Difference between pages "Category:Forensics File Formats" and "Windows SuperFetch Format"

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Many computer forensic programs, especially the all-in-one suites, use their own file formats to store information.
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{{expand}}
  
==Independent File Formats==
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== MEMO file ==
These file formats were developed independently of any specific forensics package.
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Some of the <tt>Ag*.db</tt> files are MEMO files.
=== [[AFF]]===
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Full details of the format and a working implementation can be downloaded from http://www.afflib.org/
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=== [[AFF4]]===
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The MEMO file consists of:
AFF4 is a complete redesign of the AFF format. AFF4 is geared towards very large corpuses of images. It features a choice of binary container formats such as Zip, Zip64 and simple directories. Storage can be done using regular HTTP, as well as imaging directly to a central HTTP server using webdav. The format includes support for maps - which are zero copy transformations of data - for example, instead of storing a whole new copy of a carved file we just store a map of the blocks allocated to this file. This makes it trivial to chop up an image in many different ways with no storage overheads (for example chop up a memory image into the different process address spaces, extract TCP streams from a PCAP file with no copying overheads or extract all files from a filesystem with no copying). AFF4 also supports cryptography and image signing. AFF4 support fuse to present the images transparently to clients.
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* file header
 +
* compressed blocks
  
=== [[gfzip]] (generic forensic zip) file format===
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=== File header ===
Gfzip aims to provide an open file format for 'forensic complete' 'compressed' and 'signed' disk image data files.
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The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:
Uncompressed disk images can be used the same way [[dd]] images are, as gfzip uses a data first footer last design.
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{| class="wikitable"
Gfzip uses multi level [[SHA256]] digest based integrity guards instead of [[SHA1]] or the deprecated [[MD5]] algoritm.
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|-
User supplied meta data is embedded in a meta data section within the file.
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! Offset
A very important feature that gfzip focuses on extensively is the use of signed data and meta data sections using x509 certificates.
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! Size
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! Value
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! Description
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|-
 +
| 0
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| 4
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| 0x304D454D ("MEM0") or 0x4F4D454D ("MEMO")
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| Signature
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|-
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| 4
 +
| 4
 +
|
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| Uncompressed (total) data size
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|-
 +
|}
  
==Program-Specific File Formats==
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=== Compressed blocks ===
These file formats were developed for use with a specific forensics program. Sometimes they can be used with other programs whose authors have specifically reverse-engineered the software. Other times they cannot.
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The file header is followed by compressed blocks:
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Offset
 +
! Size
 +
! Value
 +
! Description
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|-
 +
| 0
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| 4
 +
|
 +
| Compressed data size
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|-
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| 4
 +
| ...
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|
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| Compressed data
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|-
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|}
  
===[[Encase image file format]]===
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=== Uncompressed data ===
Perhaps the de facto standard for forensic analyses in law
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<b>TODO</b>
enforcement, Guidance Software's [[EnCase]] Forensic uses
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a closed format for images. This format is heavily based on ASR Data's
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Expert Witness Compression Format.  EnCase's Evidence File
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(.E01) format contains a physical bitstream
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of an acquired disk, prefixed with a "Case Info" header,
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interlaced with checksums (Adler-32) for every block of 64 sectors (32 KB), and
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followed by a footer containing an [[MD5]] hash for the entire
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bitstream.  Contained in the header are the date and time of
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acquisition, an examiner's name, notes on the acquisition, and an
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optional password; the header concludes with its own checksum.
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Not only is the format is compressible, it is also searchable.
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== TRX file ==
Compression is block-based, and jump tables and "file pointers" are maintained in the format's header or
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The <tt>Ag*.db.trx</tt> files are TRX files.
between blocks "to enhance speed". Disk images
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can be split into multiple segment files (e.g., for archival to CD or
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DVD).
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Up to version 5 of [[EnCase]] the segment files could be no larger than 2 GB. This restriction has been removed using a work around the 31-bit offset values in version 6 of EnCase.
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<b>Note that the following format specification is incomplete.</b>
  
The format restricts the type and quantity of metadata that can be associated with an image. Extended EWF (EWF-X) defined by the libewf project provides a work around for this restriction specifying a new header and (digest) hash section using XML string to store the metadata. These EWF-X E01 files are compatible with EnCase and allow to store more metadata.
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=== File header ===
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The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
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! Offset
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! Size
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! Value
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! Description
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|-
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| 0
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| 4
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| 1
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| Unknown (Version?)
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|-
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| 4
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Unknown
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|-
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| 8
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| File size
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|-
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| 12
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| 4
 +
|
 +
| Unknown (Record count?)
 +
|-
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| 16
 +
| 4
 +
|
 +
| Unknown (Record count?)
 +
|-
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| 20
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| 4
 +
|
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| Unknown (Records offset or file header size)
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|-
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|}
  
Though some have reverse-engineered the format for compatibility's sake, Guidances extensions to the format remains closed.
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== See Also ==
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* [[SuperFetch]]
  
===[[ILook Investigator]]'s IDIF, IRBF, and IEIF Formats===
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== External Links ==
 +
* [http://blog.rewolf.pl/blog/?p=214 Windows SuperFetch file format – partial specification], by ReWolf, October 5, 2011
  
ILook Investigator v8 and its disk-imaging
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[[Category:File Formats]]
counterpart, [[IXimager]], offer three proprietary, authenticated image
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formats: compressed (IDIF), non-compressed (IRBF), and encrypted
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(IEIF). Although few technical details are disclosed publicly,
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IXimager's online documentation provides some
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insights: IDIF "includes protective mechanisms to detect changes
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from the source image entity to the output form" and supports
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"logging of user actions within the confines of that event;"  IRBF
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is similar to IDIF except that disk images are left uncompressed;
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IEIF, meanwhile, encrypts said images.
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For compatibility with ILook Investigator v7 and other forensic
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tools, IXimager allows for the transformation of each of these
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formats into raw format.
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===[[ProDiscover]] Family's [[ProDiscover image file format]]===
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Used by [[Technology Pathways]] [[ProDiscover]] Family of security tools, the ProDiscover Image File format consists of five parts: a 16-byte Image File Header, which includes a signature and version number for an
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image; a 681-byte Image Data Header, which contains user-provided
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metadata about the image; Image Data, which comprises a single block
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of uncompressed data or an array of blocks of compressed data; an
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Array of Compressed Blocks sizes (if the Image Data is, in fact,
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compressed); and I/O Log Errors describing any problems during the
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image's acquisition.
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Though fairly well documented, the format is not extensible.
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=== [[PyFlag]]'s [[sgzip]] Format===
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Supported by [[PyFlag]], a "Forensic and Log Analysis GUI" begun as a project in the Australian Department of Defence, sgzip is a seekable variant of the gzip format.  By compressing blocks (of 32KB, by default) individually, sgzip allows disk images to be searched for keywords without being fully decompressed.  The format does not associate metadata with images. In addition to its own sgzip format, PyFlag can also read and write the Expert Witness Compression Format and AFF.
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=== [[Rapid Action Imaging Device]] (RAID)'s Format===
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Though relatively little technical detail is publicly available, DIBS USA's Rapid Action Imaging Device (RAID) offers "built in [sic] integrity checking" and is to be designed to create an identical copy in raw format of one disk on another.  The copy can then "be inserted into a forensic workstation".
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=== [[Safeback]]'s Format===
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SafeBack, a DOS-based utility designed to create exact copies of entire disks or partitions, offers a "self-authenticating" format for images, whereby [[SHA256]] hashes are stored along with data to ensure the latter's integrity.  Although few technical details are disclosed publicly, SafeBack's authors claim that the software "safeguards the internally stored SHA256 values".
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=== [[SDi32]]'s Format===
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Imaging software designed to be used with write-blocking hardware, Vogon International's SDi32 is capable of making identical copies of disks to tape, disk, or file, with optional CRC32 and [[MD5]] fingerprints.  The copies are stored in raw format.
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=== [[SMART]]'s Formats===
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[[SMART]], a software utility for Linux designed by the
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original authors of Expert Witness (now sold under the name of
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EnCase), can store disk images as pure bitstreams
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(compressed or uncompressed) and also in [[:File:ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format.pdf|ASR Data's Expert Witness Compression Format]].  Images stored in the latter format
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can be stored as a single file or in multiple segment files, each of
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which consist of a standard 13-byte header followed by a series of
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sections, each of type "header", "volume", "table", "next",
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or "done". Each section includes its type string, a 64-bit offset
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to the next section, its 64-bit size, padding, and a CRC, in
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addition to actual data or comments, if applicable. Although the
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format's "header" section supports free-form notes, an image can
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have only one such section (in its first segment file only).
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===Programs with no specific file format===
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Several programs can read multiple file formats, but do not have their own proprietary formats.
+

Revision as of 00:28, 15 April 2014

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

MEMO file

Some of the Ag*.db files are MEMO files.

The MEMO file consists of:

  • file header
  • compressed blocks

File header

The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 0x304D454D ("MEM0") or 0x4F4D454D ("MEMO") Signature
4 4 Uncompressed (total) data size

Compressed blocks

The file header is followed by compressed blocks:

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 Compressed data size
4 ... Compressed data

Uncompressed data

TODO

TRX file

The Ag*.db.trx files are TRX files.

Note that the following format specification is incomplete.

File header

The file header is 84 bytes of size and consists of:

Offset Size Value Description
0 4 1 Unknown (Version?)
4 4 Unknown
8 4 File size
12 4 Unknown (Record count?)
16 4 Unknown (Record count?)
20 4 Unknown (Records offset or file header size)

See Also

External Links

Pages in category "Forensics File Formats"

The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total.