Difference between pages "IPod" and "Proxy server"

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[[Image:ipod.jpg|thumb|200px|A white Fifth Generation iPod with a case and earphones.]]
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{{expand}}
The '''iPod''' is a brand of portable digital media player designed and marketed by Apple Computer. Devices in the iPod family provide a simple user interface designed around a central scroll wheel (with the exception of the iPod shuffle). The standard iPod model stores media on a built-in hard drive, while the smaller iPod shuffle and iPod nano use flash memory. Like most digital audio players, an iPod can serve as an external data storage device when connected to a computer.
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'''Software Capabilities'''
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'''Proxy server''' is a server which services the requests of its clients by forwarding requests to other servers.
  
The iPod can play MP3, WAV, M4A/AAC LC, Protected AAC, AIFF, Audible audiobook and Apple Lossless audio file formats. The fifth-generation iPod can also play .m4v and .mp4 MPEG-4 (namely H.264/MPEG-4 AVC) video file formats. The Microsoft Windows version of iTunes can transcode regular non copy-protected WMA files to an iPod supported format. WMA files with copy protection cannot be played in iTunes or be copied to an iPod. Reviewers have criticized the iPod's inability to play some other formats, in particular the Ogg Vorbis and FLAC formats. MIDI files cannot be played on iPods, but can be converted into a compatible audio file format by choosing the "advanced" menu on iTunes.
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== Overview ==
  
Apple designed the iPod to work with the iTunes media library software, which lets users manage the music libraries on their computers and on their iPods. iTunes can automatically synchronize a user's iPod with specific playlists or with the entire contents of a music library each time an iPod connects to a host computer. Users may also set a rating (out of 5 stars) on any song, and can synchronize that information to an iTunes music library. Apart from iTunes there are also several third-party applications available that can be used to transfer songs to the iPod. iTunes lacks the ability to transfer songs from iPod to computer because of legality issues, although there are third party programs that circumvent Apple's protection.
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Proxy servers are widely used by organizations and individuals for different purposes:
  
In addition to playing music and storing files, the iPod has limited PDA functionality. Since January 2003, Mac users have been able to synchronize their contacts and schedules Address Book and iCal to their iPods through iSync. With the 2005 release of iTunes 5.0, Apple integrated contact/schedule syncing into iTunes and added the ability for Windows users to synchronize their contacts and schedules from Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express. Although Mozilla Calendar and Mozilla Sunbird iCalendar have the same file format used by iCal and the iPod, there is no way to automatically sync schedules among these programs. However the files can be manually dragged and dropped into the correct directory on the iPod.
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* Internet sharing (like [[NAT]]);
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* Traffic compression;
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* Accelerating service requests by retrieving content from cache;
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* and many others.
  
The limited PDA calendar functions of the iPod are somewhat tainted for users from Newfoundland and parts of Australia. Their time zones are excluded from the iPod's firmware, leaving them unable to properly sync calendar events and alarms to their devices. No workaround (including mentally converting times when reading them) is functionally acceptable due to the combined behaviours of iSync, iCal and the iPod with regards to converting events between time zones. Apple has yielded no commitment to correct this problem as of January,2006.
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Proxy servers are often used for malicious purposes (such as fraud).
  
iPod can also display notes, and hence host simple games and store restaurant information. However, iPod has limitations as a PDA, since users cannot edit this information on the iPod except through a computer.
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== HTTP proxies ==
  
'''Models'''
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''These proxy servers are using HTTP.''
  
Apple currently markets three distinct players bearing the iPod name. Some models come with different capacities (a higher capacity allows the storage of more music) or with different designs. The model range as of February 7, 2006 includes:
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Example request (direct; with relative URI):
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<pre>
 +
GET / HTTP/1.1
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Host: cryptome.org
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User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en; rv:1.9.0.3) Gecko/20080528 Epiphany/2.22 Firefox/3.0
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Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
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Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate
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Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7
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Keep-Alive: 300
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Connection: keep-alive
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If-Modified-Since: Tue, 14 Oct 2008 13:59:19 GMT
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If-None-Match: "e01922-62e9-45937059ec2de"
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Cache-Control: max-age=0
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</pre>
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Example request (using proxy; with absolute URI):
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<pre>
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GET http://cryptome.org/ HTTP/1.1
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Host: cryptome.org
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User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en; rv:1.9.0.3) Gecko/20080528 Epiphany/2.22 Firefox/3.0
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Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
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Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate
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Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7
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Keep-Alive: 300
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Proxy-Connection: keep-alive
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If-Modified-Since: Tue, 14 Oct 2008 13:59:19 GMT
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If-None-Match: "e01922-62e9-45937059ec2de"
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Cache-Control: max-age=0
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</pre>
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''Note:'' this HTTP request was intercepted on the way to proxy server.
  
* iPod (30&nbsp;GB and 60&nbsp;GB).
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According to RFC 2068 (section 5.1.2):
* iPod nano (1&nbsp;GB, 2&nbsp;GB, and 4&nbsp;GB).
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<pre>
* iPod shuffle (512&nbsp;MB and 1&nbsp;GB).
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The absoluteURI form is required when the request is being made to a proxy.
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</pre>
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== HTTPS proxies ==
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''The same as above, but using HTTPS (HTTP over SSL/TLS).''
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Sometimes HTTP proxies that support CONNECT method are called ''"HTTPS proxies"''. These HTTP proxies can tunnel almost every TCP-based protocol.
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Example request:
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<pre>
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CONNECT home.netscape.com:443 HTTP/1.0
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User-agent: Mozilla/1.1N
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</pre>
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== SOCKS proxies ==
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SOCKS is an Internet protocol that allows client-server applications to transparently use the services of a network firewall.
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== Web proxies (CGI proxies) ==
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These are web sites that allow a user to access a site through them. They generally use PHP or CGI to implement the proxy functionality.
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== Proxy detection ==
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[[Category:Anti-Forensics]]
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[[Category:Network Forensics]]

Revision as of 14:06, 15 October 2008

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Proxy server is a server which services the requests of its clients by forwarding requests to other servers.

Overview

Proxy servers are widely used by organizations and individuals for different purposes:

  • Internet sharing (like NAT);
  • Traffic compression;
  • Accelerating service requests by retrieving content from cache;
  • and many others.

Proxy servers are often used for malicious purposes (such as fraud).

HTTP proxies

These proxy servers are using HTTP.

Example request (direct; with relative URI):

GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: cryptome.org
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en; rv:1.9.0.3) Gecko/20080528 Epiphany/2.22 Firefox/3.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate
Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7
Keep-Alive: 300
Connection: keep-alive
If-Modified-Since: Tue, 14 Oct 2008 13:59:19 GMT
If-None-Match: "e01922-62e9-45937059ec2de"
Cache-Control: max-age=0

Example request (using proxy; with absolute URI):

GET http://cryptome.org/ HTTP/1.1
Host: cryptome.org
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en; rv:1.9.0.3) Gecko/20080528 Epiphany/2.22 Firefox/3.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate
Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7
Keep-Alive: 300
Proxy-Connection: keep-alive
If-Modified-Since: Tue, 14 Oct 2008 13:59:19 GMT
If-None-Match: "e01922-62e9-45937059ec2de"
Cache-Control: max-age=0

Note: this HTTP request was intercepted on the way to proxy server.

According to RFC 2068 (section 5.1.2):

The absoluteURI form is required when the request is being made to a proxy.

HTTPS proxies

The same as above, but using HTTPS (HTTP over SSL/TLS).

Sometimes HTTP proxies that support CONNECT method are called "HTTPS proxies". These HTTP proxies can tunnel almost every TCP-based protocol.

Example request:

CONNECT home.netscape.com:443 HTTP/1.0
User-agent: Mozilla/1.1N 

SOCKS proxies

SOCKS is an Internet protocol that allows client-server applications to transparently use the services of a network firewall.

Web proxies (CGI proxies)

These are web sites that allow a user to access a site through them. They generally use PHP or CGI to implement the proxy functionality.

Proxy detection