Difference between pages "RFID" and "Encase image file format"

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== RFID ==
+
The Encase image file format is used by [[EnCase]] used to store various types of digital evidence e.g.
RFID stands for Radio Frequency IDentification. It typically applies to a technology that uses radio waves to automatically identify people or objects.  While there are various ways to identify, the most common is to store a serial number that represents a person or object identity and possibly other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna. Collectively the microchip and antenna represent a RFID transponder or an RFID tag. The antenna gives the chip ability to transmit identity information to a RFID reader. Then the RFID reader converts the radio waves into digital information that can then be passed to the computer for usage. RFID has been around since the 1970s. Since the radio waves from the low end of the electromagnetic spectrum, waves are safe as  radio waves from a car radio.
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* disk image (physical bitstream of an acquired disk)
 +
* volume image
 +
* memory
 +
* logical files
  
RFID and Bar codes are different technologies and have different applications.  The big difference between the two is bar codes are line-of-sight technology. A scanner requires a bar code be brought towards a scanner in order for it to be read. RFID on the other hand, doesn’t require line of sight. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a RFID reader. If a label is somehow removed or damaged there is no way to scan the item.
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== History ==
 +
Expert Witness (for Windows) was the original name for EnCase (dating back to 1998). More info about this can be found on the Internet Archive [http://web.archive.org/web/19980504153628/http://guidancesoftware.com/] including a demo of the original software [http://web.archive.org/web/19980504153759/http://guidancesoftware.com/data/ewsetup.exe].
  
Currently many forms and sizes such as personal items, services, and products use RFID. Currently in the United States, most public transportation such as trains, buses, and restaurants such as Mcdonald's all carry RFID receptacles that allow credit card transactions using MasterCard's PayPass. MasterCard PayPass is the payment feature that can be added to any MasterCard payment account to enable payments with a simple tap. PayPass is flexible enough that it can be built into cards or other devices such as key fobs, and can be used in markets that primarily issue smart cards or those that primarily issue magnetic stripe cards.  
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(presumably) the product was renamed because it intruded the Expert Wittness trademark held by ASR Data [http://www.asrdata.com/wp-content/themes/asr/pdf/ruling.pdf].
  
According to InfoSync.com, "
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The Encase image file format therefore is also referred to as the Expert Witness (Compression) Format.
Motorola and MasterCard are conducting field tests of new mobile phones that include Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chips embedded in them as part of a cashless payment system dubbed PayPass. The phones will be equipped with Near Field Communication (NFC) systems, which will allow them to communicate with nearby readers to, for instance, pay for small purchases or tickets for transit or events simply by passing their phone close to a reader.
+
  
Once the phone and account has been identified by the RFID tag, the user's MasterCard account will be billed automatically by the network for the appropriate amount. MasterCard also sees potential for the phones as contactless readers, which it claims opens the door for "a variety of marketing and promotional applications", on which the company did not elaborate further.
 
  
The PayPass trials will be run by the end of the year at various locations in the United States."
+
Currently there are 2 versions of the format:
 +
* version 1 is (reportedly) based on [[:File:ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format.pdf|ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format]]
 +
* version 2 was introduced in EnCase 7, for which a format specification (at least non-encrypted Ex01) is available, but requires registration.
 +
 
 +
The libewf project indicates that the January 2012 version of the version 2 format specification, besides Lx01 not being specified, is sufficient to read non-encrypted Ex01 files.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Although the format specification is not complete, at the moment Guidance Software is working on an update. This will not include:
 +
* encrypted Ex01
 +
* Lx01
 +
 
 +
 
 +
So in contrast to other claims [http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/linux_forensics/message/3555] the EWF file format is:
 +
* proprietary
 +
* partially open specification
 +
 
 +
For more information about these definitions see: [[File formats]]
 +
 
 +
== Version 1 ==
 +
The media data can be stored in multiple evidence files, which are called segment files.
 +
Each segment file consist of multiple sections, which has a distinct section start definition containing a section type.
 +
Up to EnCase 5 the segment file were limited to 2 GiB, due to the internal 31-bit file offset representation. This limitation was lifted by adding a base offset value in EnCase 6.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
EnCase allows to store the data compressed either using a fast or best level of the deflate compression method.
 +
EnCase 7 no longer distinguishes between fast or best compression and just provides for either uncompressed or compressed.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Besides digital evidence the evidence files, or segment files, contain a header containing case information.
 +
The case information which entails date and time of acquisition, an examiner's name, notes on the acquisition, and an optional password.
 +
* In EnCase 3 the case information header is stored in the "header" section, which is defined twice within the file and contain the same information.
 +
* As of EnCase 4 an additional "header2" section was added. The "header" section now appears only once, but the new "header2" section twice.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The format adds error detection by storing the data with checksums (Adler32), for both the metadata as the data blocks, which are by default 64 x 512 byte sectors (32 KiB).
 +
As of EnCase 5 the number of sectors per block (chunk) can vary.
 +
EnCase 3F introduced an "error2" section that it uses to record the location and number of bad sector chunks. The way it handles the sections it can't read is that those areas are filled with zero.
 +
Then EnCase displays to the user the areas that could not be read when the image was acquired. The granularity of unreadable chunks appears to be 32K.
 +
As of EnCase 5 the granularity of unreadable chunks can vary.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
EnCase 3 can store a one-way hash of the data. For a bitstream it does so by calculating e.g. a MD5 hash of the original media data and adds a hash section to the last of the segment file.
 +
As of EnCase 6 the option to store a SHA1 hash was added.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
EnCase 5 and later have the option to store '''single files''' into the EnCase Logical Evidence File (LEF) or EWF-L01.
 +
This format changed slightly in EnCase 6 and 7.
 +
 
 +
== Version 2 ==
 +
 
 +
In EnCase 7 the EWF format was succeeded by the EnCase Evidence File Format Version 2 (EWF2-EX01 and EWF2-LX01).
 +
EWF2-EX01 is at it's lower levels a different format then EWF-E01 and provides support for:
 +
* bzip2 compression
 +
* direct encryption (AES-256) of the section data
 +
 
 +
The same features are added to the new logical evidence file format (EWF2-LX01) with the exception of encryption.
 +
The actual encryption method and corresponding key derivation are, currently, not open.
 +
 
 +
EWF2-EX01, EWF2-LX01 are not backwards compatible with previous EnCase products.
 +
 
 +
== See Also ==
 +
 
 +
* [[:File:ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format.pdf|ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format]]
 +
* [[EnCase]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
 
 +
* [http://encase-enterprise-blog.guidancesoftware.com/2012/01/2nd-generation-encase-evidence-file.html 2nd Generation EnCase Evidence File Technical Specification now Available], Guidance Software, Jan 2012
 +
* Requires registration: [http://www.guidancesoftware.com/DocumentRegistration.aspx?did=1000018246 EnCase Evidence File Format Version 2], Guidance Software, Jan 2012
 +
* [http://code.google.com/p/libewf/downloads/detail?name=Expert%20Witness%20Compression%20Format%20%28EWF%29.pdf Expert Witness Compression Format (EWF)].
 +
* [http://code.google.com/p/libewf/downloads/detail?name=Expert%20Witness%20Compression%20Format%202%20%28EWF2%29.pdf Expert Witness Compression Format (EWF) version 2].
 +
* [http://www.cfreds.nist.gov/v2/Basic_Mac_Image.html Sample image in EnCase, iLook, and dd format] - From the [[Computer Forensic Reference Data Sets]] Project
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Forensics File Formats]]

Revision as of 14:48, 17 September 2012

The Encase image file format is used by EnCase used to store various types of digital evidence e.g.

  • disk image (physical bitstream of an acquired disk)
  • volume image
  • memory
  • logical files

Contents

History

Expert Witness (for Windows) was the original name for EnCase (dating back to 1998). More info about this can be found on the Internet Archive [1] including a demo of the original software [2].

(presumably) the product was renamed because it intruded the Expert Wittness trademark held by ASR Data [3].

The Encase image file format therefore is also referred to as the Expert Witness (Compression) Format.


Currently there are 2 versions of the format:

  • version 1 is (reportedly) based on ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format
  • version 2 was introduced in EnCase 7, for which a format specification (at least non-encrypted Ex01) is available, but requires registration.

The libewf project indicates that the January 2012 version of the version 2 format specification, besides Lx01 not being specified, is sufficient to read non-encrypted Ex01 files.


Although the format specification is not complete, at the moment Guidance Software is working on an update. This will not include:

  • encrypted Ex01
  • Lx01


So in contrast to other claims [4] the EWF file format is:

  • proprietary
  • partially open specification

For more information about these definitions see: File formats

Version 1

The media data can be stored in multiple evidence files, which are called segment files. Each segment file consist of multiple sections, which has a distinct section start definition containing a section type. Up to EnCase 5 the segment file were limited to 2 GiB, due to the internal 31-bit file offset representation. This limitation was lifted by adding a base offset value in EnCase 6.


EnCase allows to store the data compressed either using a fast or best level of the deflate compression method. EnCase 7 no longer distinguishes between fast or best compression and just provides for either uncompressed or compressed.


Besides digital evidence the evidence files, or segment files, contain a header containing case information. The case information which entails date and time of acquisition, an examiner's name, notes on the acquisition, and an optional password.

  • In EnCase 3 the case information header is stored in the "header" section, which is defined twice within the file and contain the same information.
  • As of EnCase 4 an additional "header2" section was added. The "header" section now appears only once, but the new "header2" section twice.


The format adds error detection by storing the data with checksums (Adler32), for both the metadata as the data blocks, which are by default 64 x 512 byte sectors (32 KiB). As of EnCase 5 the number of sectors per block (chunk) can vary. EnCase 3F introduced an "error2" section that it uses to record the location and number of bad sector chunks. The way it handles the sections it can't read is that those areas are filled with zero. Then EnCase displays to the user the areas that could not be read when the image was acquired. The granularity of unreadable chunks appears to be 32K. As of EnCase 5 the granularity of unreadable chunks can vary.


EnCase 3 can store a one-way hash of the data. For a bitstream it does so by calculating e.g. a MD5 hash of the original media data and adds a hash section to the last of the segment file. As of EnCase 6 the option to store a SHA1 hash was added.


EnCase 5 and later have the option to store single files into the EnCase Logical Evidence File (LEF) or EWF-L01. This format changed slightly in EnCase 6 and 7.

Version 2

In EnCase 7 the EWF format was succeeded by the EnCase Evidence File Format Version 2 (EWF2-EX01 and EWF2-LX01). EWF2-EX01 is at it's lower levels a different format then EWF-E01 and provides support for:

  • bzip2 compression
  • direct encryption (AES-256) of the section data

The same features are added to the new logical evidence file format (EWF2-LX01) with the exception of encryption. The actual encryption method and corresponding key derivation are, currently, not open.

EWF2-EX01, EWF2-LX01 are not backwards compatible with previous EnCase products.

See Also

External Links