Difference between pages "Determining OS version from an evidence image" and "Compression"

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One of the first steps an examiners will need to carry out once they have an evidence image is to log system metadata, including OS version and patch level. This may be of particular importance if the image in question is from a machine that is suspected of having been compromised.
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{{Expand}}
  
==Windows==
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== LZ-based ==
  
===Windows 95/98/ME===
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=== Deflate/Inflate ===
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Used in:
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* [[Encase image file format|Expert Witness (Compression) Format (EWF)]]
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* [[Gzip|gzip]]
  
Establish the boot volume, verify that it is a FAT file system, and locate the hidden text file \MSDOS.SYS. Locate the [Options]WinVer parameter:
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=== LZNT1 ===
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Used in:
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* [[NTFS]]
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* [[Windows SuperFetch Format]]
  
{| class="wikitable"
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=== LZXPRESS ===
|-
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Used in:
! WinVer
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* [[Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) Database File (EDB) format]]
! OS
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|-
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| 4.00.0950
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| Windows 95
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|-
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| 4.00.1111
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| Windows 95 OSR2
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|-
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| 4.03.1212
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| Windows 95 OSR2.1
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|-
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| 4.03.1214
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| Windows 95 OSR2.5
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|-
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| 4.10.1998
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| Windows 98
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|-
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| 4.10.2222
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| Windows 98 SE
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|-
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| 4.90.3000
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| Windows ME
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|}
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Alternatively, establish WinDir ([Paths]WinDir in \MSDOS.SYS), locate the %WINDIR%\SYSTEM.DAT registry file. Next, look up the registry key Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\, and values Version and VersionNumber. (Backup copies of SYSTEM.DAT may be found in .CAB files in %WINDIR%\SYSBCKUP.)
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=== LZXPRESS Huffman ===
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Used in:
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* [[Windows SuperFetch Format]]
  
===Windows NT===
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== External Links ==
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lempel-Ziv Wikipedia: Lempel-Ziv]
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* [http://www.coderforlife.com/microsoft-compression-formats/ Microsoft Compression Formats]
  
===Windows 2000/2003/XP/Vista===
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=== Deflate/Inflate ===
Information about a running system can be displayed using the command `ver` (and `systeminfo` on some systems).
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DEFLATE Wikipedia: DEFLATE]
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* [https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1950 RFC1950 - ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification], by [[IETF]]
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* [https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1951 RFC1951 - DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification], by [[IETF]]
  
During a forensic examination, information regarding the version of Windows can be found in a number of places.  For example, by default, the Windows directory on Windows XP is "C:\Windows", where on Windows NT and 2000, it was "C:\Winnt".  This is not definitive, however, because this directory name is easily modified during installation.
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=== LZ1 ===
 
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* [http://andyh.org/LZ1.html LZ1]
Determining the version of Windows from the Software Registry Hive file - navigate to the ''Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion'' key, and examine the values beneath the key; specifically, values such as ProductName, CSDVersion, ProductId (if available), BuildLab, and on Vista, BuildLabEx.
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Determining the version of Windows from file version information - locate the file %WinDir%\system32\ntoskrnl.exe and review the file version information/strings from the resource section of the PE file.  You can view this information with a hex editor, or extract it using a variety of means.  There is a Perl module (Win32::File::VersionInfo) that will allow you to extract this information, and the Perl script [http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=164158&package_id=203967 kern.pl] illustrates a platform independent means of examining the PE header and ultimately locating the file version information.
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In order to determine the difference between Windows XP Professional and Home versions, look for the %WinDir%\system32\prodspec.ini file; it contains information regarding the Product type (either XP Pro or Home). Another way to do this is to look at Microsoft Product Code (first 5 digits of ''Product ID''). Some of these values:
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{| class="wikitable" border="1"
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|-
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!Value (MPC)!!Version
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|-
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|55034 || Windows XP Professional English
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|-
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|55683 || Windows XP Professional Russian
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|-
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|55681 || Windows XP Home Edition Russian
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|}
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==Unix/Linux==
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Information about a running system, including the kernel version, can be displayed using the command `uname -a`. However, this is not much good if you performing dead analysis on a disk image.
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===Linux===
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A number of Linux distributions create a file in ''/etc'' to identify the release or version installed.
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<pre>
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/etc/issue
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/etc/issue.net
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</pre>
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{| class="wikitable" border="1"
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|-
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!Distro!!Tag
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|-
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|Red Hat || /etc/redhat-release
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|-
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|Debian  || /etc/debian-version
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|}
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===Solaris===
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===Free/Net/OpenBSD===
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You can get the release and version of BSDs operating system inside the kernel images, even with only a disk image.
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{| class="wikitable" border="1"
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|-
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!OS!!Kernel path
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|-
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|FreeBSD || /boot/kernel/kernel
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|-
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|OpenBSD || /bsd
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|-
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|NetBSD || /netbsd
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|-
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|}
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You can use <tt>strings</tt> and <tt>grep</tt> tools to find this information with <tt>strings kernel_path | grep os_name</tt>. (e.g.: <tt>strings /bsd | grep OpenBSD</tt>)
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===AIX===
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===HP/UX===
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[[Category:Howtos]]
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Revision as of 09:58, 21 June 2014

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Further information might be found on the discussion page.

LZ-based

Deflate/Inflate

Used in:

LZNT1

Used in:

LZXPRESS

Used in:

LZXPRESS Huffman

Used in:

External Links

Deflate/Inflate

LZ1