should be rare since the non-encrypted data is what undergoes analysis.
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== Also see ==
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* [[:Category:Forensics_File_Formats|Forensics File Formats]]
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* [[Write Blockers]]
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* [[Piecewise hashing]]
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== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [http://www.tableau.com/pdf/en/Tableau_Forensic_Disk_Perf.pdf Benchmarking Hard Disk Duplication Performance in Forensic Applications], by [[Robert Botchek]]
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* [https://code.google.com/p/plaso/ Project site]
 
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* [https://sites.google.com/a/kiddaland.net/plaso/home Project documentation]
=== Hash based imaging ===
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* [http://blog.kiddaland.net/ Project blog]
* [http://www.dfrws.org/2010/proceedings/2010-314.pdf Hash based disk imaging using AFF4], by [[Michael Cohen]], [[Bradley Schatz]]
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* [https://sites.google.com/a/kiddaland.net/plaso/usage/4n6time 4n6time]
 
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[[Category:Disk Imaging]]
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Revision as of 01:47, 4 June 2014

plaso
Maintainer: Kristinn Gudjonsson, Joachim Metz
OS: Linux, Mac OS X, Windows
Genre: Analysis
License: APL
Website: code.google.com/p/plaso/

Plaso (plaso langar að safna öllu) is the Python based back-end engine used by tools such as log2timeline for automatic creation of a super timelines. The goal of log2timeline (and thus plaso) is to provide a single tool that can parse various log files and forensic artifacts from computers and related systems, such as network equipment to produce a single correlated timeline. This timeline can then be easily analysed by forensic investigators/analysts, speeding up investigations by correlating the vast amount of information found on an average computer system. Plaso is intended to be applied for creating super timelines but also supports creating targeted timelines.

The Plaso project site also provides 4n6time, formerly "l2t_Review", which is a cross-platform forensic tool for timeline creation and review by David Nides.

Supported Formats

The information below is based of version 1.1.0

Storage Media Image File Formats

Storage Medis Image File Format support is provided by dfvfs.

Volume System Formats

Volume System Format support is provided by dfvfs.

File System Formats

File System Format support is provided by dfvfs.

File formats

Bencode file formats

  • Transmission
  • uTorrent

ESE database file formats

  • Internet Explorer WebCache format

OLE Compound File formats

  • Document summary information
  • Summary information (top-level only)

Property list (plist) formats

  • Airport
  • Apple Account
  • Bluetooth
  • Install History
  • iPod/iPhone
  • Mac User
  • Safari history
  • Software Update
  • Spotlight
  • Spotlight Volume Information
  • Timemachine

SQLite database file formats

Windows Registry formats

  • AppCompatCache
  • CCleaner
  • Less Frequently Used
  • MountPoints2
  • MRUList and MRUListEx (no shell item support)
  • MSIE Zones
  • Office MRU
  • Outlook Search
  • Run Keys
  • Services
  • Terminal Server MRU
  • Typed URLS
  • USBStor
  • UserAssist
  • WinRar
  • Windows version information

History

Plaso is a Python-based rewrite of the Perl-based log2timeline initially created by Kristinn Gudjonsson. Plaso builds upon the SleuthKit, libyal, dfvfs and various other projects.

See Also

External Links