Difference between pages "Biometrics Bibliography" and "VPN"

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<bibtex>
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{{expand}}
@inproceedings{642639,
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author = {Lynne Coventry and Antonella De Angeli and Graham Johnson},
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title = {Usability and biometric verification at the ATM interface},
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booktitle = {CHI '03: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems},
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year = {2003},
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isbn = {1-58113-630-7},
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pages = {153--160},
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location = {Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA},
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doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/642611.642639},
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publisher = {ACM Press},
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address = {New York, NY, USA},
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url="http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=642611.642639",
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abstract="This paper describes some of the consumer-driven usability research conducted by NCR Self Service Strategic Solutions in the development of an understanding of usability and user acceptance of leading-edge biometrics verification techniques. We discuss biometric techniques in general and focus upon the usability phases and issues, associated with iris verification technology at the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) user interface. The paper concludes with a review of some of the major research issues encountered, and an outline of future work in the area."
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}
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</bibtex>
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<bibtex>
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'''VPN''' (Virtual Private Network) is a class of technology that allows remote machines to interconnect by creating a virtual network layer, on top of the physical network connection, that in practice is used to maintain the privacy of data shared over this virtual network connection (essentially all VPN toolsets use some form of packet-level [[encryption]]). There are many different modern implementations of the VPN concept itself, to the point where categorizing them together becomes somewhat questionable.  
@article{1221459,
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author = "Doroteo T. Toledano and Rub\'{e}n Fern\'{a}ndez Pozo and \'{A}lvaro Hern\'{a}ndez Trapote and Luis Hern\'{a}ndez G\'{o}mez",
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title = {Usability evaluation of multi-modal biometric verification systems},
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journal = {Interact. Comput.},
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volume = {18},
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number = {5},
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year = {2006},
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issn = {0953-5438},
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pages = {1101--1122},
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doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2006.01.004},
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publisher = {Elsevier Science Inc.},
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address = {New York, NY, USA},
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}
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</bibtex>
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<bibtex>
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== Overview ==
@article{1272062,
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author = {M. Angela Sasse},
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title = {Red-Eye Blink, Bendy Shuffle, and the Yuck Factor: A User Experience of Biometric Airport Systems},
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journal = {IEEE Security and Privacy},
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volume = {5},
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number = {3},
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year = {2007},
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issn = {1540-7993},
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pages = {78--81},
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doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2007.69},
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publisher = {IEEE Educational Activities Department},
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address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
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abstract = {The author examines user interaction with biometric systems at airports, and emphasizes usability's importance in successfully operating biometric systems.}
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}
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</bibtex>
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Virtual Private Networks are deployed by organizations and individuals for different purposes:
  
<bibtex>
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* Protecting confidential information in organizations, when connecting geographically distant office networks;
@article{wwk001,
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* Providing "work from home" or traveling employees with secure remote access to office network resources;
author = {Adams Wai-Kin Konga, David Zhanga and Guangming Luc  },
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* Securing general Internet traffic in particularly insecure network usage settings (e.g. open wireless networks);
title = {A study of identical twins’ palmprints for personal verification},
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* Encrypting all internet traffic to and from a home connection, to prevent ISP packet shaping and/or surveillance (i.e. [http://www.torrentfreedom.net Torrentfreedom Privacy].
journal = {Pattern Recognition},
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volume = {39},
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number = {11},
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year = {2006},
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pages = {2149--2156},
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doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071},
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publisher = {Elsevier B.V},
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abstract = {Automatic biometric systems based on human characteristics for personal identification have attracted great attention. Their performance highly depends on the distinctive information in the biometrics. Identical twins having the closest genetics-based relationship are expected to have maximum similarity in their biometrics. Classifying identical twins is a challenging problem for some automatic biometric systems. Palmprint has been studied for personal identification for over seven years. Most of the previous research concentrates on algorithm development. In this paper, we systemically examine palmprints from the same DNA for automatic personal identification and to uncover the genetically related palmprint features. The experimental results show that the three principal lines and some portions of weak lines are genetically related features but our palms still contain rich genetically unrelated features for classifying identical twins.}
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}
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</bibtex>
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When used for Internet connectivity, VPN service also acts as a form of proxy and protects the user's physical IP address from public display. As a result, they are an increasingly popular form of anonymity protection for internet users. While there are some concerns that the availability of anonymous connectivity would encourage true fraud, in practice those engaged in commercial fraud online use other, existing tools to keep their activities from being discovered - there is no known case of a commercial VPN service being used to further a fraudulent activity online, thus far.
  
<bibtex>
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== VPNs and anonymity ==
@article{ganeshana001,
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author = {Balaji Ganeshana, Dhananjay Theckedathb, Rupert Younga and Chris Chatwina  },
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title = {Biometric iris recognition system using a fast and robust iris localization and alignment procedure },
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journal = {Optics and Lasers in Engineering },
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volume = {44},
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number = {1},
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month = {January},
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year = {2006},
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pages = {1--24},
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doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2005.03.010 },
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publisher = {Elsevier B.V},
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abstract = {Iris recognition as a biometric technique for personal identification and verification is examined. The motivation for this stems from the observation that the human iris provides a unique structure suitable for non-invasive biometric assessment. In particular the irises are as distinct as fingerprints or patterns of retinal blood vessels and the appearance of the iris is amenable to remote examination. In this paper we have used a database of iris images of more than 100 people, which was used in the implementation of the iris recognition software. The software developed uses a novel technique of localization, alignment, pattern matching of the irises and finally the decision regarding the degree of match. }
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}
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</bibtex>
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* Log files: VPN services may maintain usage logs which could then be used to track the activities of the user of those services, after the fact. However some commercial consumer-oriented VPN services specifically configure their servers not to retain any logfile information of this type. An example is [[Cryptocloud_VPN]].
  
<bibtex>
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* Protocol stack: [[TCP timestamps]] and IP ID values may be used in correlating incoming (encrypted) and outgoing (unencrypted) network streams. This type of "traffic analysis" can, in theory, be used to gather information about a fully-encrypted VPN connection - in practice, there are no known examples of traffic analysis being used against commercial VPN service providers.
@article{ross001,
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author = {Arun Ross and Anil Jain },
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title = {Information fusion in biometrics},
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journal = {Pattern Recognition Letters },
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volume = {24},
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number = {13},
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month = {September},
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year = {2003},
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pages = {2115--2125},
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doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8655(03)00079-5  },
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publisher = {Elsevier B.V},
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abstract = {Reliable and accurate verification of people is extremely important in a number of business transactions as well as access to privileged information. Automatic verification methods based on physical biometric characteristics such as fingerprint or iris can provide positive verification with a very high accuracy. However, the biometrics-based methods assume that the physical characteristics of an individual (as captured by a sensor) used for verification are sufficiently unique to distinguish one person from another. Identical twins have the closest genetics-based relationship and, therefore, the maximum similarity between fingerprints is expected to be found among identical twins. We show that a state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can successfully distinguish identical twins though with a slightly lower accuracy than nontwins. }
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}
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</bibtex>
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== See Also ==
  
<bibtex>
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* [[Cryptocloud VPN]]
@article{sou001,
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* [[Tor]]
author = {Colin Soutar },
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* [[Proxy server]]
title = {Implementation of Biometric Systems — Security and Privacy Considerations },
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journal = {Information Security Technical Report},
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volume = {7},
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number = {4},
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month = {December},
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year = {2002},
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pages = {49--55},
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doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1363-4127(02)00406-5  },
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publisher = {Elsevier Science Ltd},
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abstract = {As biometric systems are deployed within security systems, or as part of identification programs, implementation issues relating to security and privacy need to be considered. The role of a biometric system is to recognize (or not) an individual through specific physiological or behavioral traits. The use of the word ‘recognize’ is significant — defined in the Oxford Dictionary as “identify as already known”. In other words, a biometric system does not establish the identity of an individual in any way, it merely recognizes that they are who they say they are (in a verification or a ‘positive identification’ system), or that they were not previously known to the system (in a ‘negative identification’ system, for example, to avoid double enrollment in a welfare system). This tie between the actual identity of an individual and the use of biometrics is subtle and provokes much debate, particularly relating to privacy and other societal issues. This paper seeks to clarify come of these issues by providing a framework, and by distinguishing between technology and societal issues.  }
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}
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</bibtex>
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[[Category:Anti-Forensics]]
 
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[[Category:Network Forensics]]
<bibtex>
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[[Category:Encryption]]
@article{jain001,
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author = {Anil K. Jain, Salil Prabhakar,and Sharath Pankanti},
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title = {On the similarity of identical twin fingerprints },
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journal = {Pattern Recognition },
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volume = {35},
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number = {11},
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month = {November},
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year = {2002},
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pages = {2653--2663},
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doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-3203(01)00218-7 },
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publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
+
+
abstract = {Reliable and accurate verification of people is extremely important in a number of business transactions as well as access to privileged information. Automatic verification methods based on physical biometric characteristics such as fingerprint or iris can provide positive verification with a very high accuracy. However, the biometrics-based methods assume that the physical characteristics of an individual (as captured by a sensor) used for verification are sufficiently unique to distinguish one person from another. Identical twins have the closest genetics-based relationship and, therefore, the maximum similarity between fingerprints is expected to be found among identical twins. We show that a state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can successfully distinguish identical twins though with a slightly lower accuracy than nontwins.  }
+
}
+
 
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</bibtex>
+
 
+
<bibtex>
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@article{doro01,
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author = {Doroteo T. Toledano, Rubén Fernández Pozo, Álvaro Hernández Trapote and Luis Hernández Gómez},
+
title = {Usability evaluation of multi-modal biometric verification systems },
+
journal = {Interacting with Computers },
+
volume = {18},
+
number = {5},
+
month = {September},
+
year = {2006},
+
pages = {1101--1122},
+
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2006.01.004 },
+
publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
+
+
abstract = {As a result of the evolution in the field of biometrics, a new breed of techniques and methods for user identity recognition and verification has appeared based on the recognition and verification of several biometric features considered unique to each individual. Signature and voice characteristics, facial features, and iris and fingerprint patterns have all been used to identify a person or just to verify that the person is who he/she claims to be. Although still relatively new, these new technologies have already reached a level of development that allows its commercialization. However, there is a lack of studies devoted to the evaluation of these technologies from a user-centered perspective. This paper is intended to promote user-centered design and evaluation of biometric technologies. Towards this end, we have developed a platform to perform empirical evaluations of commercial biometric identity verification systems, including fingerprint, voice and signature verification. In this article, we present an initial empirical study in which we evaluate, compare and try to get insights into the factors that are crucial for the usability of these systems.  }
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}
+
 
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</bibtex>
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=Surveys=
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Things to check:
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NIST  Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) 2006
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<bibtex>
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@report {ORC_PATUBITGPS},
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title = {Public Attitudes Toward the Uses of Biometric Identification Technologies by Government and the Private Sector},
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year = {2002},
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url = {http://dematerialisedid.com/PDFs/Biometricsurveyfindings.pdf}
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</bibtex>
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+
 
+
<bibtex>
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@paper {simon001,
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author = {A. Simon, D. M. Worthen, and J. A. Mitas},
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title = {An evaluation of iridology",
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pub = {Journal of Ameerican Medical Assoc},
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vol = {242},
+
pages = { 1385--1387},
+
year = {1979}
+
}
+
 
+
</bibtex>
+
 
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[[Category:Bibliographies]]
+

Revision as of 18:23, 6 May 2009

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a class of technology that allows remote machines to interconnect by creating a virtual network layer, on top of the physical network connection, that in practice is used to maintain the privacy of data shared over this virtual network connection (essentially all VPN toolsets use some form of packet-level encryption). There are many different modern implementations of the VPN concept itself, to the point where categorizing them together becomes somewhat questionable.

Overview

Virtual Private Networks are deployed by organizations and individuals for different purposes:

  • Protecting confidential information in organizations, when connecting geographically distant office networks;
  • Providing "work from home" or traveling employees with secure remote access to office network resources;
  • Securing general Internet traffic in particularly insecure network usage settings (e.g. open wireless networks);
  • Encrypting all internet traffic to and from a home connection, to prevent ISP packet shaping and/or surveillance (i.e. Torrentfreedom Privacy.

When used for Internet connectivity, VPN service also acts as a form of proxy and protects the user's physical IP address from public display. As a result, they are an increasingly popular form of anonymity protection for internet users. While there are some concerns that the availability of anonymous connectivity would encourage true fraud, in practice those engaged in commercial fraud online use other, existing tools to keep their activities from being discovered - there is no known case of a commercial VPN service being used to further a fraudulent activity online, thus far.

VPNs and anonymity

  • Log files: VPN services may maintain usage logs which could then be used to track the activities of the user of those services, after the fact. However some commercial consumer-oriented VPN services specifically configure their servers not to retain any logfile information of this type. An example is Cryptocloud_VPN.
  • Protocol stack: TCP timestamps and IP ID values may be used in correlating incoming (encrypted) and outgoing (unencrypted) network streams. This type of "traffic analysis" can, in theory, be used to gather information about a fully-encrypted VPN connection - in practice, there are no known examples of traffic analysis being used against commercial VPN service providers.

See Also