Difference between pages "Shell Item" and "Mac OS X"

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The Windows Shell uses Shell Items (or Shell Item list) to identify items within the Windows Folder Hierarchy. A
+
{{Expand}}
Shell Item list is much like a "path", and is unique to its parent folder. The format of the Shell Item
+
is undocumented and varies between Windows versions.
+
  
The Shell Item is used in [[LNK | Windows Shortcut (LNK)]] file and the ShellBags key in the [[Windows Registry]].
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
  
== Format ==
+
== EFI boot ==
 +
The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).
  
The basic format is a list, consisting of a (shell item) entry size value (field) and entry data.
+
The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/nvram.8.html]. E.g. to print all of the firmware variables.
 +
<pre>
 +
nvram -p
 +
</pre>
  
There are multiple types of entries to specify different parts of the "path":
+
Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [http://www.cnet.com/news/boot-argument-options-in-os-x/].
* volume
+
* network share
+
* file and directory
+
* URI
+
  
Some shell item entries contain date and time values which can be used in [[Timeline Analysis]].
+
Mac OS X extends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver. According to [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html] HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application. Though it is not clear which header field the source is referring to but likely related to the "bless" utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/bless.8.html].
  
== Example ==
+
The firmware start the Mac OS X boot loader (boot.efi). The bootloader displays a dark grey Apple logo on the screen and loads the Darwin kernel from disk, as well as the essential driver extensions.
An example of a shell item list taken from '''Calculator.lnk'''
+
  
 +
The bootloader can be eithe a MZ-PE/COFF or EFI fat binary type [[Executable|executables]] and is commonly stored in:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
shell item type                    : 0x1f
+
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
shell item sort order              : 0x50
+
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
shell item folder identifier        : 20d04fe0-3aea-1069-a2d8-08002b30309d
+
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
shell item folder name              : My Computer
+
</pre>
  
shell item type                    : 0x2f
+
The behavior of the bootloader can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man5/com.apple.Boot.plist.5.html] which can be found in:
shell item volume name              : C:\
+
<pre>
 +
/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/
 +
</pre>
  
shell item type                    : 0x31
+
== Disk image types ==
shell item file size                : 0
+
shell item modification time        : Dec 31, 2010 13:28:48 UTC
+
shell item file attribute flags    : 0x0010
+
        Is directory (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+
  
shell item short name              : WINDOWS
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
shell item extension size          : 38
+
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
shell item extension version        : 3
+
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
shell item creation time            : Dec 31, 2010 13:26:18 UTC
+
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
shell item access time              : Dec 31, 2010 13:28:52 UTC
+
shell item long name                : WINDOWS
+
  
shell item type                    : 0x31
+
== Burn Folder ==
shell item file size                : 0
+
shell item modification time        : Dec 31, 2010 13:28:38 UTC
+
shell item file attribute flags    : 0x0010
+
        Is directory (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+
  
shell item short name              : system32
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
shell item extension size          : 40
+
<pre>
shell item extension version        : 3
+
$NAME.fpbf
shell item creation time            : Dec 31, 2010 13:26:18 UTC
+
</pre>
shell item access time              : Dec 31, 2010 13:28:38 UTC
+
shell item long name                : system32
+
  
shell item type                    : 0x32
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
shell item file size                : 115712
+
<pre>
shell item modification time        : Mar 25, 2003 12:00:00 UTC
+
00000000 62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
shell item file attribute flags    : 0x0020
+
</pre>
        Should be archived (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE)
+
  
shell item short name              : calc.exe
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
shell item extension size          : 40
+
 
shell item extension version        : 3
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
shell item creation time            : Dec 31, 2010 13:06:06 UTC
+
<pre>
shell item access time              : Dec 31, 2010 13:06:06 UTC
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
shell item long name                : calc.exe
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== See Also ==
+
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
* [[Jump Lists]]
+
<pre>
* [[LNK]]
+
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
 +
 
 +
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
 +
 
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 +
<pre>
 +
import datetime
 +
 
 +
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Launch Agents ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Last shutdown logs ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 +
=== EFI ===
 +
* [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html The Intel Mac boot process], by the [[rEFIt|rEFIt project]]
 +
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
  
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/cc144090(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Introduction to the Shell Namespace (Windows)]
+
=== iCloud ===
* [http://netez.com/2xExplorer/shellFAQ/bg_shell.html Fundamental Shell Concepts]
+
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
* [http://mysite.verizon.net/hartsec/files/WRA_Guidance.pdf MiTeC Registry Analyser], by [[Allan Hay|Allan S Hay]], December 2004
+
* [http://computer-forensics.sans.org/blog/2008/10/31/shellbags-registry-forensics/ ShellBags Registry Forensics], by johnmccash, October 2008
+
* [http://42llc.net/?p=385 Shell Bag Format Analysis], by [[Yogesh Khatri]], October 2009 (appears to be no longer available)
+
* [http://www.dfrws.org/2009/proceedings/p69-zhu.pdf Using shellbag information to reconstruct user activities], by Yuandong Zhu, Pavel Gladyshev, Joshua James, 2009
+
* [https://googledrive.com/host/0B3fBvzttpiiSajVqblZQT3FYZzg/Windows%20Shell%20Item%20format.pdf Windows Shell Item format], by the [[libfwsi|libfwsi project]], July 2010 (work in progress)
+
* [http://blog.0x01000000.org/2010/08/13/lnk-parsing-youre-doing-it-wrong-ii/ LNK Parsing: You’re doing it wrong (II)], by [[Jordi Sánchez López]], August 13, 2010
+
* [http://www.williballenthin.com/forensics/shellbags/index.html Windows shellbag forensics], by [[Willi Ballenthin]]
+
* [http://code.google.com/p/regripper/wiki/ShellBags RegRipper - ShellBags], by [[Harlan Carvey]]
+
* [http://volatility-labs.blogspot.ca/2012/09/movp-32-shellbags-in-memory-setregtime.html MoVP 3.2 Shellbags in Memory, SetRegTime, and TrueCrypt Volumes], [[Jamie Levy]], September 2012
+
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2012/10/shellbag-analysis-revisitedsome-testing.html Shellbag Analysis, Revisited...Some Testing], by [[Harlan Carvey]], October 2012
+
* [http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/win4n6/message/7623 Shellbag research], by [[Sebastien Bourdon-Richard]], October 2012
+
  
[[Category:Data Formats]]
+
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 08:07, 25 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

EFI boot

The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).

The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [1]. E.g. to print all of the firmware variables.

nvram -p

Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [2].

Mac OS X extends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver. According to [3] HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application. Though it is not clear which header field the source is referring to but likely related to the "bless" utility [4].

The firmware start the Mac OS X boot loader (boot.efi). The bootloader displays a dark grey Apple logo on the screen and loads the Darwin kernel from disk, as well as the essential driver extensions.

The bootloader can be eithe a MZ-PE/COFF or EFI fat binary type executables and is commonly stored in:

/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi

The behavior of the bootloader can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [5] which can be found in:

/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Internet Plug-Ins

System-wide:

/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Quarantine event database

See [6]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [7]

Last shutdown logs

/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [8] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [9].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

EFI

iCloud