Difference between pages "Mac OS X" and "Rekall"

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{{Infobox_Software |
 +
  name = Rekall |
 +
  maintainer = [[Michael Cohen]] and others |
 +
  os = {{Cross-platform}} |
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  genre = {{Memory analysis}}, {{Memory imaging}} |
 +
  license = {{GPL}} |
 +
  website = [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/ www.rekall-forensic.com] |
 +
}}
  
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
+
Rekall is the stand-alone continuation of the [[Volatility]] Technology Preview (TP) version, aka the scudette branch.
  
== EFI boot ==
+
One of Rekalls goals is to provide better integration with [[GRR]] by improved modularity of the framework and having memory acquisition capability [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/about.html].
The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).
+
  
The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/nvram.8.html]. E.g. to print all of the firmware variables.
+
== Memory acquisition drivers ==
 +
 
 +
The drivers can be found under:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
nvram -p
+
rekall/tools/linux
 +
rekall/tools/osx
 +
rekall/tools/windows
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [http://www.cnet.com/news/boot-argument-options-in-os-x/].
+
=== Linux ===
 
+
==== lmap ====
Mac OS X extends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver. According to [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html] HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application. Though it is not clear which header field the source is referring to but likely related to the "bless" utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/bless.8.html].
+
In rekall RC11 the advanced Linux acquisition tool (LMAP) was added. lmap allows to inject the pmem functionality into existing kernel modules to bypass having to build a pmem kernel module for every different kernel version. See the corresponding DFRWS EU 2014 paper for more information about LMAP. LMAP is also known as the "pmem parasite".
 
+
The firmware start the Mac OS X boot loader (boot.efi). The bootloader displays a dark grey Apple logo on the screen and loads the Darwin kernel from disk, as well as the essential driver extensions.
+
  
The bootloader can be eithe a MZ-PE/COFF or EFI fat binary type [[Executable|executables]] and is commonly stored in:
+
==== pmem ====
 +
To build the kernel module for the current kernel version, make sure you have a working build environment and the kernel headers installed. Change into this directory and run make:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
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cd rekall/tools/linux/
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
+
make
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
The behavior of the bootloader can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man5/com.apple.Boot.plist.5.html] which can be found in:
+
The acquisition driver is named pmem.ko.
<pre>
+
/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/
+
</pre>
+
 
+
== Disk image types ==
+
 
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
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* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
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* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
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* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
+
 
+
== Burn Folder ==
+
  
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
+
To load the driver:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$NAME.fpbf
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sudo insmod pmem.ko
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
+
To check if the driver is running:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
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sudo lsmod
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
+
The driver create a device file named:
 
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
+
/dev/pmem
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
+
To unload the driver:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/var/log/system.log
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sudo rmmod pmem
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
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/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
+
To read acquire the memory just read from the device file. e.g.
 
+
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
+
 
+
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
import datetime
+
dd if=/dev/pmem of=image.raw
 
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print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Launch Agents ==
+
For more information see:
System-wide:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Library/LaunchAgents
+
rekall/tools/linux/README
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Per user:
+
=== Mac OS X ===
<pre>
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
+
</pre>
+
 
+
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
+
  
== Launch Daemons ==
+
For more information see:
System-wide:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Library/LaunchDaemons
+
rekall/tools/osx/OSXPMem/README
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
+
=== Windows ===
 +
Since recent versions of Windows require a signed driver rekall comes with both pre-built (signed binary) and source versions of the driver.
  
== Startup Items ==
+
Both the i386 and amd64 binary version of the driver can be found in the directory:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Library/StartupItems/
+
rekall/tools/windows/winpmem/binaries
/System/Library/StartupItems/
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Crash Reporter ==
+
E.g.
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
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rekall/tools/winpmem/binaries/amd64/winpmem.sys
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
+
A standalone tool for imaging memory that uses an embedded copy of the pmem driver can be found as winpmem.exe in:
 
+
== Diagnostic Reports ==
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
+
rekall/tools/winpmem/executables/Release/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
+
To load the driver:
System-wide:
+
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
+
winpmem.exe -l
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Per user:
+
The device filename is (This can not be changed without recompiling):
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
+
\\.\pmem
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Quarantine event database ==
+
Note that running dd directly on this device file can crash the machine.
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
+
Use the winpmem.exe tool instead because it handles protected memory regions.
  
Snow Leopard and earlier
+
To read and acquire the physical memory and write it to image.raw:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
+
winpmem.exe image.raw
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
To unload the driver:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
+
winpmem.exe -u
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Lion and later
+
For more information see:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
+
rekall/tools/windows/README
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== sleepimage ==
+
== See Also ==
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
+
* [[Memory analysis]]
<pre>
+
* [[Memory Imaging]]
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
+
* [[Volatility]]
</pre>
+
 
+
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
+
 
+
== Last shutdown logs ==
+
<pre>
+
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
+
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
+
</pre>
+
 
+
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
+
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
+
 
+
== Also see ==
+
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
+
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
+
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
+
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
+
* [[File Vault]]
+
 
+
=== Formats ===
+
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
+
* [[Property list (plist)]]
+
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
+
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/ Project site]
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
+
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs.html Project documentation]
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
+
* [http://rekall-forensic.blogspot.com/ Rekall Memory Forensics blog]
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
+
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs/References/Papers/DFRWS2013.html Anti-forensic resilient memory acquisition]] by [[Johannes Stüttgen]], [[Michael Cohen]], August 2013
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
+
* [http://www.rekall-forensic.com/docs/References/Papers/DFRWS2014EU.html Robust Linux memory acquisition with minimal target impact], [[Johannes Stüttgen]], [[Michael Cohen]], May 2014
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
+
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
+
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
+
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
+
 
+
=== Apple Examiner ===
+
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
+
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
+
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
+
 
+
=== EFI ===
+
* [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html The Intel Mac boot process], by the [[rEFIt|rEFIt project]]
+
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
+
 
+
=== iCloud ===
+
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
+
 
+
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
+
[[Category:Operating systems]]
+

Latest revision as of 01:56, 27 June 2014

Rekall
Maintainer: Michael Cohen and others
OS: Cross-platform
Genre: Memory Analysis,Memory Imaging
License: GPL
Website: www.rekall-forensic.com

Rekall is the stand-alone continuation of the Volatility Technology Preview (TP) version, aka the scudette branch.

One of Rekalls goals is to provide better integration with GRR by improved modularity of the framework and having memory acquisition capability [1].

Memory acquisition drivers

The drivers can be found under:

rekall/tools/linux
rekall/tools/osx
rekall/tools/windows

Linux

lmap

In rekall RC11 the advanced Linux acquisition tool (LMAP) was added. lmap allows to inject the pmem functionality into existing kernel modules to bypass having to build a pmem kernel module for every different kernel version. See the corresponding DFRWS EU 2014 paper for more information about LMAP. LMAP is also known as the "pmem parasite".

pmem

To build the kernel module for the current kernel version, make sure you have a working build environment and the kernel headers installed. Change into this directory and run make:

cd rekall/tools/linux/
make

The acquisition driver is named pmem.ko.

To load the driver:

sudo insmod pmem.ko

To check if the driver is running:

sudo lsmod

The driver create a device file named:

/dev/pmem

To unload the driver:

sudo rmmod pmem

To read acquire the memory just read from the device file. e.g.

dd if=/dev/pmem of=image.raw

For more information see:

rekall/tools/linux/README

Mac OS X

For more information see:

rekall/tools/osx/OSXPMem/README

Windows

Since recent versions of Windows require a signed driver rekall comes with both pre-built (signed binary) and source versions of the driver.

Both the i386 and amd64 binary version of the driver can be found in the directory:

rekall/tools/windows/winpmem/binaries

E.g.

rekall/tools/winpmem/binaries/amd64/winpmem.sys

A standalone tool for imaging memory that uses an embedded copy of the pmem driver can be found as winpmem.exe in:

rekall/tools/winpmem/executables/Release/

To load the driver:

winpmem.exe -l

The device filename is (This can not be changed without recompiling):

\\.\pmem

Note that running dd directly on this device file can crash the machine. Use the winpmem.exe tool instead because it handles protected memory regions.

To read and acquire the physical memory and write it to image.raw:

winpmem.exe image.raw

To unload the driver:

winpmem.exe -u 

For more information see:

rekall/tools/windows/README

See Also

External Links