Difference between pages "Tools:Data Recovery" and "Windows Memory Analysis"

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= Partition Recovery =
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Analysis of [[physical memory]] from [[Windows]] systems can yield significant information about the target operating system. This field is still very new, but holds great promise.
  
*[http://www.ptdd.com/index.htm Partition Table Doctor]
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== Sample Memory Images ==
: Recover deleted or lost partitions (FAT16/FAT32/NTFS/NTFS5/EXT2/EXT3/SWAP).
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*[http://www.diskinternals.com/ntfs-recovery/ NTFS Recovery]
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Getting started with memory analysis can be difficult without some known images to practice with.  
: DiskInternals NTFS Recovery is a fully automatic utility that recovers data from damaged or formatted disks.
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*[http://www.stud.uni-hannover.de/user/76201/gpart/ gpart]
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* The 2005 [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop]] [http://www.dfrws.org/2005/challenge/ Memory Analysis Challenge] published two Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 memory images with some [[malware]] installed.
: Gpart is a tool which tries to guess the primary partition table of a PC-type hard disk in case the primary partition table in sector 0 is damaged, incorrect or deleted.
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*[http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk TestDisk]
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* The [http://dftt.sourceforge.net/ Digital Forensics Tool Testing] project has published a few [http://dftt.sourceforge.net/test13/index.html Windows memory images].
: [[TestDisk]] is an OpenSource software and is licensed under the GNU Public License (GPL).
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*[http://www.stellarinfo.com/partition-recovery.htm Partition Recovery Software]
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: Partition Recovery software for NTFS & FAT system that examines lost windows partition of damaged and corrupted hard drive.
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== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
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* [[Pagefile.sys]]
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* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa366778%28VS.85%29.aspx Memory Limits for Windows Releases], Microsoft MSDN.
  
* [http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=166997 Using Norton Disk Edit to Backup Your Master Boot Record]
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== History ==  
 
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== Notes ==
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* "fdisk /mbr" restores the boot code in the [[Master Boot Record]], but not the partition itself. On newer versions of Windows you should use fixmbr, bootrec, mbrfix, or [[MBRWizard]]. You can also extract a copy of the specific standard MBR code from tools like bootrec.exe and diskpart.exe in Windows (from various offsets) and copy it to disk with dd (Use bs=446 count=1). For Windows XP SP2 c:\%WINDIR%\System32\diskpart.exe the MBR code is found between offset 1b818h and 1ba17h.
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= Data Recovery =
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The term "Data Recovery" is frequently used to mean forensic recovery, but the term really should be used for recovering data from damaged media.
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*[http://www.salvationdata.com/data-recovery-equipment/hd-doctor.htm HD Doctor Suite]
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: HD Doctor Suite is a set of professional tools used to fix firmware problem
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*[http://www.salvationdata.com SalvationDATA]
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: Claims to have a program that can read the "bad blocks" of Maxtor drives with proprietary commands.
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*[http://www.toolsthatwork.com/bringback.htm BringBack]
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: BringBack offers easy to use, inexpensive, and highly successful data recovery for Windows and Linux (ext2) operating systems and digital images stored on memory cards, etc.
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*[http://www.runtime.org/raid.htm RAID Reconstructor]
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: Runtime Software's RAID Reconstructor will reconstruct RAID Level 0 (Striping) and RAID Level 5 drives.
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* [http://www.e-rol.com/en/ e-ROL]
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: Erol allows you to recover through the internet files erased by mistake. Recover your files online for free.
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* [http://www.recuva.com/ Recuva]
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: Recuva is a freeware Windows tool that will recover accidentally deleted files.
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* [http://www.snapfiles.com/get/restoration.html Restoration]
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: Restoration is a freeware Windows software that will allow you to recover deleted files
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* [http://www.undelete-plus.com/ Undelete Plus]
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: Undelete Plus is a free deleted file recovery tool that works for all versions of Windows (95-Vista), FAT12/16/32, NTFS and NTFS5 filesystems and can perform recovery on various solid state devices.
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* [http://www.data-recovery-software.net/ R-Studio]
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: R-Studio is a data recovery software suite that can recover files from FAT(12-32), NTFS, NTFS 5, HFS/HFS+, FFS, UFS/UFS2 (*BSD, Solaris), Ext2/Ext3 (Linux) and so on.
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* [http://www.stellarinfo.com/ Stellar Phoenix]
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: Data recovery software services & tools to recover lost data from hard drive.
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* [http://www.deepspar.com/ DeepSpar Disk Imager]
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: DeepSpar Disk Imager is a dedicated disk imaging device built to handle disk-level problems and to recover bad sectors on a hard drive.
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* [http://digital-assembly.com/products/adroit-photo-recovery/ Adroit Photo Recovery]
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: Adroit Photo Recovery is a photo recovery tool that uses validated carving and is able to recover fragmented photos. Adroit Photo Recovery is able
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: to recover high definition RAW images from Canon, Nikon etc.
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See also [[Data Recovery Stories]]
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=Carving=
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*[http://www.datalifter.com/products.htm DataLifter® - File Extractor Pro]
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: Data carving runs on multiple threads to make use of modern processors
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*[http://www.simplecarver.com/ Simple Carver Suite]
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: Simple Carver Suite is a collection of unique tools designed for a number of purposes including data recovery, forensic computing and eDiscovery. The suite was originally designed for data recovery and has since expanded to include unique file decoding, file identification and file classification.
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*[http://foremost.sourceforge.net/ Foremost]
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: Foremost is a console program to recover files based on their headers, footers, and internal data structures.
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*[http://www.digitalforensicssolutions.com/Scalpel/ Scalpel]
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: Scalpel is a fast file carver that reads a database of header and footer definitions and extracts matching files from a set of image files or raw device files. Scalpel is filesystem-independent and will carve files from FATx, NTFS, ext2/3, or raw partitions.
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*[[EnCase]]
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: EnCase comes with some enScripts that will do carving.
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*[[CarvFs]]
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: A virtual file system (fuse) implementation that can provide carving tools with the possibility to do recursive multi tool zero-storage carving (also called in-place carving). Patches and scripts for scalpel and foremost are provided. Works on raw and encase images.
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*[[LibCarvPath]]
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: A shared library that allows carving tools to use zero-storage carving on carvfs virtual files.
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*[http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/PhotoRec PhotoRec]
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: PhotoRec is file data recovery software designed to recover lost files including video, documents and archives from Hard Disks and CDRom and lost pictures (thus, its 'Photo Recovery' name) from digital camera memory.
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*[http://www.datarescue.com/photorescue/ PhotoRescue]
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During the 1990s, it became a [[best practice]] to capture a [[Tools:Memory_Imaging|memory image]] during [[Incident Response|incident response]]. At the time, the only way to analyze such memory images was using [[strings]]. Although this method could reveal interesting details about the memory image, there was no way to associate what data came from what program, let alone what user.  
: Datarescue PhotoRescue Advanced is picture and photo data recovery solution made by the creators of IDA Pro. PhotoRescue will undelete, unerase and recover pictures and files lost on corrupted, erased or damaged compact flash (CF) cards, SD Cards, Memory Sticks, SmartMedia and XD cards.
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* [https://www.uitwisselplatform.nl/projects/revit RevIt]
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In the summer 2005 the [[Digital Forensic Research Workshop]] published a ''Memory Analysis Challenge''. They distributed two memory images and asked researchers to answer a number of questions about a security incident. The challenge produced two seminal works. The first, by [[Chris Betz]], introduced a tool called [[memparser]]. The second, by [[George Garner]] and [[Robert-Jan Mora]] produced [[KnTList]].
: RevIt (Revive It) is an experimental carving tool, initially developed for the DFRWS 2006 carving challenge. It uses 'file structure based carving'. Note that RevIt currently is a work in progress.
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* [http://jbj.rapanden.dk/magicrescue/ Magic Rescue]
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At the [[Blackhat (conference)|Blackhat Federal]] conference in March 2007, [[AAron Walters]] and [[Nick Petroni]] released a suite called [[volatools]]. Although it only worked on [[Windows XP]] Service Pack 2 images, it was able to produce a number of useful data. [[volatools]] was updated and re-released as [[Volatility]] in August 2007, and is now maintained and distributed by [https://www.volatilesystems.com/ Volatile Systems].
: Magic Rescue is a file carving tool that uses "magic bytes" in a file contents to recover data.
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* [[FTK]]
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==Bibliography==
: FTK2 includes some file carvers
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== Memory Analysis Bibliography ==
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===Windows Memory Analysis===
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; 2008
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* [http://citp.princeton.edu/memory/ Lest We Remember: Cold Boot Attacks on Encryption Keys] ([http://citp.princeton.edu.nyud.net/pub/coldboot.pdf PDF]), Usenix Security 2008 (Best student paper)
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* [http://blogs.technet.com/markrussinovich/archive/2008/07/21/3092070.aspx Pushing the Limits of Windows: Physical Memory], Mark Russinovich, Technet Blogs, July 21, 2008
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p58-schuster.pdf The impact of Microsoft Windows pool allocation strategies on memory forensics], Andreas Schuster, DFRWS 2008 [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p58-schuster_pres.pdf [slides]]
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* [http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-federal-06/BH-Fed-06-Burdach/bh-fed-06-burdach-up.pdf Finding Digital Evidence In Physical Memory], Mariusz Burdach, Black Hat Federal, 2008
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p52-vanBaar.pdf Forensic Memory Analysis: Files mapped in memory], Ruud van Baar, DFRWS 2008, [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p52-vanBaar_pres.pdf [slides]]
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt.pdf Forensic Analysis of the Windows Registry in Memory], Brendan Dolan-Gavitt, DFRWS 2008 [http://www.dfrws.org/2008/proceedings/p26-dolan-gavitt_pres.pdf [slides]]
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; 2007
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2007/proceedings/p114-arasteh.pdf Forensic Memory Analysis: From Stack and Code to Execution History], Ali Reza Arasteh and Mourad Debbabi, DFRWS 2007
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2007/proceedings/p126-schatz.pdf BodySnatcher: Towards Reliable Volatile Memory Acquisition by Software], Bradley Schatz, DFRWS 2007
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2007/proceedings/p62-dolan-gavitt.pdf The VAD Tree: A Process-Eye View of Physical Memory], Brendan F Dolan-Gavitt, DFRWS 2007
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; 2006
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* [http://www.dfrws.org/2006/proceedings/2-Schuster.pdf Searching for Processes and Threads in Microsoft Windows Memory Dumps], Andreas Schuster, Deutsche Telekom AG, Germany, DFRWS 2006
  
* [http://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/X-Ways]
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[[Category:Bibliographies]]
: X-Ways Forensic provides a robust list of file types as well as the ability to specific custom file headers/trailers.  File types are available for carving, identification and filtering.
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*[[Adroit Photo Forensics]]
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== External Links ==
: Adroit Photo Forensics supports data carving of popular image formats. Also supports fragmented carving using [[File_Carving:SmartCarving|SmartCarving]] and [[File_Carving:GuidedCarving|GuidedCarving]].
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; Jesse Kornblum Memory Analysis discussion on Cyberspeak
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: http://cyberspeak.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id=98104
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; Memory Analysis Bibliography
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: http://www.4tphi.net/fatkit/#links

Revision as of 00:53, 4 December 2009

Analysis of physical memory from Windows systems can yield significant information about the target operating system. This field is still very new, but holds great promise.

Sample Memory Images

Getting started with memory analysis can be difficult without some known images to practice with.

See Also

History

During the 1990s, it became a best practice to capture a memory image during incident response. At the time, the only way to analyze such memory images was using strings. Although this method could reveal interesting details about the memory image, there was no way to associate what data came from what program, let alone what user.

In the summer 2005 the Digital Forensic Research Workshop published a Memory Analysis Challenge. They distributed two memory images and asked researchers to answer a number of questions about a security incident. The challenge produced two seminal works. The first, by Chris Betz, introduced a tool called memparser. The second, by George Garner and Robert-Jan Mora produced KnTList.

At the Blackhat Federal conference in March 2007, AAron Walters and Nick Petroni released a suite called volatools. Although it only worked on Windows XP Service Pack 2 images, it was able to produce a number of useful data. volatools was updated and re-released as Volatility in August 2007, and is now maintained and distributed by Volatile Systems.

Bibliography

Memory Analysis Bibliography

Windows Memory Analysis

2008
2007
2006

External Links

Jesse Kornblum Memory Analysis discussion on Cyberspeak
http://cyberspeak.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id=98104
Memory Analysis Bibliography
http://www.4tphi.net/fatkit/#links