Difference between pages "Linux Logical Volume Manager (LVM)" and "Mac OS X"

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The [[Linux]] Logical Volume Manager, is commonly abbreviated to LVM. Although LVM can used for other [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_Volume_Management Logical Volume Management] variants as well.
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
  
Not all forensic tools have support for Linux Logical Volume Manager (LVM) volumes, but most modern Linux distributions do.
+
== Disk image types ==
  
== Forensic analysis ==
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
The metadata area of a LVM Physical Volume can contain multiple versions of metadata section that contains the LVM Volume Group definitions, including a creation date and time value.
+
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
== Mounting an LVM ==
+
== Burn Folder ==
=== Mounting an LVM from an image ===
+
 
If you have an image mount the LVM read-only on a loopback device (e.g. /dev/loop1) by:
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo losetup -r -o $OFFSET /dev/loop1 image.raw
+
$NAME.fpbf
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Note that the offset is in bytes.
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
 
+
If you need to write to the image, e.g. for recovery, use [[xmount]] to write the changes to a [[shadow file]] (or cachefile in xmount terminology).
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo xmount --in dd --cache sda.shadow sda.raw image/
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00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
You can then safely mount the LVM in read-write mode (just omit the -r in the previous losetup command).
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
  
To remove this mapping afterwards run:
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
sudo losetup -d /dev/loop1
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/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To scan for new physical volumes:
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
lvm pvscan
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/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
You cannot unmount an active volume group. To detach (or deactivate) the volume group:
+
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
 +
 
 +
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
 +
 
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
vgchange -a n $VOLUMEGROUP
+
import datetime
 +
 
 +
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Where $VOLUMEGROUP is the corresponding name of the volume group
+
== Launch Agents ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents/
 +
</pre>
  
The individual volume devices are now available in:
+
== Launch Daemons ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/dev/mapper/$VOLUMEGROUP-$VOLUMENAME
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/Library/LaunchDaemons/
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Mounting an LVM from a device ===
+
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
  
To list the Volume Groups (VG) run:
+
== Crash Reporter ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
pvs
+
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
To list information about a Volume Group (VG) run:
+
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
lvdisplay $VOLUMEGROUP
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/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The field "LV Name" provides the volume name
+
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
  
To make the volume group known to the system (only if it was previously exported using ''vgexport'' command, note that ''vgimport'' would alter the data in the LVM2 header):
+
Snow Leopard and earlier
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
vgimport $VOLUMEGROUP
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/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
And active the volumes in the volume group:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
vgchange -a y $VOLUMEGROUP
+
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The individual volume devices are now available in:
+
Lion and later
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/dev/mapper/$VOLUMEGROUP-$VOLUMENAME
+
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
These now can be analyzed with e.g. a tool like the [[Sleuthkit]] or loop-back mounted.
+
== sleepimage ==
 
+
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
To read-only loop-back mount an individual volume:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
mount -o ro,loop /dev/mapper/$VOLUMEGROUP-$VOLUMENAME filesystem/
+
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
  
 
== Also see ==
 
== Also see ==
* [[:Category:File Systems | File Systems]]
+
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_Volume_Manager_%28Linux%29 Wikipedia article on Logical Volume Manager]
+
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
* [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ LVM Howto], by [http://www.tldp.org/ The Linux Documentation Project]
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
* [http://www.sourceware.org/lvm2/ LVM2 Resource Page]
+
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
* [http://www.redhat.com/magazine/009jul05/features/lvm2/ The Linux Logical Volume Manager], by Heinz Mauelshagen and Matthew O'Keefe
+
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
* [http://www.datadisk.co.uk/html_docs/redhat/rh_lvm.htm LVM cheatsheet], by [[RedHat]]
+
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
* [http://content.hccfl.edu/pollock/aunix1/lvm.htm Unix/Linux Administration Logical Volume Management Guide], by Wayne Pollock, 2005
+
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
* [http://lvb.sti.fce.vutbr.cz/public/LinuxAlt_2009/2009_11_08_LA_04_LVM/2009_11_08_LA_04_LVM.pdf LVM2 – data recovery], by Milan Brož, LinuxAlt 2009
+
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
  
[[Category:Volume Systems]]
+
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 14:07, 12 June 2014

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

/System/Library/LaunchAgents/

Launch Daemons

/Library/LaunchDaemons/
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons/

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Quarantine event database

See [1]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [2]

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [3] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [4].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

iCloud