Difference between pages "WinFE" and "Mac OS X"

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{{Infobox_Software |
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{{Expand}}
  name = Windows Forensic Environment |
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  maintainer = [[Windows Forensic Environment Project]] |
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  os = {{Windows}} |
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  genre = {{Live CD}} |
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  license = unknown |
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  website = http://winfe.wordpress.com |
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}}
+
  
 +
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].
  
'''Windows Forensic Environment''' - a forensically sound bootable CD/USB to acquire electronic media or conduct forensic analysis.
+
== Disk image types ==
                                             
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== Windows Forensic Environment ("WinFE") ==
+
  
WinFE was developed and researched in 2008 by Troy Larson, Sr Forensic Examiner and Research at Microsoft [http://www.twine.com/item/113421dk0-g99/windows-fe]. WinFE is based off the Windows Pre-installation Environment of media being Read Only by default.
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
It works similar to Linux forensic CDs that are configured not to mount media upon booting.
+
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
However, unlike Linux boot CDs, with Win FE one can use Windows based software. Thus it is possible to include various forensic software and general portable utilities.
+
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
WinFE can also be configured to boot from a USB device, should the evidence computer have the ability to boot to USB.
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* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
WinFE can be customized to the examiner's needs through batch files using the Windows Automated Install Kit (WAIK) or through 3rd party utilities such as WinBuilder [http://reboot.pro].
+
== Burn Folder ==
+
Some examples of Windows based forensic utilities that can run in the Windows Forensic Environment include:
+
* X-Ways Forensics [http://www.x-ways.net],
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* AccessData FTK Imager [http://www.accessdata.com],
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* Guidance Software Encase [http://www.guidancesoftware.com],
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* ProDiscover [http://www.techpathways.net],
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* RegRipper [http://www.RegRipper.wordpress.com].
+
  
A write protection tool developed by Colin Ramsden was released in 2012 that provides a GUI for disk toggling [http://www.ramsdens.org.uk/].  Colin Ramsden's write protect tool effectively replaces the command line to toggle disks on/offline or readonly/readwrite.
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 +
<pre>
 +
$NAME.fpbf
 +
</pre>
  
== Technical Background and Forensic Soundness ==
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 +
<pre>
 +
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 +
</pre>
  
Windows FE is based on the modification of just two entries in the Windows Registry.
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
The first key is located at "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\system\ControlSet001\Services\MountMgr". The DWord "NoAutoMount" has to be set to "1".
+
By doing this the Mount-Manager service will not automatically mount any storage device.
+
The second key is "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\system\ControlSet001\Services\partmgr\Parameters" where "SanPolicy" has to be set to "3".
+
While both keys will avoid the mounting of storage devices the user has to mount the storage drive manually by using the command-line tool DiskPart, while the evidence drive does not need to be mounted for imaging/forensic access.
+
  
The latest modification (New for Windows 8) to the registry is SAN policy 4. SAN policy 4 Makes internal disks offline. Note. All external disks and the boot disk are online.
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 +
</pre>
  
Testing has shown that mounting a '''volume''' in READ ONLY mode will write a controlling code to the disk, whereas mounting a '''disk''' in READ ONLY mode will not make any changes.  Depending on the type of filesystem there is a potential modification to the disk with a documented 4-byte change to non-user created data. This modification exists for non-Windows OS disks, where Windows (FE) will write a Windows drive signature to the disk, although it is not shown to be consistent.  Various issues with Linux Boot CDs can be compared [http://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/Forensic_Linux_Live_CD_issues] ).
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 +
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
  
== Resources: ==
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
  
* Windows Forensic Environment blog: [http://www.winfe.wordpress.com]
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
* Article on Win FE in Hakin9 magazine 2009-06 [http://hakin9.org]  
+
 
* step-by-step Video to create a Win FE CD [http://www.youtube.com/v/J3T5wnPiObI]
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Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
* WinPE Technical Reference: [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd744322(WS.10).aspx]
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<pre>
* Windows Automated Installation Kit:  [http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=696DD665-9F76-4177-A811-39C26D3B3B34&displaylang=en]
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import datetime
* WinFE Write Protect tool [http://www.ramsdens.org.uk/]
+
 
 +
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Launch Agents ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons/
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 13:07, 12 June 2014

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

/System/Library/LaunchAgents/

Launch Daemons

/Library/LaunchDaemons/
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons/

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

iCloud