Difference between pages "Plaso" and "Mac OS X"

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{{Infobox_Software |
+
{{Expand}}
  name = plaso |
+
  maintainer = [[Kristinn Gudjonsson]], [[Joachim Metz]] |
+
  os = [[Linux]], [[Mac OS X]], [[Windows]] |
+
  genre = {{Analysis}} |
+
  license = {{APL}} |
+
  website = [https://code.google.com/p/plaso/ code.google.com/p/plaso/] |
+
}}
+
  
Plaso (plaso langar að safna öllu) is the Python based back-end engine used by tools such as log2timeline for automatic creation of a super timelines. The goal of log2timeline (and thus plaso) is to provide a single tool that can parse various log files and forensic artifacts from computers and related systems, such as network equipment to produce a single correlated timeline. This timeline can then be easily analysed by forensic investigators/analysts, speeding up investigations by correlating the vast amount of information found on an average computer system. Plaso is intended to be applied for creating super timelines but also supports creating [http://blog.kiddaland.net/2013/02/targeted-timelines-part-i.html targeted timelines].
+
Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "'''OS Ten'''") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including [[Apple Mail]], a web browser called [[Apple Safari | Safari]], and an [[Apple Address Book]], and [[iCal]].  
  
The Plaso project site also provides [[4n6time]], formerly "l2t_Review", which is a cross-platform forensic tool for timeline creation and review by [[David Nides]].
+
== EFI boot ==
 +
The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).
  
== Supported Formats ==
+
The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/nvram.8.html]. E.g. to print all of the firmware variables.
The information below is based of version 1.1.0
+
<pre>
 +
nvram -p
 +
</pre>
  
=== Storage Media Image File Formats ===
+
Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [http://www.cnet.com/news/boot-argument-options-in-os-x/].
Storage Medis Image File Format support is provided by [[dfvfs]].
+
  
=== Volume System Formats ===
+
Mac OS X extends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver. According to [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html] HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application. Though it is not clear which header field the source is referring to but likely related to the "bless" utility [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man8/bless.8.html].
Volume System Format support is provided by [[dfvfs]].
+
  
=== File System Formats ===
+
The firmware start the Mac OS X boot loader (boot.efi). The bootloader displays a dark grey Apple logo on the screen and loads the Darwin kernel from disk, as well as the essential driver extensions.
File System Format support is provided by [[dfvfs]].
+
  
=== File formats ===
+
The bootloader can be eithe a MZ-PE/COFF or EFI fat binary type [[Executable|executables]] and is commonly stored in:
* Apple System Log (ASL)
+
<pre>
* Basic Security Module (BSM)
+
/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
* Bencode files
+
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
* [[Chrome Disk Cache Format|Chrome cache files]]
+
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
* CUPS IPP
+
</pre>
* [[Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) Database File (EDB) format]] using [[libesedb]]
+
* Firefox Cache
+
* [[Java|Java IDX]]
+
* MacOS-X Application firewall
+
* MacOS-X Keychain
+
* MacOS-X Securityd
+
* MacOS-X Wifi
+
* ([[SleuthKit]]) mactime logs
+
* McAfee Anti-Virus Logs
+
* Microsoft [[Internet Explorer History File Format]] (also known as MSIE 4 - 9 Cache Files or index.dat) using [[libmsiecf]]
+
* [[OLE Compound File]] using [[libolecf]]
+
* [[Opera|Opera Browser history]]
+
* OpenXML
+
* Pcap files
+
* Popularity Contest log
+
* [[Property list (plist)|Property list (plist) format]] using [[binplist]]
+
* SELinux audit logs
+
* SkyDrive log and error log files
+
* [[SQLite database format]] using [[SQLite]]
+
* Symantec AV Corporate Edition and Endpoint Protection log
+
* Syslog
+
* UTMP
+
* UTMPX
+
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]] using [[libevt]]
+
* Windows Firewall
+
* Windows Job files (also known as "at jobs")
+
* [[Windows Prefetch File Format|Windows Prefetch files]]
+
* [[Windows#Recycle_Bin|Windows Recycle bin]] (INFO2 and $I/$R)
+
* [[Windows NT Registry File (REGF)]] using [[libregf]]
+
* [[LNK|Windows Shortcut File (LNK) format]] using [[liblnk]]
+
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]] using [[libevtx]]
+
* Xchat and Xchat scrollback files
+
  
=== Bencode file formats ===
+
The behavior of the bootloader can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man5/com.apple.Boot.plist.5.html] which can be found in:
* Transmission
+
<pre>
* uTorrent
+
/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/
 +
</pre>
  
=== ESE database file formats ===
+
== Disk image types ==
* Internet Explorer WebCache format
+
  
=== OLE Compound File formats ===
+
Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:
* Document summary information
+
* read-write disk image (.dmg) some of which use the [[Raw Image Format]]
* Summary information (top-level only)
+
* [[Sparse Image format|Sparse disk image (.spareimage)]]
 +
* [[Sparse Bundle Image format|Sparse bundle disk image (.sparsebundle)]]
  
=== Property list (plist) formats ===
+
== Burn Folder ==
* Airport
+
* Apple Account
+
* Bluetooth
+
* Install History
+
* iPod/iPhone
+
* Mac User
+
* [[Apple Safari|Safari history]]
+
* Software Update
+
* Spotlight
+
* Spotlight Volume Information
+
* Timemachine
+
  
=== SQLite database file formats ===
+
Mac OS X Burn Folder:
* Android call logs
+
<pre>
* Android SMS
+
$NAME.fpbf
* Chrome cookies
+
</pre>
* [[Google Chrome|Chrome browsing and downloads history]]
+
* [[Mozilla Firefox|Firefox browsing and downloads history]]
+
* Google Drive
+
* Launch services quarantine events
+
* MacKeeper cache
+
* Mac OS X document versions
+
* Skype text conversations
+
* [[Zeitgeist|Zeitgeist activity database]]
+
  
=== [[Windows Registry]] formats ===
+
This folder normally contains [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.
* [[Windows Application Compatibility|AppCompatCache]]
+
<pre>
* CCleaner
+
00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|
* Less Frequently Used (LFU)
+
</pre>
* MountPoints2
+
* Most Recently Used (MRU) MRUList and MRUListEx (no shell item support)
+
* [[Internet Explorer|MSIE Zones]]
+
* Office MRU
+
* Outlook Search
+
* [[Windows Registry#Run/RunOnce|Run and RunOnce keys]]
+
* Services
+
* Terminal Server MRU
+
* Typed URLS
+
* USBStor
+
* UserAssist
+
* WinRar
+
* Windows version information
+
  
== History ==
+
These [[Mac OS X Alias Files|alias files]] contain additional date and time values.
Plaso is a Python-based rewrite of the Perl-based [[log2timeline]] initially created by [[Kristinn Gudjonsson]]. Plaso builds upon the [[SleuthKit]], [[libyal]], [[dfvfs]] and various other projects.
+
  
== See Also ==
+
Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:
* [[dfvfs]]
+
<pre>
* [[log2timeline]]
+
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Actual burning of optical media is logged in:
 +
<pre>
 +
/var/log/system.log
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== HFS/HFS+ date and time values ==
 +
 
 +
In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: [http://web.archive.org/web/20090214212148/http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format]
 +
 
 +
Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:
 +
<pre>
 +
import datetime
 +
 
 +
print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Launch Agents ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
/System/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain  [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Launch Daemons ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
These directories contain [[Property list (plist)]] files.
 +
 
 +
== Startup Items ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/StartupItems/
 +
/System/Library/StartupItems/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Crash Reporter ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin
 +
 
 +
== Diagnostic Reports ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Internet Plug-Ins ==
 +
System-wide:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Per user:
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Quarantine event database ==
 +
See [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/]
 +
 
 +
Snow Leopard and earlier
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Lion and later
 +
<pre>
 +
/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== sleepimage ==
 +
This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/vm/sleepimage
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Also see: [http://osxdaily.com/2010/10/11/sleepimage-mac/]
 +
 
 +
== Last shutdown logs ==
 +
<pre>
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
 +
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Package Files (.PKG) ==
 +
Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xar_(archiver)] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [http://s.sudre.free.fr/Stuff/Ivanhoe/FLAT.html].
 +
 
 +
== Also see ==
 +
* [[MacOS Process Monitoring]]
 +
* [[Acquiring a MacOS System with Target Disk Mode]]
 +
* [[Converting Binary Plists]]
 +
* [[FileVault Disk Encryption]]
 +
* [[File Vault]]
 +
 
 +
=== Formats ===
 +
* [[Basic Security Module (BSM) file format]]
 +
* [[Property list (plist)]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
* [https://code.google.com/p/plaso/ Project site]
+
* [http://www.apple.com/macosx/ Official website]
* [https://sites.google.com/a/kiddaland.net/plaso/home Project documentation]
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X Wikipedia entry on OS X]
* [http://blog.kiddaland.net/ Project blog]
+
* [http://menial.co.uk/blog/2011/06/16/mac-quarantine-event-database/ Quarantine event database]
* [https://sites.google.com/a/kiddaland.net/plaso/usage/4n6time 4n6time]
+
* [http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/cit/Courses/cit556/readings/MacForensicsCraiger.pdf Mac Forensics: Mac OS X and the HFS+ File System] by P. Craiger
 +
* [http://web.me.com/driley/iWeb/Previous_files/Directory_Services_Overview.pdf Mac OS X Directory Services Integration including Active Directory]
 +
* [http://digitalinvestigation.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/geek-post-nskeyedarchiver-files-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/ NSKeyedArchiver files – what are they, and how can I use them?]
 +
* [http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-alf-on-mac-os-x/ Command Line ALF on Mac OS X]
 +
* [http://newosxbook.com/DMG.html Demystifying the DMG File Format]
 +
* [https://code.google.com/p/mac-security-tips/wiki/ALL_THE_TIPS mac-security-tips]
 +
 
 +
=== Apple Examiner ===
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/ The Apple Examiner]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/MacsAndOS/Analysis/USBOSX/USBOSX.html USB Entries on OS X]
 +
* [http://www.appleexaminer.com/Downloads/MacForensics.pdf Macintosh Forensics - A Guide for the Forensically Sound Examination of a Macintosh Computer] by Ryan R. Kubasiak
 +
 
 +
=== EFI ===
 +
* [http://refit.sourceforge.net/info/boot_process.html The Intel Mac boot process], by the [[rEFIt|rEFIt project]]
 +
* [http://ho.ax/posts/2012/02/carving-up-efi-fat-binaries/ Carving up EFI fat binaries], by snare, February 24, 2012
 +
 
 +
=== iCloud ===
 +
* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4865?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Mac OS X]]
 +
[[Category:Operating systems]]

Revision as of 09:07, 25 June 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Apple Inc.'s Macintosh OS X (pronounced "OS Ten") is the operating system distributed with Apple computers. It includes heavily used several programs by default, including Apple Mail, a web browser called Safari, and an Apple Address Book, and iCal.

EFI boot

The firmware is responsible for initializing the hardware and performing a POST (Power-On Self Test).

The default boot volume is stored in NVRAM and can be configured through the "Startup Disk" preference pane or the nvram command line utility [1]. E.g. to print all of the firmware variables.

nvram -p

Additional boot arguments can be provided via the "boot-args" value [2].

Mac OS X extends EFI with a read-only HFS+ driver. According to [3] HFS+ volume header fields are used to point to a "blessed file" to be loaded as an EFI application. Though it is not clear which header field the source is referring to but likely related to the "bless" utility [4].

The firmware start the Mac OS X boot loader (boot.efi). The bootloader displays a dark grey Apple logo on the screen and loads the Darwin kernel from disk, as well as the essential driver extensions.

The bootloader can be eithe a MZ-PE/COFF or EFI fat binary type executables and is commonly stored in:

/com.apple.recovery.boot/boot.efi
/System/Library/CoreServices/boot.efi
/usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi

The behavior of the bootloader can be configured in the com.apple.Boot.plist [5] which can be found in:

/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/

Disk image types

Mac OS X has support for various disk image types build-in, some of which are:

Burn Folder

Mac OS X Burn Folder:

$NAME.fpbf

This folder normally contains alias files (similar to LNK files under Windows). Which should have the following signature.

00000000  62 6f 6f 6b 00 00 00 00  6d 61 72 6b 00 00 00 00  |book....mark....|

These alias files contain additional date and time values.

Also check the following files for references to deleted .fpbf paths:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist

Actual burning of optical media is logged in:

/var/log/system.log
/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log
/private/var/.logs_exporter/cache/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Logs/DiscRecording.log

HFS/HFS+ date and time values

In HFS+ date and time values are stored in an unsigned 32-bit integer containing the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 at 00:00:00 (midnight) UTC (GMT). This is slightly different from HFS where the date and time value are stored using the local time. The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 UTC (GMT). The date values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly divisible by four. This is sufficient given that the range of representable dates does not contain 1900 or 2100, neither of which have leap days. Also see: Technical Note TN1150 - HFS Plus Volume Format

Converting HFS/HFS+ date and time values with Python:

import datetime

print datetime.datetime( 1904, 1, 1 ) + datetime.timedelta( seconds=0xCBDAF25B )

Launch Agents

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchAgents
/System/Library/LaunchAgents

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/LaunchAgents

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Launch Daemons

System-wide:

/Library/LaunchDaemons
/System/Library/LaunchDaemons

These directories contain Property list (plist) files.

Startup Items

/Library/StartupItems/
/System/Library/StartupItems/

Crash Reporter

/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter

Contains text files named .crash, .diag, .spin

Diagnostic Reports

/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports

Internet Plug-Ins

System-wide:

/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Per user:

/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Internet Plug-Ins

Quarantine event database

See [6]

Snow Leopard and earlier

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEvents
SELECT datetime(LSQuarantineTimeStamp + 978307200, "unixepoch") as LSQuarantineTimeStamp, LSQuarantineAgentName, LSQuarantineOriginURLString, LSQuarantineDataURLString from LSQuarantineEvent;

Lion and later

/Users/$USER/Library/Preferences/com.apple.LaunchServices.QuarantineEventsV2

sleepimage

This file is similar to the hibernation file on Windows.

/private/var/vm/sleepimage

Also see: [7]

Last shutdown logs

/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log
/private/var/log/com.apple.launchd/launchd-shutdown.system.log.1

Package Files (.PKG)

Package Files (.PKG) are XAR archives [8] that contain a cpio archive and metadata [9].

Also see

Formats

External Links

Apple Examiner

EFI

iCloud