Difference between pages "Windows Prefetch File Format" and "SQLite database format"

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(Volume information - version 17)
 
(Use Cases: add Android and iOS)
 
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A Windows Prefetch file consists of one file header and multiple file sections with different content. Not all content has an obvious forensic value.
+
SQLite databases are used by many programs including several forensics tools, e.g. [[Autopsy]] 3.
 +
SQLite 3 is current and older SQLite packages cannot use sqlite3 databases so use sqlite3 tools.
  
As far as have been possible to ascertain, there is no public description of the format. The description below has been synthesised from examination
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== SQLite3 ==
of multiple prefetch files.
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== Characteristics ==
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SQLite version 3 uses a page-based storage where the pages are used for various types of data e.g. there are:
Integer values are stored in little-endian.
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* lock-byte pages
 +
* freelist pages
 +
** freelist trunk pages
 +
** freelist leaf pages
 +
* B-tree pages
 +
** table B-tree interior pages
 +
** table B-tree leaf pages
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** index B-tree interior pages
 +
** index B-tree leaf pages
 +
* payload overflow pages
 +
* pointer map pages
  
Strings are stored as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTF-16/UCS-2 UTF-16 little-endian] without a byte-order-mark (BOM).
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=== Write-Ahead Log (WAL) ===
 +
The default method by which SQLite implements atomic commit and rollback is a rollback journal. In version 3.7.0 a "Write-Ahead Log" option was added.
  
Timestamps are stored as [http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms724284.aspx Windows FILETIME] in UTC.
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== Use Cases ==
 +
=== Web Browser Data ===
 +
[[Mozilla Firefox]] and [[Google Chrome]] both use SQLite version 3 databases for user data such as history, downloaded files.
  
== File header ==
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=== Mobile OS ===
 +
[[Google Android]] and [[Apple iOS]] use SQLite3 databases for many system applications. Phone data including calls, messages, and credentials are all stored in SQLite3.
  
{| class="wikitable"
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== External Links ==
|-
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* [http://sqlite.org/fileformat2.html The SQLite Database File Format], by the [[SQLite|SQLite project]]
! Field
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* [http://sqlite.org/wal.html Write-Ahead Logging], by the [[SQLite|SQLite project]]
! Offset
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* [http://forensicsfromthesausagefactory.blogspot.com/2011/04/carving-sqlite-databases-from.html Carving SQLite databases from unallocated clusters], by Richard Drinkwater, April 27, 2011
! Length
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* [http://linuxsleuthing.blogspot.ch/2013/09/recovering-data-from-deleted-sqlite.html Recovering Data from Deleted SQLite Records: Redux], by [[John Lehr]], September 13, 2013
! Type
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! Notes
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|-
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| H1
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| 0x0000
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| Format version (see format version section below)
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|-
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| H2
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| 0x0004
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| Signature 'SCCA' (or in hexadecimal representation 0x53 0x43 0x43 0x4)
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|-
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| H3
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| 0x0008
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| 4
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| DWORD?
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| Unknown - Values observed: 0x0F - Windows XP, 0x11 - Windows 7, Windows 8.1
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|-
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| H4
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| 0x000C
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| Prefetch file size (or length) (sometimes referred to as End of File (EOF)).
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|-
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| H5
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|0x0010
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| 60
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| USTR
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| The name of the (original) executable as a Unicode (UTF-16 litte-endian string), up to 29 characters and terminated by an end-of-string character (U+0000). This name should correspond with the one in the prefetch file filename.
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|-
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| H6
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|0x004C
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|4
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|DWORD
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|The prefetch hash. This hash value should correspond with the one in the prefetch file filename.
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|-
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| H7
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|0x0050
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|4
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|?
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| Unknown (flags)? Values observed: 0 for almost all prefetch files (XP); 1 for NTOSBOOT-B00DFAAD.pf (XP)
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|-
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|}
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It's worth noting that the name of a carved prefetch file can be restored using the information in field H5 and H6, and its size can be determined by field H4.
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== Tools ==
 
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* [[SQLite]]
=== Format version ===
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* [[SQLite Forensic Reporter]]
 
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{| class="wikitable"
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|-
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! Value
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! Windows version
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|-
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| 17 (0x11)
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| Windows XP, Windows 2003
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|-
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| 23 (0x17)
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| Windows Vista, Windows 7
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|-
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| 26 (0x1a)
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| Windows 8.1 (note this could be Windows 8 as well but has not been confirmed)
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|-
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|}
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=== File information - version 17 ===
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The following part of the file header is version dependent. It is sometime considered part of the file header. Below the structure for format version 17.
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{| class="wikitable"
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|-
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! Field
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! Offset
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! Length
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! Type
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! Notes
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|-
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| H8
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| 0x0054
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| The offset to section A. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
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|-
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| H9
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| 0x0058
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| 4
+
| DWORD
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| The number of entries in section A.
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|-
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| H10
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| 0x005C
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| 4
+
| DWORD
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| The offset to section B. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
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|-
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| H11
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| 0x0060
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| 4
+
| DWORD
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| The number of entries in section B.
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|-
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| H12
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| 0x0064
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| The offset to section C. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
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|-
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| H13
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| 0x0068
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| Length of section C.
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|-
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| H14
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| 0x006C
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| Offset to section D. The offset is relative from the start of the file.
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|-
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| H15
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| 0x0070
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| 4
+
| DWORD
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| The number of entries in section D.
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|-
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| H16
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| 0x0074
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| 4
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| DWORD
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| Length of section D.
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|-
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| H17
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| 0x0078
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| 8
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| FILETIME
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| Latest execution time (or run time) of executable (FILETIME)
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|-
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| H18
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| 0x0080
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| 16
+
| ?
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| Unknown ? Possibly structured as 4 DWORD. Observed values: /0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000/, /0x47868c00 0x00000000 0x47860c00 0x00000000/ (don't exclude the possibility here that this is remnant data)
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|-
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| H19
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| 0x0090
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| 4
+
| DWORD
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| Execution counter (or run count)
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|-
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| H20
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| 0x0094
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| 4
+
| DWORD?
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| Unknown ? Observed values: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (XP)
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|-
+
|}
+
 
+
== Section A ==
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This section contains an array with 20 byte (version 17) or 32 byte (version 23 and 26) entry records.
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+
The actual format and usage of these entry records is currently not known.
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+
== Section B ==
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This section contains an array with 12 byte (version 17, 23 and 26) entry records.
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+
The actual format and usage of these entry records is currently not known.
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== Section C ==
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This section contains an array of UTF-16 little-endian formatted strings with end-of-string characters (U+0000).
+
 
+
At the end of the section there seems to be alignment padding that can contain remnant values.
+
 
+
== Section D - Volume information (block) ==
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Section D contains one or more subsections. The number is (most likely) determined by the DWORD at file offset 0x0070. Each subsection refers to directories on an identified volume.
+
 
+
In this section, all offsets are assumed to be counted from the start of the D section.
+
 
+
=== Volume information - version 17 ===
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The following values are version dependent. Below the structure for format version 17.
+
 
+
{| class="wikitable"
+
|-
+
! Field
+
! Offset
+
! Length
+
! Type
+
! Notes
+
|-
+
| DH1
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| +0x0000
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
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| Offset to volume label (Unicode, terminated by U+0000)
+
|-
+
| DH2
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| +0x0004
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| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| Length of volume label (nr of characters, including terminating U+0000)
+
|-
+
| DH3
+
| +0x0008
+
| 8
+
| FILETIME
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| Volume creation time.
+
|-
+
| DH4
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| +0x0010
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
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| Volume serial number of volume indicated by volume string
+
|-
+
| DH5
+
| +0x0014
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Offset to section DHS1
+
|-
+
| DH6
+
| +0x0018
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Length of section DHS1 (in bytes)
+
|-
+
| DH7
+
| +0x001C
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Offset to section DHS2
+
|-
+
| DH8
+
| +0x0020
+
| 4
+
| DWORD
+
| ? Nr of strings in section DHS2
+
|-
+
| ?
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| +0x0024
+
| ?
+
| ?
+
| ? additional 28 bytes (includes one timestamp?)
+
|}
+
 
+
If all the executables and libraries referenced in the C section are from one single disk volume, there will be only one section in the D section. If multiple volumes are referenced by section C, section D will contain multiple sections.  (A simple way to force this situation is to copy, say, NOTEPAD.EXE to a USB drive, and start it from that volume. The corresponding prefetch file will have one D header referring to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISK1\DP(1)0-0+4 (the USB drive), and one to, e.g. \DEVICE\HARDDISKVOLUME1\ (where the .DLLs and other support files were found).
+
 
+
== See Also ==
+
* [[Prefetch]]
+
 
+
== External Links ==
+
* [https://googledrive.com/host/0B3fBvzttpiiSbl9XZGZzQ05hZkU/Windows%20Prefetch%20File%20(PF)%20format.pdf Windows Prefetch File (PF) format], by the [[libssca|libssca project]]
+
  
 
[[Category:File Formats]]
 
[[Category:File Formats]]

Revision as of 17:19, 11 April 2014

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Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

SQLite databases are used by many programs including several forensics tools, e.g. Autopsy 3. SQLite 3 is current and older SQLite packages cannot use sqlite3 databases so use sqlite3 tools.

SQLite3

SQLite version 3 uses a page-based storage where the pages are used for various types of data e.g. there are:

  • lock-byte pages
  • freelist pages
    • freelist trunk pages
    • freelist leaf pages
  • B-tree pages
    • table B-tree interior pages
    • table B-tree leaf pages
    • index B-tree interior pages
    • index B-tree leaf pages
  • payload overflow pages
  • pointer map pages

Write-Ahead Log (WAL)

The default method by which SQLite implements atomic commit and rollback is a rollback journal. In version 3.7.0 a "Write-Ahead Log" option was added.

Use Cases

Web Browser Data

Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome both use SQLite version 3 databases for user data such as history, downloaded files.

Mobile OS

Google Android and Apple iOS use SQLite3 databases for many system applications. Phone data including calls, messages, and credentials are all stored in SQLite3.

External Links

Tools