Difference between pages "Caselaw" and "Mac OS X"

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The legal information below is not legal advice. You should consult a lawyer if you want professional assurance that this information, and your interpretation of it, is appropriate to your situation.
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{{Expand}}
  
The following are highlights of important cases to digital forensics and electronic discovery.
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
  
==Court Decisions==
+
== EFI boot ==
 +
The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).
  
'''United States v. Warshak, 631 F.3d 266 (6th Cir. Dec. 14, 2010)'''<br />
+
The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/nvram.8.html]. E.g. to print all of the firmware variables.
The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the government must have a search warrant before it can seize and search emails held by email service providers. "Given the fundamental similarities between email and traditional forms of communication [like postal mail and telephone calls], it would defy common sense to afford emails lesser Fourth Amendment protection..." [https://www.eff.org/files/warshak_opinion_121410.pdf]
+
<pre>
 +
nvram -p
 +
</pre>
  
'''Binary Semantics Ltd. v. Minitab, Inc., Case No. 07‐1750 (M.D. Pa. May 5, 2008)'''<br />
+
Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [http://www.cnet.com/news/boot-argument-options-in-os-x/].
In 2008, a district court agreed that a forensic image of an entire FTP server was "overly‐broad and intrusive,” allowing the defendants only authorization for “a forensic copy of the relevant folders on [the] FTP server."
+
  
'''Harkabi v. Sandisk Corp., 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 87843 (S.D.N.Y. Aug. 23, 2010)'''<br />
+
Mac OS X extends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver. According to [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html] HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application. Though it is not clear which header field the source is referring to but likely related to the "bless" utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/bless.8.html].
Electronic discovery requires litigants to scour disparate data storage mediums and formats for potentially relevant documents. That undertaking involves dueling considerations: thoroughness and cost.
+
  
'''United States v. Scott‐Emuakpor, 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3118 (W.D. Mich. 2000)'''<br />
+
The firmware start the Mac OS X boot loader (boot.efi). The bootloader displays a dark grey Apple logo on the screen and loads the Darwin kernel from disk, as well as the essential driver extensions.
The court was satisfied with a third‐party collecting the forensic data as long as it was accompanied by "the testimony of a witness who was present and observed the procedure by which the documents were obtained from Defendant's computers."
+
  
'''Griffin v. State, 2010 Md. App. LEXIS 87 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. May 27, 2010)'''<br />
+
The bootloader can be eithe a MZ-PE/COFF or EFI fat binary type [[Executable|executables]] and is commonly stored in:
Social media profiles on MySpace or Facebook could be authenticated circumstantially by their content and context in the same manner as other forms of electronic communications.
+
<pre>
 +
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
 +
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
 +
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
 +
</pre>
  
'''State v. Rivas, 2007 Ohio App. LEXIS 3299 (Ohio Ct. App. Jul. 13, 2007)'''<br />
+
The behavior of the bootloader can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man5/com.apple.Boot.plist.5.html] which can be found in:
The court overturned the conviction of the defendant due to the fact that an ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_camera in camera]'' review of the police department's computer was not performed, which would have verified that accuracy of the transcripts that were recorded from a chat room and subsequently used against the defendant.
+
<pre>
 +
/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/
 +
</pre>
  
'''Fenje v. Feld, 2003 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 24387 (N.D. Ill., Dec. 8, 2003)'''<br />
+
== Disk image types ==
The authentication of email messages presented in support of a summary judgement motion was at the core of this wrongful termination case. The court found that email messages may be authenticated as being from the suspected author based on the following factors:
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* The email address from which it was sent
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* An affidavit of the recipient
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* Comparison of the content of the email with other evidence
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* Other communication from the suspected author acknowledging the email message in question
+
  
'''U.S. v. Cameron, 2010 WL 3238326 (U.S. District Court for the District of Maine 2010)''' (on-going)<br />
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
Yahoo! detected child pornography and reported it to the NCMEC, and Cameron expected the Government to produce as witnesses the Yahoo! technician who collected the evidence. The judge noted that at trial the "Government need not call each of the technicians who did the search so long as it" presented a witness who can "explain and be cross-examined concerning the manner in which the records are made and kept." Further, the Judge ordered that the Government is not obligated to turn over evidence that it does not possess (e.g. "the original or a copy of the Yahoo! photo server and server files" or "the physical location of the original server files")
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* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
 +
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
'''Krumwiede v. Brighton Associates, LLC, 2006 WL 1308629 (N.D. Ill. May 8, 2006)'''
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== Burn Folder ==
Default judgment granted for deleting, altering and accessing electronic data despite litigation hold. Plaintiff deleted file with a combination of "deliberate movement of file data, admitted deletion activities, multiple use of defrag, use of ZIP file to conceal or transport [the defendants'] data, [and use of] multiple USB devices [to] intend to destroy evidence." Summary judgment against plaintiff for interfering with the discovery process.
+
  
== Further Information ==
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Mac OS X Burn Folder:
* [http://www.setecinvestigations.com/resources/casesummaries.php http://www.setecinvestigations.com/resources/casesummaries.php]
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<pre>
* [http://www.iediscovery.com/resources/lawlibrary http://www.iediscovery.com/resources/lawlibrary]
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$NAME.fpbf
* [https://extranet1.klgates.com/ediscovery/Search.aspx https://extranet1.klgates.com/ediscovery/Search.aspx]
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</pre>
  
* [http://www.lawandforensics.com/evaluate-digital-forensic-report-part-1-4/ How to Evaluate a Digital Forensic Report – Part 1: A Brief History of Digital Forensics], by Daniel B. Garrie, January 31, 2014
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This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
* [http://www.lawandforensics.com/evaluate-digital-forensic-report-part-2-4/ How to Evaluate a Digital Forensic Report – Part 2: Daubert], by Daniel B. Garrie, February 4, 2014
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<pre>
* [http://www.lawandforensics.com/evaluate-digital-forensic-report-part-3-4/ How to Evaluate a Digital Forensic Report – Part 3: Experts], by Daniel B. Garrie, February 10, 2014
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00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
* [http://www.lawandforensics.com/evaluate-digital-forensic-report-part-4-4/ How to Evaluate a Digital Forensic Report – Part 4 & Conclusion], by Daniel B. Garrie, February 14, 2014
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</pre>
  
[[Category:Law]]
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These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
 +
 
 +
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 +
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
 +
 
 +
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
 +
 
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 +
<pre>
 +
import datetime
 +
 
 +
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Launch Agents ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Last shutdown logs ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
 +
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
 +
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== EFI ===
 +
* [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html The Intel Mac boot process], by the [[rEFIt|rEFIt project]]
 +
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 08:07, 25 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

EFI boot

The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).

The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [1]. E.g. to print all of the firmware variables.

nvram -p

Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [2].

Mac OS X extends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver. According to [3] HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application. Though it is not clear which header field the source is referring to but likely related to the "bless" utility [4].

The firmware start the Mac OS X boot loader (boot.efi). The bootloader displays a dark grey Apple logo on the screen and loads the Darwin kernel from disk, as well as the essential driver extensions.

The bootloader can be eithe a MZ-PE/COFF or EFI fat binary type executables and is commonly stored in:

/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi

The behavior of the bootloader can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [5] which can be found in:

/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Internet Plug-Ins

System-wide:

/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Quarantine event database

See [6]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [7]

Last shutdown logs

/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [8] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [9].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

EFI

iCloud