Difference between pages "ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format" and "Windows"

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<b>This page is intended to preserve the original material, including errors and typos. It is wiki-style formatted as closely as possible to the original.</b>
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{{Expand}}
  
Expert Witness File Format Specification
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'''Windows''' is a widely-spread [[operating system]] from [[Microsoft]].
  
Revised: April 7, 2002
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== Features ==
 +
* Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa363785(v=vs.85).aspx]
  
Original URL: http://www.asrdata.com/SMART/whitepaper.html
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=== Introduced in Windows NT ===
 +
* [[NTFS]]
  
Redistributed with permission
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2000 ===
  
= Introduction =
+
=== Introduced in Windows XP ===
 +
* [[Prefetch]]
  
Developed by ASR Data, the Expert Witness file format (aka E01 format aka EnCase file format) is an industry standard format for storing "forensic" images.
+
==== SP2 ====
The format allows a user to access arbitrary offsets in the uncompressed data without requiring decompression of the entire data stream.
+
* Windows Firewall
The specification does <b>NOT</b> provide for quantifyable assurance of integrity, it is up to the implementation to provide meaningful authentication
+
for <b>any</b> data contained in an "evidence file".
+
* Overview
+
* File Header
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* The Section
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* Section Types
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** 'header' section
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** 'volume' section
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** 'table' section
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** 'next' and 'done' sections
+
  
= Overview =
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server) ===
The Expert Witness Compression format can store a single image in one or more segment files. Each file consists of a standard 13-byte header, followed by a series of sections. The sections are typically arranged back-to-back. A section cannot span two files.
+
* Volume Shadow Copies
  
A <i>Chunk</i> is a 32k run of data (64 standard sectors).
+
=== Introduced in Windows Vista ===
All offsets are relative to the beginning of the segment file, unless otherwise noted.
+
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker]]
 +
* [[Windows Desktop Search | Search]] integrated in operating system
 +
* [[SuperFetch]]
 +
* [[NTFS|Transactional NTFS (TxF)]]
 +
* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)|Transactional Registry (TxR)]]
 +
* [[Windows Shadow Volumes|Shadow Volumes]]; the volume-based storage of the Volume Shadow Copy data
 +
* $Recycle.Bin
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
* [[User Account Control (UAC)]]
  
File Header
+
=== Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server) ===
Each file begins with the following 13-byte header. (This is not to be confused with the header section, below.)
+
  
<i>Signature Part (8 bytes)...</i>
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=== Introduced in Windows 7 ===
{| class="wikitable"
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* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker To Go]]
|-
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* [[Jump Lists]]
| align="left"| Bytes
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* [[Sticky Notes]]
| 3
+
| 1
+
| 1
+
| 1
+
| 1
+
| 1
+
|-
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| Data
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| "EVF"
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| 0x09
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| 0x0d
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| 0x0a
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| 0xff
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| 0x00
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|}
+
  
<i>Fields Part (5 bytes)...</i>
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=== Introduced in Windows 8 ===
{| class="wikitable"
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* [[Windows Shadow Volumes | File History]]
|-
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* [[Windows Storage Spaces | Storage Spaces]]
| align="left"| Bytes
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* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]; server edition will likely be available in Windows Server 2012
| 1
+
| 2
+
| 2
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|-
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| Data
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| 0x01
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| 1 or higher
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| 0x0000
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|-
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| Meaning
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|
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| Segment Number
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|
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|}
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= The Section =
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== Forensics ==
Every <i>section</i> begins with the same standard data, with the following layout.
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{| class="wikitable"
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=== Partition layout ===
|-
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Default partition layout, first partition starts:
| align="left"| Offset:
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* at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
| Bytes:
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* at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7
| Data:
+
| Meaning:
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|-
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| 0 (0x0)
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| 16
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| "volume", "header", etc.
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| Section type string
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|-
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| 16 (0x10)
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| 8
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|
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| 64-bit offset in current file to the next section
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|-
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| 24 (0x18)
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| 8
+
|
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| 64-bit byte-size of the section
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|-
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| 32 (0x20)
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| 40
+
| 0x00...
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| Padding
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|-
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| 72 (0x48)
+
| 4
+
|
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| CRC of all previous setion data
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|}
+
  
= Section Types =
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=== Filesystems ===
Expert Witness Compression uses the following section types: <tt>header</tt>, <tt>volume</tt>, <tt>table</tt>, <tt>next</tt>, and <tt>done</tt>. Some of these section types have unique data that begins directly after the standard section structure above.
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* [[FAT]], [[FAT|exFAT]]
 +
* [[NTFS]]
 +
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS) | ReFS]]
  
== 'header' section... ==
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=== Recycle Bin ===
{| class="wikitable"
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|-
+
| align="left"| Offset:
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| Bytes:
+
| Data:
+
| Meaning:
+
|-
+
| 76 (0x4c)
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| to end of section
+
| zlib compress()'ed data
+
| Comments structure (see below)
+
|}
+
  
<i>Comment structure is simply a text string in the following tab- and newline-delimited format. (The data in each cell is separated by a tab character, and each row is separated by a newline character.) The first three lines are standard and must not change. The characters in the third line serve as reminders for the content of the fields in the fourth line. (The fourth line is the only line that needs to be customized.)</i>
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==== RECYCLER ====
 +
Used by Windows 2000, XP.
 +
Uses INFO2 file.
  
{| class="wikitable"
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See: [http://www.cybersecurityinstitute.biz/downloads/INFO2.pdf]
|-
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| align="left"| 1
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|-
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| main
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|-
+
| c
+
| n
+
| a
+
| e
+
| t
+
| m
+
| u
+
| p
+
| r
+
|-
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| Case Number
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| Evidence Number
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| Unique Description
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| Examiner Name
+
| Notes
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| Acquired Date
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| System Date
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| pwhash
+
| char
+
|}
+
  
* <i>Case Number, Evidence Number, Unique Description, Examiner Name, and Notes are free-form (provided they don't contain tab or newline characters).</i>
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==== $RECYCLE.BIN ====
* <i>Acquired Date and System Date are in the form of: "2002 3 4 10 19 59" (March 4, 2002 10:19:59).</i>
+
Used by Windows Vista.
* <i>pwhash should simply be the character '0'.</i>
+
Uses $I and $R files.
* <i>char should be the one of these three characters: 'b', 'f', or 'n'. This represents "best", "fastest", or "no compression". Expert Witness Compression uses 'f'.</i>
+
  
The header section should appear in the first segment file only.  
+
See: [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf]
  
== 'volume' section... ==
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=== Registry ===
{| class="wikitable"
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|-
+
| align="left"| Offset:
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| Bytes:
+
| Data:
+
| Meaning:
+
|-
+
| 76 (0x4c)
+
| 4
+
| 1
+
| Reserved
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|-
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| 80 (0x50)
+
| 4
+
|
+
| Chunk Count
+
|-
+
| 84 (0x54)
+
| 4
+
| 64
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| Sectors per Chunk
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|-
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| 88 (0x58)
+
| 4
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| 512
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| Bytes per Sector
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|-
+
| 92 (0x5c)
+
| 4
+
|
+
| Sector Count
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|-
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| 96 (0x60)
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| 20
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| 0x00...
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| Reserved
+
|-
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| 116 (0x74)
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| 45
+
| 0x00...
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| Padding
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|-
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| 161 (0xa1)
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| 5
+
|
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| Reserved (Signature)
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|-
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| 166 (0xa6)
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| 4
+
|
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| CRC of all previous 'volume' data, starting with offset 76
+
|}
+
  
The volume section should appear in the first segment file only.  
+
The [[Windows Registry]] is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic [[investigator]]s.
  
== 'table' section... ==
+
=== Thumbs.db Files ===
{| class="wikitable"
+
|-
+
| align="left"| Offset:
+
| Bytes:
+
| Data:
+
| Meaning:
+
|-
+
| 76 (0x4c)
+
| 4
+
| 1
+
| Chunk Count (for this table)
+
|-
+
| 80 (0x50)
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| 16
+
| 0x00...
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| Padding
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|-
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| 96 (0x60)
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| 4
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|
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| CRC of all previous 'table' data, starting with offset 76
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|-
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| 100 (0x64)
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| as long as necessary
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|
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| Offset array (see below)
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|-
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| from end of offset array
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| to end of section
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|
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| zlib compress()'ed data Chunks
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|}
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<i>The offset array is a series of back-to-back 4-byte unsigned integer values. Each entry is an offset to the start of a compressed 'Chunk'. The high bit of each value must be set! There must be one entry per Chunk.</i>
+
[[Thumbs.db]] files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the [[investigator]].
  
Each table section can hold 16375 entries. If more entries are needed, you must create multiple table sections per file.  
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See also: [[Vista thumbcache]].
  
== 'next' and 'done' sections... ==
+
=== Browser Cache ===
Each file ends with a 'next' or 'done' section. If the file is the last segment in an Expert Witness compressed image, the section will be named 'done'. Otherwise, the section will be named 'next' to indicate that another segment file must be read. The "next section" pointer for these section types points to the beginning of the section itself, since it is the last section in a file. These section types have no unique data.
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 +
=== Browser History ===
 +
 
 +
The [[Web Browser History]] files can contain significant information. The default [[Web browser|web browser]] that comes with Windows is [[Internet Explorer|Microsoft Internet Explorer]] but other common browsers on Windows are [[Apple Safari]], [[Google Chrome]], [[Mozilla Firefox]] and [[Opera]].
 +
 
 +
=== Search ===
 +
See [[Windows Desktop Search]]
 +
 
 +
=== Setup log files (setupapi.log) ===
 +
Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521].
 +
 
 +
=== Sleep/Hibernation ===
 +
 
 +
After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.
 +
 
 +
=== Users ===
 +
Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:
 +
<pre>
 +
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.
 +
 
 +
== Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives ==
 +
Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see [[Advanced Format]].
 +
 
 +
== %SystemRoot% ==
 +
The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:
 +
<pre>
 +
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
 +
Value: SystemRoot
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== See Also ==
 +
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
 +
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
 
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windows Wikipedia: Microsoft Windows]
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521 Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Vista setup log file locations]
 +
* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf The Forensic Analysis of the Microsoft Windows Vista Recycle Bin], by [[Mitchell Machor]], 2008
 +
* [http://www.ericjhuber.com/2013/02/microsoft-file-system-tunneling.html?m=1 Microsoft Windows File System Tunneling], by [[Eric Huber]], February 24, 2013
 +
 
 +
=== Under the hood ===
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366533(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Comparing Memory Allocation Methods], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ntdebugging/archive/2007/06/28/how-windows-starts-up-part-the-second.aspx How Windows Starts Up (Part the second)]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa375142.aspx DLL/COM Redirection]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms682586(v=vs.85).aspx Dynamic-Link Library Search Order]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2004/04/28/121871.aspx Image File Execution Options]
 +
 
 +
=== Side-by-side (WinSxS) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-by-side_assembly Wikipedia: Side-by-side assembly]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa374224.aspx Assembly Searching Sequence]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2007/06/26/rt-manifest-resource-and-isolation-aware-enabled.aspx RT_MANIFEST resource, and ISOLATION_AWARE_ENABLED]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd408052(v=vs.85).aspx Isolated Applications and Side-by-side Assemblies]
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/01/24/517221.aspx#531208 DotLocal (.local) Dll Redirection], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], January 24, 2006
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/04/14/576314.aspx Diagnosing SideBySide failures], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], April 14, 2006
 +
* [http://omnicognate.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/winsxs/ EVERYTHING YOU NEVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT WINSXS]
 +
 
 +
=== Application Compatibility Database ===
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd837644(v=ws.10).aspx Technet: Understanding Shims], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb432182(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Application Compatibility Database], by [[Microsoft]]
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=39 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 1], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 20, 2007
 +
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=40 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 2], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 21, 2007
 +
* [http://fred.mandiant.com/Whitepaper_ShimCacheParser.pdf Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in Forensic Investigations], by [[Andrew Davis]], May 4, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== System Restore (Restore Points) ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Restore Wikipedia: System Restore]
 +
* [http://www.stevebunting.org/udpd4n6/forensics/restorepoints.htm Restore Point Forensics], by [[Steve Bunting]]
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2007/06/restore-point-analysis.html Restore Point Analysis], by [[Harlan Carvey]],  June 16, 2007
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2006/10/restore-point-forensics.html Restore Point Forensics], by [[Harlan Carvey]], October 20, 2006
 +
* [http://www.ediscovery.co.nz/wip/srp.html System Restore Point Log Decoding]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows Firewall ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Firewall Wikipedia: Windows Firewall]
 +
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc737845(v=ws.10).aspx#BKMK_log Windows Firewall Tools and Settings]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows XP ===
 +
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q308549 Description of Windows XP System Information (Msinfo32.exe) Tool]
 +
 
 +
=== Windows 8 ===
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Features_new_to_Windows_8 Features new to Windows 8], Wikipedia
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics Windows 8 Forensics - part 1]
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-2 Windows 8 Forensics - part 2]
 +
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-3 Windows 8 Forensics - part 3]
 +
* [http://propellerheadforensics.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/thomson_windows-8-forensic-guide2.pdf Windows 8 Forensic Guide], by [[Amanda Thomson|Amanda C. F. Thomson]], 2012
 +
* [http://forensicfocus.com/Forums/viewtopic/t=9604/ Forensic Focus: Windows 8 Forensics - A First Look], [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCooEz9FQs&feature=youtu.be Presentation], [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/windows-8-forensics-josh-brunty.pdf Slides], by [[Josh Brunty]], August 2012
 +
* [http://dfstream.blogspot.ch/2013/03/windows-8-tracking-opened-photos.html Windows 8: Tracking Opened Photos], by [[Jason Hale]], March 8, 2013
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 03:08, 30 March 2013

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Windows is a widely-spread operating system from Microsoft.

Contents

Features

  • Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [1]

Introduced in Windows NT

Introduced in Windows 2000

Introduced in Windows XP

SP2

  • Windows Firewall

Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server)

  • Volume Shadow Copies

Introduced in Windows Vista

Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server)

Introduced in Windows 7

Introduced in Windows 8

Forensics

Partition layout

Default partition layout, first partition starts:

  • at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
  • at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7

Filesystems

Recycle Bin

RECYCLER

Used by Windows 2000, XP. Uses INFO2 file.

See: [2]

$RECYCLE.BIN

Used by Windows Vista. Uses $I and $R files.

See: [3]

Registry

The Windows Registry is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic investigators.

Thumbs.db Files

Thumbs.db files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the investigator.

See also: Vista thumbcache.

Browser Cache

Browser History

The Web Browser History files can contain significant information. The default web browser that comes with Windows is Microsoft Internet Explorer but other common browsers on Windows are Apple Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Search

See Windows Desktop Search

Setup log files (setupapi.log)

Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [4].

Sleep/Hibernation

After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.

Users

Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList

The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.

Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives

Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see Advanced Format.

 %SystemRoot%

The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:

Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
Value: SystemRoot

See Also

External Links

Under the hood

Side-by-side (WinSxS)

Application Compatibility Database

System Restore (Restore Points)

Windows Firewall

Windows XP

Windows 8