Difference between revisions of "Windows"

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(See Also)
 
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* Windows Firewall
 
* Windows Firewall
  
=== Introduced in Windows 2003 (Server) ===
+
=== Introduced in Windows Server 2003 ===
 
* Volume Shadow Copies
 
* Volume Shadow Copies
  
=== Introduced in Windows Vista ===  
+
=== Introduced in [[Windows Vista]] ===  
 
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker]]
 
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker]]
 
* [[Windows Desktop Search | Search]] integrated in operating system
 
* [[Windows Desktop Search | Search]] integrated in operating system
Line 37: Line 37:
 
* [[User Account Control (UAC)]]
 
* [[User Account Control (UAC)]]
  
=== Introduced in Windows 2008 (Server) ===  
+
=== Introduced in Windows Server 2008 ===
  
=== Introduced in Windows 7 ===
+
=== Introduced in [[Windows 7]] ===
 
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker To Go]]
 
* [[BitLocker Disk Encryption | BitLocker To Go]]
 
* [[Jump Lists]]
 
* [[Jump Lists]]
 
* [[Sticky Notes]]
 
* [[Sticky Notes]]
  
=== Introduced in Windows 8 ===
+
=== Introduced in [[Windows 8]] ===
* [[Windows Shadow Volumes | File History]]
+
* [[Windows File History | File History]]
 
* [[Windows Storage Spaces | Storage Spaces]]
 
* [[Windows Storage Spaces | Storage Spaces]]
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]; server edition will likely be available in Windows Server 2012
+
* [[Search Charm History]]
 +
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]; Was initially available in the Windows 8 server edition.
 +
 
 +
=== Introduced in Windows Server 2012 ===
 +
* [[Resilient File System (ReFS)]]
  
 
== Forensics ==
 
== Forensics ==
Line 62: Line 66:
  
 
=== Recycle Bin ===
 
=== Recycle Bin ===
 +
The Recycle Bin contains "Recycled" files. Moving files and directories to the Recycle Bin is also referred to as soft deletion, since the files are not removed from the file system.
  
 
==== RECYCLER ====
 
==== RECYCLER ====
Used by Windows 2000, XP.
+
The Recycler format is used by Windows 2000, XP.
Uses INFO2 file.
+
  
See: [http://www.cybersecurityinstitute.biz/downloads/INFO2.pdf]
+
Per user Recycle Bin folder in the form:
 +
<pre>
 +
C:\Recycler\%SID%\
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Which contains:
 +
* INFO2 file; "Recycled" files metadata
  
 
==== $RECYCLE.BIN ====
 
==== $RECYCLE.BIN ====
Used by Windows Vista.
+
The $Recycle.Bin is used as of Windows Vista.
Uses $I and $R files.
+
 
 +
Per user Recycle Bin folder in the form:
 +
<pre>
 +
C:\$Recycle.Bin\%SID%\
 +
</pre>
  
See: [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf]
+
Which contains:
 +
* $I files; "Recycled" file metadata
 +
* $R files; the original data
  
 
=== Registry ===
 
=== Registry ===
Line 94: Line 110:
 
See [[Windows Desktop Search]]
 
See [[Windows Desktop Search]]
  
=== Setup log files (setupapi.log) ===
+
=== Setup API Logs ===
Windows Vista introduced several setup log files [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521].
+
Windows Vista introduced several new [[Setup API Logs|Setup API Log files]].
 +
 
 +
Also see [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521].
  
 
=== Sleep/Hibernation ===
 
=== Sleep/Hibernation ===
Line 137: Line 155:
  
 
== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
 +
* [[Prefetch]]
 +
* [[Setup API Logs]]
 +
* [[SuperFetch]]
 +
* [[Windows Desktop Search]]
 
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
 
* [[Windows Event Log (EVT)]]
 
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 
* [[Windows XML Event Log (EVTX)]]
 +
* [[Windows Vista]]
 +
* [[Windows 7]]
 +
* [[Windows 8]]
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
Line 147: Line 172:
 
* [http://www.ericjhuber.com/2013/02/microsoft-file-system-tunneling.html?m=1 Microsoft Windows File System Tunneling], by [[Eric Huber]], February 24, 2013
 
* [http://www.ericjhuber.com/2013/02/microsoft-file-system-tunneling.html?m=1 Microsoft Windows File System Tunneling], by [[Eric Huber]], February 24, 2013
 
* [http://www.nsa.gov/ia/_files/app/Spotting_the_Adversary_with_Windows_Event_Log_Monitoring.pdf Spotting the Adversary with Windows Event Log Monitoring], by National Security Agency/Central Security Service, February 28, 2013
 
* [http://www.nsa.gov/ia/_files/app/Spotting_the_Adversary_with_Windows_Event_Log_Monitoring.pdf Spotting the Adversary with Windows Event Log Monitoring], by National Security Agency/Central Security Service, February 28, 2013
 +
* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2014/04/search-history-on-windows-8-and-81.html?m=1 Search history on Windows 8 and 8.1], by [[Yogesh Khatri's]], April 1, 2014
 +
 +
=== Recycle Bin ===
 +
* [http://www.cybersecurityinstitute.biz/downloads/INFO2.pdf Lesson 3 – The Recycle Bin], by Steve Hailey
 +
* [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/forensic-analysis-vista-recycle-bin.pdf The Forensic Analysis of the Microsoft Windows Vista Recycle Bin], by Mitchell Machor, January 22, 2008
 +
 +
=== Malware/Rootkits ===
 +
* [http://forensicmethods.com/inside-windows-rootkits Inside Windows Rootkits], by [[Chad Tilbury]], September 4, 2013
 +
 +
=== Program execution ===
 +
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.com/2013/07/howto-determine-program-execution.html HowTo: Determine Program Execution], by [[Harlan Carvey]], July 06, 2013
 +
* [http://journeyintoir.blogspot.com/2014/01/it-is-all-about-program-execution.html It Is All About Program Execution], by [[Corey Harrell]], January 14, 2014
 +
* [http://sysforensics.org/2014/01/know-your-windows-processes.html Know your Windows Processes or Die Trying], by [[Patrick Olsen]], January 18, 2014
 +
 +
=== Tracking removable media ===
 +
* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2012/08/tracking-usb-first-insertion-in-event.html Tracking USB First insertion in Event logs], by Yogesh Khatri, August 18, 2012
  
 
=== Under the hood ===
 
=== Under the hood ===
Line 155: Line 196:
 
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2004/04/28/121871.aspx Image File Execution Options]
 
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2004/04/28/121871.aspx Image File Execution Options]
  
=== MSI ===
+
==== MSI ====
 
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/heaths/archive/2009/02/02/changes-to-package-caching-in-windows-installer-5-0.aspx?Redirected=true Changes to Package Caching in Windows Installer 5.0], by Heath Stewart, February 2, 2009
 
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/heaths/archive/2009/02/02/changes-to-package-caching-in-windows-installer-5-0.aspx?Redirected=true Changes to Package Caching in Windows Installer 5.0], by Heath Stewart, February 2, 2009
 
* [http://blog.didierstevens.com/2013/07/26/msi-the-case-of-the-invalid-signature/ MSI: The Case Of The Invalid Signature], by Didier Stevens, July 26, 2013
 
* [http://blog.didierstevens.com/2013/07/26/msi-the-case-of-the-invalid-signature/ MSI: The Case Of The Invalid Signature], by Didier Stevens, July 26, 2013
  
=== Side-by-side (WinSxS) ===
+
==== Side-by-side (WinSxS) ====
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-by-side_assembly Wikipedia: Side-by-side assembly]
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-by-side_assembly Wikipedia: Side-by-side assembly]
 
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa374224.aspx Assembly Searching Sequence]
 
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa374224.aspx Assembly Searching Sequence]
Line 167: Line 208:
 
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/04/14/576314.aspx Diagnosing SideBySide failures], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], April 14, 2006
 
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/junfeng/archive/2006/04/14/576314.aspx Diagnosing SideBySide failures], by [[Junfeng Zhang]], April 14, 2006
 
* [http://omnicognate.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/winsxs/ EVERYTHING YOU NEVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT WINSXS]
 
* [http://omnicognate.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/winsxs/ EVERYTHING YOU NEVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT WINSXS]
 +
* [http://www.fireeye.com/resources/pdfs/fireeye-dll-sideloading.pdf DLL Side-loading: A Thorn in the Side of the Anti-Virus Industry], by Amanda Stewart, April 2014
  
=== Application Compatibility Database ===
+
==== Application Experience and Compatibility ====
 
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd837644(v=ws.10).aspx Technet: Understanding Shims], by [[Microsoft]]
 
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd837644(v=ws.10).aspx Technet: Understanding Shims], by [[Microsoft]]
 
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb432182(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Application Compatibility Database], by [[Microsoft]]
 
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb432182(v=vs.85).aspx MSDN: Application Compatibility Database], by [[Microsoft]]
 
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=39 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 1], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 20, 2007
 
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=39 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 1], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 20, 2007
 
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=40 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 2], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 21, 2007
 
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=40 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 2], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 21, 2007
* [http://fred.mandiant.com/Whitepaper_ShimCacheParser.pdf Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in Forensic Investigations], by [[Andrew Davis]], May 4, 2012
+
* [http://www.alex-ionescu.com/?p=41 Secrets of the Application Compatilibity Database (SDB) – Part 3], by [[Alex Ionescu]], May 26, 2007
 +
* [https://dl.mandiant.com/EE/library/Whitepaper_ShimCacheParser.pdf Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in Forensic Investigations], by [[Andrew Davis]], May 4, 2012
 +
* [http://journeyintoir.blogspot.ch/2013/12/revealing-recentfilecachebcf-file.html Revealing the RecentFileCache.bcf File], by [[Corey Harrell]], December 2, 2013
 +
* [http://journeyintoir.blogspot.ch/2013/12/revealing-program-compatibility.html Revealing Program Compatibility Assistant HKCU AppCompatFlags Registry Keys], by [[Corey Harrell]], December 17, 2013
  
=== System Restore (Restore Points) ===
+
==== System Restore (Restore Points) ====
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Restore Wikipedia: System Restore]
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Restore Wikipedia: System Restore]
 
* [http://www.stevebunting.org/udpd4n6/forensics/restorepoints.htm Restore Point Forensics], by [[Steve Bunting]]
 
* [http://www.stevebunting.org/udpd4n6/forensics/restorepoints.htm Restore Point Forensics], by [[Steve Bunting]]
Line 182: Line 227:
 
* [http://www.ediscovery.co.nz/wip/srp.html System Restore Point Log Decoding]
 
* [http://www.ediscovery.co.nz/wip/srp.html System Restore Point Log Decoding]
  
=== Tracking removable media ===
+
==== Crash dumps ====
* [http://www.swiftforensics.com/2012/08/tracking-usb-first-insertion-in-event.html Tracking USB First insertion in Event logs], by Yogesh Khatri, August 18, 2012
+
 
+
=== Crash dumps ===
+
 
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/yongrhee/archive/2010/12/29/drwtsn32-on-windows-vista-windows-server-2008-windows-7-windows-server-2008-r2.aspx Technet: Drwtsn32 on Windows Vista/Windows Server 2008/Windows 7/Windows Server 2008 R2], by Yong Rhee, December 29, 2010
 
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/yongrhee/archive/2010/12/29/drwtsn32-on-windows-vista-windows-server-2008-windows-7-windows-server-2008-r2.aspx Technet: Drwtsn32 on Windows Vista/Windows Server 2008/Windows 7/Windows Server 2008 R2], by Yong Rhee, December 29, 2010
 
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315263 MSDN: How to read the small memory dump file that is created by Windows if a crash occurs], by [[Microsoft]]
 
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315263 MSDN: How to read the small memory dump file that is created by Windows if a crash occurs], by [[Microsoft]]
  
=== ReadyBoost ===
+
==== RPC ====
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ReadyBoost Wikipedia: ReadyBoost]
+
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/networking/archive/2008/10/24/rpc-to-go-v-1.aspx RPC to Go v.1], by Michael Platts, October 24, 2008
* [http://windowsir.blogspot.ch/2013/04/plugin-emdmgmt.html Plugin: EMDMgmt], by [[Harlan Carvey]], April 05, 2013
+
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/networking/archive/2008/12/04/rpc-to-go-v-2.aspx RPC to Go v.2], by Michael Platts, December 4, 2008
* [http://hackingexposedcomputerforensicsblog.blogspot.ch/2013/08/daily-blog-65-understanding-artifacts.html Understanding the artifacts EMDMgmt], by [[David Cowen]], August 27, 2013
+
  
=== SuperFetch ===
+
==== User Account Control (UAC) ====
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Vista_I/O_technologies#SuperFetch Wikipedia: Windows Vista I/O technologies - SuperFetch]
+
* [http://blog.strategiccyber.com/2014/03/20/user-account-control-what-penetration-testers-should-know/ User Account Control – What Penetration Testers Should Know], by Raphael Mudge, March 20, 2014
  
=== Windows Firewall ===
+
==== Windows Event Logs ====
 +
* [http://journeyintoir.blogspot.ch/2014/03/exploring-program-inventory-event-log.html Exploring the Program Inventory Event Log], by [[Corey Harrell]], March 24, 2014
 +
 
 +
==== Windows Scripting Host ====
 +
* [https://www.mandiant.com/blog/ground-windows-scripting-host-wsh/ Going To Ground with The Windows Scripting Host (WSH)], by Devon Kerr, February 19, 2014
 +
 
 +
==== USB ====
 +
* [https://blogs.sans.org/computer-forensics/files/2009/09/USBKEY-Guide.pdf USBKEY Guide], by [[SANS | SANS Institute - Digital Forensics and Incident Response]], September 2009
 +
* [https://blogs.sans.org/computer-forensics/files/2009/09/USB_Drive_Enclosure-Guide.pdf USB Drive Enclosure Guide], by [[SANS | SANS Institute - Digital Forensics and Incident Response]], September 2009
 +
 
 +
==== WMI ====
 +
* [http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp__understanding-wmi-malware.pdf Understanding WMI Malware], by Julius Dizon, Lennard Galang, and Marvin Cruz, July 2010
 +
 
 +
==== Windows Error Reporting (WER) ====
 +
* [http://blogs.technet.com/b/yongrhee/archive/2010/12/29/drwtsn32-on-windows-vista-windows-server-2008-windows-7-windows-server-2008-r2.aspx Drwtsn32 on Windows Vista/Windows Server 2008/Windows 7/Windows Server 2008 R2], by Yong Rhee, December 29, 2010
 +
* [http://journeyintoir.blogspot.ch/2014/02/exploring-windows-error-reporting.html Exploring Windows Error Reporting], by [[Corey Harrell]], February 24, 2014
 +
 
 +
==== Windows Firewall ====
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Firewall Wikipedia: Windows Firewall]
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Firewall Wikipedia: Windows Firewall]
 
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc737845(v=ws.10).aspx#BKMK_log Windows Firewall Tools and Settings]
 
* [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc737845(v=ws.10).aspx#BKMK_log Windows Firewall Tools and Settings]
  
=== Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64) ===
+
==== Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64) ====
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WoW64 Wikipedia: WoW64]
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WoW64 Wikipedia: WoW64]
  
 
=== Windows XP ===
 
=== Windows XP ===
 
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q308549 Description of Windows XP System Information (Msinfo32.exe) Tool]
 
* [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q308549 Description of Windows XP System Information (Msinfo32.exe) Tool]
 
=== Windows 8 ===
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Features_new_to_Windows_8 Features new to Windows 8], Wikipedia
 
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics Windows 8 Forensics - part 1]
 
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-2 Windows 8 Forensics - part 2]
 
* [http://computerforensics.champlain.edu/blog/windows-8-forensics-part-3 Windows 8 Forensics - part 3]
 
* [http://propellerheadforensics.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/thomson_windows-8-forensic-guide2.pdf Windows 8 Forensic Guide], by [[Amanda Thomson|Amanda C. F. Thomson]], 2012
 
* [http://forensicfocus.com/Forums/viewtopic/t=9604/ Forensic Focus: Windows 8 Forensics - A First Look], [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCooEz9FQs&feature=youtu.be Presentation], [http://www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/windows-8-forensics-josh-brunty.pdf Slides], by [[Josh Brunty]], August 2012
 
* [http://dfstream.blogspot.ch/2013/03/windows-8-tracking-opened-photos.html Windows 8: Tracking Opened Photos], by [[Jason Hale]], March 8, 2013
 
  
 
[[Category:Operating systems]]
 
[[Category:Operating systems]]
 +
[[Category:Windows]]

Latest revision as of 03:27, 15 April 2014

Information icon.png

Please help to improve this article by expanding it.
Further information might be found on the discussion page.

Windows is a widely-spread operating system from Microsoft.

There are 2 main branches of Windows:

  • the DOS-branch: i.e. Windows 95, 98, ME
  • the NT-branch: i.e. Windows NT 4, XP, Vista

Contents

Features

  • Basic and Dynamic Disks, see: [1]

Introduced in Windows NT

Introduced in Windows 2000

Introduced in Windows XP

  • Prefetch
  • System Restore (Restore Points); also present in Windows ME

SP2

  • Windows Firewall

Introduced in Windows Server 2003

  • Volume Shadow Copies

Introduced in Windows Vista

Introduced in Windows Server 2008

Introduced in Windows 7

Introduced in Windows 8

Introduced in Windows Server 2012

Forensics

Partition layout

Default partition layout, first partition starts:

  • at sector 63 in Windows 2000, XP, 2003
  • at sector 2048 in Windows Vista, 2008, 7

Filesystems

Recycle Bin

The Recycle Bin contains "Recycled" files. Moving files and directories to the Recycle Bin is also referred to as soft deletion, since the files are not removed from the file system.

RECYCLER

The Recycler format is used by Windows 2000, XP.

Per user Recycle Bin folder in the form:

C:\Recycler\%SID%\

Which contains:

  • INFO2 file; "Recycled" files metadata

$RECYCLE.BIN

The $Recycle.Bin is used as of Windows Vista.

Per user Recycle Bin folder in the form:

C:\$Recycle.Bin\%SID%\

Which contains:

  • $I files; "Recycled" file metadata
  • $R files; the original data

Registry

The Windows Registry is a database of keys and values that provides a wealth of information to forensic investigators.

Thumbs.db Files

Thumbs.db files can be found on many Windows systems. They contain thumbnails of images or documents and can be of great value for the investigator.

See also: Vista thumbcache.

Browser Cache

Browser History

The Web Browser History files can contain significant information. The default web browser that comes with Windows is Microsoft Internet Explorer but other common browsers on Windows are Apple Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Search

See Windows Desktop Search

Setup API Logs

Windows Vista introduced several new Setup API Log files.

Also see [2].

Sleep/Hibernation

After (at least) Windows 7 recovers from sleep/hibernation there often is a system time change event (event id 1) in the event logs.

Users

Windows stores a users Security identifiers (SIDs) under the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList

The %SID%\ProfileImagePath value should also contain the username.

Windows Error Reporting (WER)

As of Vista, for User Access Control (UAC) elevated applications WER reports can be found in:

C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\

As of Vista, for non-UAC elevated applications (LUA) WER reports can be found in:

C:\Users\%UserName%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\WER\

Corresponding registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Windows Error Reporting

Advanced Format (4KB Sector) Hard Drives

Windows XP does not natively handle drives that use the new standard of 4KB sectors. For information on this, see Advanced Format.

 %SystemRoot%

The actual value of %SystemRoot% is store in the following registry value:

Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\
Value: SystemRoot

See Also

External Links

Recycle Bin

Malware/Rootkits

Program execution

Tracking removable media

Under the hood

MSI

Side-by-side (WinSxS)

Application Experience and Compatibility

System Restore (Restore Points)

Crash dumps

RPC

User Account Control (UAC)

Windows Event Logs

Windows Scripting Host

USB

WMI

Windows Error Reporting (WER)

Windows Firewall

Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit (WoW64)

Windows XP