Difference between pages "Carver 2.0 Planning Page" and "Disk Imaging"

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This page is for planning Carver 2.0.
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{{expand}}
  
Please, do not delete text (ideas) here. Use something like this:
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Disk imaging is the process of making a bit-by-bit copy of a disk. Imaging (in more general terms) can apply to anything that can be considered as a bit-stream, e.g. a physical or logical volumes, network streams, etc.
  
<pre>
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The most straight-forward disk imaging method is reading a disk from start to end and writing the data to a [[:Category:Forensics_File_Formats|Forensics image format]].
<s>bad idea</s>
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This can be a time consuming process especially for disks with a large capacity.
:: good idea
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</pre>
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This will look like:
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The process of disk imaging is also referred to as disk duplication.
  
<s>bad idea</s>
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== Disk Imaging Solutions ==
:: good idea
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See: [[:Category:Disk Imaging|Disk Imaging Solutions]]
  
= License =
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== Common practice ==
 +
It common practice to use a [[Write Blockers|Write Blocker]] when imaging a pyhical disk. The write blocker is an additional measure to prevent write access to the disk.
  
BSD-3.
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Also see: [[DCO and HPA|Device Configuration Overlay (DCO) and Host Protected Area (HPA)]]
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] library based validators could require other licenses
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= OS =
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== Integrity ==
 +
Often when creating a disk image a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptographic_hash_function cryptographic hash] is calculated of the entire disk. Commonly used cryptographic hashes are MD5, SHA1 and/or SHA256.
  
Linux/FreeBSD/MacOS
 
: Shouldn't this just match what the underlying afflib & sleuthkit cover? [[User:RB|RB]]
 
:: Yes, but you need to test and validate on each. Question: Do we want to support windows? [[User:Simsong|Simsong]] 21:09, 30 October 2008 (UTC)
 
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I think we would do wise to design with windows support from the start this will improve the platform independence from the start
 
:::: Agreed; I would even settle at first for being able to run against Cygwin.  Note that I don't even own or use a copy of Windows, but the vast majority of forensic investigators do. [[User:RB|RB]] 14:01, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
 
:: [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] Leaning heavily on the autotools might be the way to go. I do however feel that support requirements for windows would not be essential. Being able to run from a virtual machine with the main storage mounted over cifs should however be tested and if possible tuned extensively.
 
:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] You'll need more than autotools to do native Windows support i.e. file access, UTF-16 support, wrap some basic system functions or have them available otherwise
 
  
= Name tooling =
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By recalculating the integrity hash at a later time, one can determine if the data in the disk image has been changed. This by itself provides no protection against intentional tampering, but can indicate that the data was altered, e.g. due to corruption. The integrity hash does not indicate where int he data the alteration has occurred. Therefore some image tools and/or formats provide for additional integrity checks like:
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* A checksum
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* Parity data
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* [[Piecewise hashing]]
  
* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] A name for the tooling I propose coldcut
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== Smart imaging ==
:: How about 'butcher'?  ;)  [[User:RB|RB]] 14:20, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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Smart imaging is a combination of techniques to make the imaging process more intelligent.
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] cleaver ( scalpel on steroids ;-) )
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* Compressed storage
* I would like to propose Gouge or Chisel :-) [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]]
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* Deduplication
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* Selective imaging
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* Decryption while imaging
  
= Requirements =
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=== Compressed storage ===
  
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Could we do a MoSCoW evaluation of these.
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A common technique to reduce the size of an image file is to compress the data. Where the compression method should be [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lossless_data_compression lossless].
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On modern computers, with multiple cores, the compression can be done in parallel reducing the output without prolonging the imaging process.
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Since the write speed of the target disk can be a bottleneck in imaging process, parallel compression can reduce the total time of the imaging process.
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[[Guymager]] was one of the first imaging tools to implement the concept of multi-process compression for the [[Encase image file format]]. This technique is now used by various imaging tools including [http://www.tableau.com/index.php?pageid=products&model=TSW-TIM Tableau Imager (TIM)]
  
* AFF and EWF file images supported from scratch. ([[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would like to have raw/split raw and device access as well)
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Other techniques like storing the data sparse, using '''empty-block compression''' or '''pattern fill''', can reduce the total time of the imaging process and the resulting size of new non-encrypted (0-byte filled) disks.
:: If we base our image i/o on afflib, we get all three with one interface. [[User:RB|RB]] Instead of letting the tools use afflib, better to write an afflib module for carvfs, and update the libewf module. The tool could than be oblivious of the file format. [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]]
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] this layer should support multi threaded decompression of compressed image types, this speeds up IO
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] volume/partition aware layer (what about carving unpartioned space)
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* File system aware layer. This could be or make use of tsk-cp.
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** By default, files are not carved. (clarify: only identified? [[User:RB|RB]]; I guess that it operates like [[Selective file dumper]] [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 07:00, 29 October 2008 (UTC)). Alternatively, the tool could use libcarvpath and output carvpaths or create a directory with symlinks to carvpaths that point into a carvfs mountpoint [[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]].
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* Plug-in architecture for identification/validation.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] support for multiple types of validators
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*** dedicated validator
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*** validator based on file library (i.e. we could specify/implement a file structure API for these)
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*** configuration based validator (Can handle config files,like Revit07, to enter different file formats used by the carver.)
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* Ship with validators for:
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I think we should distinguish between file format validators and content validators
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** JPEG
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** PNG
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** GIF
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** MSOLE
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** ZIP
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** TAR (gz/bz2)
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] For a production carver we need at least the following formats
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=== Deduplication ===
** Grapical Images
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Deduplication is the process of determining and storing data that occurs more than once on-disk, only once in the image.
*** JPEG (the 3 different types with JFIF/EXIF support)
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It is even possible to store the data once for a corpus of images using techniques like hash based imaging.
*** PNG
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*** GIF
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*** BMP
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*** TIFF
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** Office documents
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*** OLE2 (Word/Excell content support)
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*** PDF
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*** Open Office/Office 2007 (ZIP+XML)
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:: Extension validation? AFAIK, MS Office 2007 [[DOCX]] format uses plain ZIP (or not?), and carved files will (or not?) have .zip extension instead of DOCX. Is there any way to fix this (may be using the file list in zip)? [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 20:25, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Addition: Office 2007 also has a binary file format which is also a ZIP-ed data
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** Archive files
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=== Selective imaging ===
*** ZIP
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Selective imaging is a technique to only make a copy of certain information on a disk like the $MFT on an [[NTFS]] volume with the necessary contextual information.
*** 7z
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*** gzip
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*** bzip2
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*** tar
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*** RAR
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** E-mail files
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*** PFF (PST/OST)
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*** MBOX (text based format, base64 content support)
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** Audio/Video files
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*** MPEG
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*** MP2/MP3
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*** AVI
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*** ASF/WMV
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*** QuickTime
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*** MKV
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** Printer spool files
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*** EMF (if I remember correctly)
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** Internet history files
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*** index.dat
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*** firefox (sqllite 3)
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** Other files
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*** thumbs.db
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*** pagefile?
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* Simple fragment recovery carving using gap carving.
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[[EnCase]] Logical Evidence Format (LEF) is an example of a selective image; although only file related contextual information is stored in the format by [[EnCase]].
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] have hook in for more advanced fragment recovery?
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* Recovering of individual ZIP sections and JPEG icons that are not sector aligned.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would propose a generic fragment detection and recovery
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* Autonomous operation (some mode of operation should be completely non-interactive, requiring no human intervention to complete [[User:RB|RB]])
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] as much as possible, but allow to be overwritten by user
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* Tested on 500GB-sized images. Should be able to carve a 500GB image in roughly 50% longer than it takes to read the image.
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** Perhaps allocate a percentage budget per-validator (i.e. each validator adds N% to the carving time) [[User:RB|RB]]
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] have multiple carving phases for precision/speed trade off?
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* Parallelizable
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] tunable for different architectures
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* Configuration:
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** Capability to parse some existing carvers' configuration files, either on-the-fly or as a one-way converter.
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** Disengage internal configuration structure from configuration files, create parsers that present the expected structure
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] The validator should deal with the file structure the carving algorithm should not know anything about the file structure (as in revit07 design)
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**  Either extend Scalpel/Foremost syntaxes for extended features or use a tertiary syntax ([[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would prefer a derivative of the revit07 configuration syntax which already has encountered some problems of dealing with defining file structure in a configuration file)
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* Can output audit.txt file.
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Can output database with offset analysis values i.e. for visualization tooling
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Can output debug log for debugging the algorithm/validation
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* Easy integration into ascription software.
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I'm no native speaker what do you mean with "ascription software"?
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:: I think this was another non-native requesting easy scriptability. [[User:RB|RB]] 14:20, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] that makes sense ;-)
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] When the tool output files the filenames should contain the offset in the input data (in hexadecimal?)
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:: [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I really like the fact carved files are named after the physical or logical sector in which the file is found (photorec)
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] This naming schema might cause duplicate name problem for extracting embedded files and extracting files from non sector aligned file systems.
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Should the tool allow to export embedded files?
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* [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Should the tool allow to export fragments separately?
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* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I personally use photorec often for carving files in the whole volume (not only unallocated clusters), so I can store information about all potential interesting files in MySQL
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] interesting, Bas Kloet and me have been discussing to use information about allocated files in the recovery process, i.e. recovered fragments could be part of allocated files. Do we want to be able to extract them? Or could we rebuild the file from the fragments and the allocated files.
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* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] It would also be nice if the files can be hashed immediately (MD5) so looking for them in other tools (for example Encase) is a snap
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= Ideas =
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=== Decryption while imaging ===
* Use as much TSK if possible. Don't carry your own FS implementation the way photorec does.
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Encrypted data is worst-case scenario for compression. Because the encryption process should be deterministic, a solution to reduce the size of an encrypted image is to store it non-encrypted and compressed and encrypt it again on-the-fly if required. Although this should be rare since the non-encrypted data is what undergoes analysis.
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] using TSK as much as possible would not allow to add your own file system support (i.e. mobile phones, memory structures, cap files) I would propose wrapping TSK and using it as much as possible but allow to integrate own FS implementations.
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* Extracting/carving data from [[Thumbs.db]]? I've used [[foremost]] for it with some success. [[Vinetto]] has some critical bugs :( [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 19:18, 28 October 2008 (UTC)
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] this poses an interesting addition to the carver do we want to support (let's call it) 'recursive in file carving' (for now) this is different from embedded files because there is a file system structure in the file and not just another file structure
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[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] :
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== Also see ==
* Use libcarvpath whenever possible and by default to avoid high storage requirements.
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* [[:Category:Forensics_File_Formats|Forensics File Formats]]
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] For easy deployment I would not opt for making an integral part of the tool solely dependant on a single external library or the library must be integrated in the package
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* [[Write Blockers]]
::[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] Integrating libraries (libtsk,libaff.libewf,libcarvpath etc) is bad practice, autotools are your friend IMO.
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* [[Piecewise hashing]]
:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I'm not talking about integrating (shared) libraries. I'm talking about that an integral part of a tool should be part of it's package. Why can't the tool package contain shared or static libraries for local use? A far worse thing to do is to have a large set of dependencies and making the tool difficult to install for most users. The tool package should contain the most necessary code. afflib/libewf support could be detected by the autotools a neat separation of functionality.
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* [[Memory Imaging]]
* Dont stop with filesystem detection after the first match. Often if a partition is reused with a new FS and is not all that full yet, much of the old FS can still be valid. I have seen this with ext2/fat. The fact that you have identified a valid FS on a partition doesn't mean there isn't an(almost) valid second FS that would yield additional files. Identifying doubly allocated space might in some cases also be relevant.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] What your saying is that dealing with file system fragments should be part of the carving algorithm
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* Allow use where filesystem based carving is done by other tool, and the tool is used as second stage on (sets of) unallocated block (pseudo) files and/or non FS partition (pseudo) files.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would not opt for this. The tool would be dependent on other tools and their data format, which makes the tool difficult to maintain. I would opt to integrate the functionality of having multiple recovery phases (stages) and allow the tooling to run the phases after one and other or separately.
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::[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] More generically, I feel a way should exist to communicate the 'left overs' a previous (non open, for example LE-only) tool left.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I guess if the tool is designed to handle multiple phases it should store its data somewhere. So it should be possible to convert results of such non open tooling to the format required. However I would opt to design the recovery functionality of these non-open tools into open tools. And not to limit ourselves making translators due to the design of these non-open tools.
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* Ability to be used as a library instead of a tool. Ability to access metadata true library, and thus the ability to set metadata from the carving modules. This would be extremely usefull for integrating the project into a framework like ocfa.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I guess most of the code could be integrated into libraries, but I would not opt integrating tool functionality into a library
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* A wild idea that I hope at least one person will have a liking for: It might be very interesting to look at the possibilities of using a multi process style of module support and combine it with a least authority design. On platforms that support AppArmor (or similar) and uid based firewall rules, this could make for the first true POLA (principle of least authority) based forensic tool ever. POLA based forensics tools should make for a strong integrity guard against many anti forensics. Alternatively we could look at integrating a capability secure language (E?) for implementation of at least validation modules. I don't expect this idea to make it, but mentioning it I hope might spark off less strong alternatives that at least partially address the integrity + anti-forensics problem. If we can in some way introduce POLA to a wider forensics public, other tools might also pick up on it what would be great.
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Could you give an example of how you see this in action?
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::::[[User:Capibara|Rob J Meijer]] I see two layers where using POLA could be applied. The best one would require one of the folowing as prerequisites:
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::::* The libaff/libewf layer is moved to a fuse implementation (for example minorfs).
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::::* Libewf/Libaff are updated to accept opened filhandles instead of demanding to open their own files.
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::::If one of these is fulfilled, than the tool running as some user can just have the simple task of opening the image files, starting up the 'real' tool and handing over the appropriate file handles. If the real tool runs with a restrictive AppArmor profile, and is started suid to a tool specific user that also has its own iptables uid based filter, than the real tool will run with least authority.
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:::: A second alternative, if neither of the first prerequisite could not be bet, would be to run the modules as confined processes and have a non confined process run as proxy for the first.
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:::: A third probably far fetched alternative would be to embed an object capability language in the tool and make the module interface thus that modules are to be written in this ocap language.
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::::A 4th alternative might include minorfs or plash, but I havn't geven those sufficient thinking hours yet.
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 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.tableau.com/pdf/en/Tableau_Forensic_Disk_Perf.pdf Benchmarking Hard Disk Duplication Performance in Forensic Applications], by [[Robert Botchek]]
  
 +
=== Hash based imaging ===
 +
* [http://www.dfrws.org/2010/proceedings/2010-314.pdf Hash based disk imaging using AFF4], by [[Michael Cohen]], [[Bradley Schatz]]
  
* [[User:Mark Stam|Mark]] I think it would be very handy to have a CSV, TSV, XML or other delimited output (log)file with information about carved files. This output file can then be stored in a database or Excel sheet (report function)
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[[Category:Disk Imaging]]
 
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== Format syntax specification ==
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* Carving data structures. For example, extract all TCP headers from image by defining TCP header structure and some fields (e.g. source port > 1024, dest port = 80). This will extract all data matching the pattern and write a file with other fields. Another example is carving INFO2 structures and URL activity records from index.dat [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 20:51, 28 October 2008 (UTC)
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** This has the opportunity to be extended to the concept of "point at blob FOO and interpret it as BAR"
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.FUF added:
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The main idea is to allow users to define structures, for example (in pascal-like form):
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<pre>
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Field1: Byte = 123;
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SomeTextLength: DWORD;
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SomeText: string[SomeTextLength];
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Field4: Char = 'r';
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...
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</pre>
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This will produce something like this:
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<pre>
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Field1 = 123
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SomeTextLength = 5
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SomeText = 'abcd1'
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Field4 = 'r'
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</pre>
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(In text or raw forms.)
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+
Opinions?
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Opinion: Simple pattern identification like that may not suffice, I think Simson's original intent was not only to identify but to allow for validation routines (plugins, as the original wording was).  As such, the format syntax would need to implement a large chunk of some programming language in order to be sufficiently flexible. [[User:RB|RB]]
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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In my option your example is too limited. Making the revit configuration I learned you'll need a near programming language to specify some file formats.
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A simple descriptive language is too limiting. I would also go for 2 bytes with endianess instead of using terminology like WORD and small integer, it's much more clear. The configuration also needs to deal with aspects like cardinality, required and optional structures.
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:: This is simply data structures carving, see ideas above. Somebody (I cannot track so many changes per day) separated the original text. There is no need to count and join different structures. [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 19:53, 31 October 2008 (UTC)
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] This was probably me is the text back in it's original form?
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:::: I started it by moving your Revit07 comment to the validator/plugin section in [http://www.forensicswiki.org/index.php?title=Carver_2.0_Planning_Page&diff=prev&oldid=7583 this edit], since I was still at that point thinking operational configuration for that section, not parser configurations. [[User:RB|RB]]
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:::: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I renamed the title to format syntax, clarity is important ;-)
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Please take a look at the revit07 format syntax specification (configuration). It's not there yet but goes a far way. Some things currently missing:
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* bitwise alignment
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* handling encapsulated streams (MPEG/capture files)
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* handling content based formats (MBOX)
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=Caving algorithm =
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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* should we allow for multiple carving phases (runs/stages)?
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:: I opt yes (separation of concern)
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* should we allow for multiple carving algorithms?
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:: I opt yes, this allows testing of different approaches
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* Should the algorithm try to do as much in 1 run over the input data? To reduce IO?
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:: I opt that the tool should allow for multiple and single run over the input data to minimize the IO or the CPU as bottleneck
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* Interaction between algorithm and validators
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** does the algorithm passes data blocks to the validators?
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** does a validator need to maintain a state?
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** does a validator need to revert a state?
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** How do we deal with embedded files and content validation? Do the validators call another validator?
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* do we use the assumption that a data block can be used by a single file (with the exception of embedded/encapsulated files)?
+
* Revit07 allows for multiple concurrent result files states to deal with fragmentation. One has the attribute of being active (the preferred) and the other passive. Do we want/need something similar? The algorithm adds block of input data (offsets) to these result files states.
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** if so what info would these result files states require (type, list of input data blocks)
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* how do we deal with file system remainders?
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** Can we abstract them and compare them against available file system information?
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* Do we carve file systems in files?
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:: I opt that at least the validator uses this information
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+
==Caving scenarios ==
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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* normal file (file structure, loose text based structure (more a content structure?))
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* fragmented file (the file entirely exist)
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* a file fragment (the file does not entirely exist)
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* intertwined file
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* encapsulated file (MPEG/network capture)
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* embedded file (JPEG thumbnail)
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* obfuscation ('encrypted' PFF) this also entails encryption and/or compression
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* file system in file
+
 
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=File System Awareness =
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==Background: Why be File System Aware?==
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Advantages of being FS aware:
+
* You can pick up sector allocation sizes
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] do you mean file system block sizes?
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* Some file systems may store things off sector boundaries. (ReiserFS with tail packing)
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* Increasingly file systems have compression (NTFS compression)
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* Carve just the sectors that are not in allocated files.
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==Tasks that would be required==
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+
==Discussion==
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:: As noted above, TSK should be utilized as much as possible, particularly the filesystem-aware portion.  If we want to identify filesystems outside of its supported set, it would be more worth our time to work on implementing them there than in the carver itself.  [[User:RB|RB]]
+
 
+
:::: I guess this tool operates like [[Selective file dumper]] and can recover files in both ways (or not?). Recovering files by using carving can recover files in situations where sleuthkit does nothing (e.g. file on NTFS was deleted using ntfs-3g, or filesystem was destroyed or just unknown). And we should build the list of filesystems supported by carver, not by TSK. [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] 07:08, 29 October 2008 (UTC)
+
 
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:: This tool is still in the early planning stages (requirements discovery), hence few operational details (like precise modes of operation) have been fleshed out - those will and should come later.  The justification for strictly using TSK for the filesystem-sensitive approach is simple: TSK has good filesystem APIs, and it would be foolish to create yet another standalone, incompatible implementation of filesystem(foo) when time would be better spent improving those in TSK, aiding other methods of analysis as well.  This is the same reason individuals that have implemented several other carvers are participating: de-duplication of effort.  [[User:RB|RB]]
+
 
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:: [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] A design problem might be that TSK currently is a single library operating on multiple layers (storage media IO, volume/partition analysis and file system analysis). I'm not aware how easily the parts can be used separately. But I estimate that for the carver we want to use these 3 layers differently than TSK currently does.
+
 
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] I would like to have the carver (recovery tool) also do recovery using file allocation data or remainders of file allocation data.
+
 
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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I would go as far to ask you all to look beyond the carver as a tool and look from the perspective of the carver as part of the forensic investigation process. In my eyes certain information needed/acquired by the carver could be also very useful investigative information i.e. what part of a hard disk contains empty sectors.
+
 
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=Supportive tooling=
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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* validator (definitions) tester (detest in revit07)
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* tool to make configuration based definitions
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* post carving validation
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* the carver needs to provide support for fuse mount of carved files (carvfs)
+
 
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=Testing =
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[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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* automated testing
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* test data
+
 
+
=Validator Construction=
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Options:
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* Write validators in C/C++
+
** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] you mean dedicated validators
+
* Have a scripting language for writing them (python? Perl?) our own?
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] use easy to embed programming languages i.e. Phyton or Lua
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* Use existing programs (libjpeg?) as plug-in validators?
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** [[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] define a file structure api for this
+
 
+
=Existing Code that we have=
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]]
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Please add any missing links
+
 
+
Documentation/Articles
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* DFRWS2006/2007 carving challenge results
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* DFRWS2008 paper on carving
+
 
+
Carvers
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* DFRWS2006/2007 carving challenge results
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* photorec (http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/PhotoRec)
+
* revit06 and revit07 (http://sourceforge.net/projects/revit/)
+
* s3/scarve
+
 
+
Possible file structure validator libraries
+
* divers existing file support libraries
+
* libole2 (inhouse experimental code of OLE2 support)
+
* libpff (alpha release for PFF (PST/OST) file support) (http://sourceforge.net/projects/libpff/)
+
 
+
Input support
+
* AFF (http://www.afflib.org/)
+
* EWF (http://sourceforge.net/projects/libewf/)
+
* TSK device & raw & split raw (http://www.sleuthkit.org/)
+
 
+
Volume/Partition support
+
* disktype (http://disktype.sourceforge.net/)
+
* testdisk (http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk)
+
* TSK
+
 
+
File system support
+
* TSK
+
* photorec FS code
+
* implementations of FS in Linux/BSD
+
 
+
Content support
+
 
+
Zero storage support
+
* libcarvpath
+
* carvfs
+
 
+
POLA
+
* joe-e (java)
+
* Emily (ocaml)
+
* the E language
+
* AppArmor
+
* iptables/ipfw
+
* minorfs
+
* plash
+
 
+
=Implementation Timeline=
+
# gather the available resources/ideas/wishes/needs etc. (I guess we're in this phase)
+
# start discussing a high level design (in terms of algorithm, facilities, information needed)
+
## input formats facility
+
## partition/volume facility
+
## file system facility
+
## file format facility
+
## content facility
+
## how to deal with fragment detection (do the validators allow for fragment detection?)
+
## how to deal with recombination of fragments
+
## do we want multiple carving phases in light of speed/precision tradeoffs
+
# start detailing parts of the design
+
## Discuss options for a grammar driven validator?
+
## Hard-coded plug-ins?
+
## Which existing code can we use?
+
# start building/assembling parts of the tooling for a prototype
+
## Implement simple file carving with validation.
+
## Implement gap carving
+
# Initial Release
+
# Implement the ''threaded carving'' that [[User:.FUF|.FUF]] is describing above.
+
 
+
[[User:Joachim Metz|Joachim]] Shouldn't multi threaded carving (MTC) not be part of the 1st version?
+
The MT approach makes for different design decisions
+

Revision as of 04:29, 28 July 2012

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Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Disk imaging is the process of making a bit-by-bit copy of a disk. Imaging (in more general terms) can apply to anything that can be considered as a bit-stream, e.g. a physical or logical volumes, network streams, etc.

The most straight-forward disk imaging method is reading a disk from start to end and writing the data to a Forensics image format. This can be a time consuming process especially for disks with a large capacity.

The process of disk imaging is also referred to as disk duplication.

Disk Imaging Solutions

See: Disk Imaging Solutions

Common practice

It common practice to use a Write Blocker when imaging a pyhical disk. The write blocker is an additional measure to prevent write access to the disk.

Also see: Device Configuration Overlay (DCO) and Host Protected Area (HPA)

Integrity

Often when creating a disk image a cryptographic hash is calculated of the entire disk. Commonly used cryptographic hashes are MD5, SHA1 and/or SHA256.


By recalculating the integrity hash at a later time, one can determine if the data in the disk image has been changed. This by itself provides no protection against intentional tampering, but can indicate that the data was altered, e.g. due to corruption. The integrity hash does not indicate where int he data the alteration has occurred. Therefore some image tools and/or formats provide for additional integrity checks like:

Smart imaging

Smart imaging is a combination of techniques to make the imaging process more intelligent.

  • Compressed storage
  • Deduplication
  • Selective imaging
  • Decryption while imaging

Compressed storage

A common technique to reduce the size of an image file is to compress the data. Where the compression method should be lossless. On modern computers, with multiple cores, the compression can be done in parallel reducing the output without prolonging the imaging process. Since the write speed of the target disk can be a bottleneck in imaging process, parallel compression can reduce the total time of the imaging process. Guymager was one of the first imaging tools to implement the concept of multi-process compression for the Encase image file format. This technique is now used by various imaging tools including Tableau Imager (TIM)

Other techniques like storing the data sparse, using empty-block compression or pattern fill, can reduce the total time of the imaging process and the resulting size of new non-encrypted (0-byte filled) disks.

Deduplication

Deduplication is the process of determining and storing data that occurs more than once on-disk, only once in the image. It is even possible to store the data once for a corpus of images using techniques like hash based imaging.

Selective imaging

Selective imaging is a technique to only make a copy of certain information on a disk like the $MFT on an NTFS volume with the necessary contextual information.

EnCase Logical Evidence Format (LEF) is an example of a selective image; although only file related contextual information is stored in the format by EnCase.

Decryption while imaging

Encrypted data is worst-case scenario for compression. Because the encryption process should be deterministic, a solution to reduce the size of an encrypted image is to store it non-encrypted and compressed and encrypt it again on-the-fly if required. Although this should be rare since the non-encrypted data is what undergoes analysis.

Also see

External Links

Hash based imaging