SQL Log File (LDF)

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In computing, SQL Log File is a Microsoft SQL Server file type which stores all the transaction and modification made in the SQL database. SQL log file is also referred as transaction log file and is created for each individual database. There is minimum one transactional log file for each database and it can have more than one as well. File extension for SQL transaction log file is .ldf (Log Database File).

Overview

The language, SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language) now known as SQL was developed by IBM Corporation Inc. in order to use Codd’s model. Today, SQL is worldwide accepted as a standard RDBMS language. The data in this SQL server database is saved as primary data files (.mdf) and secondary data files (.ndf). SQL transaction log files referred as .ldf files are utilized to store the transaction made to these databases.

SQL Server writes the changes made by user to memory first instead of writing it directly to the data file. SQL Server records the changes in memory every now and then and writes it to the transaction log file. Thus the changes are recorded to transaction log file first and then to database which is also known as write-ahead log. Hence, this SQL transaction log file is a critical element of database and as it holds all the records it can be employed to recover database back to consistent state in case of system failure. Experts suggest to avoid deleting or moving this file and also to truncate it at regular basis to avoid filling it up.

SQL Log File Architecture

Logical Architecture

The SQL Server log file logical operation is done considering transaction log file as a string of log records. Each log record has an identity of log sequence number (LSN). Log records are written one after another in serial sequence in such manner that the new log record is written to logical end of log with LSN which is higher than previous log record LSN. All the logs comprise of ID of transaction and all log records are individually linked in chain with backward pointers which helps in rollback transaction.

Physical Architecture

SQL Server Database engine separates the transaction log file physically to multiple virtual log files. These virtual log files don’t have fixed size or number and its size is chosen dynamically while generating or extending log files according to the transactions records. Administrators cannot set the size or number of these virtual log files and is sum of existing log and new file increment size.

Support

SQL Server transaction log file can be viewed under some commands of SQL Server. Some of these commands are undocumented and also fail to show complete details of transaction log file. DBCC Log () command which is used commonly, helps to see log information. fn_dblog is another undocumented SQL Server function which is capable to read the online transaction log active portion. fn_dump_dblog SQL Server function can be utilized to read transaction log native or compressed backups (natively) independent of online database. Users can also explore the structure using command DBCC LOGINFO which again lacks any official documentation. After comprehending that the SQL transaction log file can be an essential element for recovery of SQL databases after server crash, many commercial utilities also built professional SQL Log File Viewer utilities which explore the transaction records of log file.

Tools